MPLP and the Audiovisual Archive: An Exploratory Study of Minimal Processing Practices for Sound Recordings Sofía Becerra-Licha | Berklee College of Music SAA Research Forum | August 13, 2013 [email protected] MPLP: More Product, Less Process • Greene & Meissner (2005): “Golden Minimum” (pp. 212-213) “expedites getting collection materials into the hands of users; assures arrangement of materials adequate to user needs; takes the minimal steps necessary to physically preserve collection materials; describes materials sufficient to promote use” MPLP & Audiovisual Archiving MPLP: Critiques • • • Diversity of archives Technical support Non-manuscript collections A/V archiving: Challenges • • • Specialized training Media considerations Many localized practices RESEARCH QUESTIONS • What has been the impact and/or application of the MPLP model on the processes used by audiovisual archivists? What does minimal processing look like for sound recordings versus paper-based archives? • What disciplines, theories, or other influences have informed audiovisual archivists’ current practices? • Methodology • Snowball sample of U.S.-based audiovisual repositories • • • 12 contacted 11 participated (13 individual respondents) Semi-structured interviews (30 minutes) • • • Phone (9) In-person (1) Email (2) Selected Demographics • Repository locations: • • • • Northeast: 3 Southeast: 2 Midwest: 3 West Coast: 3 • Average staff: 2-4 • Holdings: 11,000 – 2,000,000 items • Average: 385,800 Results: applicability of MPLP • 3/13 considered MPLP to be central to their current approach • 11/13 indicated basic familiarity with MPLP • 11/13 believed (some) aspects of MPLP were applicable to audiovisual materials Results: minimal processing for A/V materials • 5/13 considered minimal processing to include itemlevel description • Most described their institution’s approach as more maximalist than minimalist • Many factors & considerations • • • • Commercial vs. non-commercial Analog vs. digital Research value Preservation and/or storage requirements Final Thoughts: MPLP & A/V Archives • Challenges: • • • • MPLP vs findability Limited resources Lack of applicable literature/case studies Applications: • • • Holistic framework (mindset/planning) Some short-cuts are possible: concert series, recurring radio programs, etc. Refocusing descriptive efforts Selected References • American Folklife Center (2011). Archives, museums and libraries. http://www.loc.gov/folklife/source/list_archives.php • Bradley, C. J. (2003). Classifying and cataloging music in American libraries: A historical overview. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 35:3-4, 467-481. • Casey, M., Gordon, B. (2007). Sound Directions: Best Practices for Audio Preservation. http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/projects/sounddirections/papersPresent/sd_bp_07.pdf • Fells, N., Donachy, P. Owen, C. (2002). Creating digital audio resources: A guide to good practice. Oxford: Oxbow. • Greene, Mark A. , Meissner, D. (2005). More Product, Less Process: Revamping Traditional Archival Processing. American Archivist, 68:2, 208-263. • Hoffman, G. L. (2009). Meeting users’ needs in cataloging: What is the right thing to do? Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 47:7, 631-641. • Jaszi, P., Lewis, N., eds. (2006). Capturing Analog Sound for Digital Preservation: Report of a Roundtable Discussion of Best Practices for Transferring Analog Discs and Tapes. Washington, D.C.: Council on Library and Information Resources and Library of Congress. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub137/pub137.pdf • MacLeod, J., Lloyd, K. (1994). A study of music cataloging backlogs. Library resources & technical services, 38:1, 7-15. • Mudge, S., Hoek, D. J. (2000). Describing jazz, blues, and popular 78 RPM sound recordings: Suggestions and guidelines. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 29:3, 21-48. • Paton, C. A. (1990). Whispers in the stacks: The problem of sound recordings in archives. American Archivist, 53:2, 274-280. • Prom, C. J. (2010). Optimum Access? Processing in College and University Archives. American Archivist, 73:1, 146-174. • Prom, C.J. (2010). Forum (Letters to the Editor). American Archivist, 73:2, 411-420. • Smith, A. Allen, D. R., Allen, K. (2004.) Survey of the state of audio collections in academic libraries. Washington, D.C.: Council on Library and Information Resources. • Society for Ethnomusicology (2012). Archives, libraries, and museums. http://webdb.iu.edu/sem/scripts/links/linkentries.cfm?lcID=22 • Van Ness, C. (2010). Much Ado about Paper Clips: 'More Product, Less Process' and the Modern Manuscript Repository. American Archivist, 73:1, 129-145. • Van Ness, C. (2010). Forum (Letters to the Editor). American Archivist, 73:2, 411-420.