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ISSN: 1981-8963
DOI: 10.5205/reuol.3529-29105-1-SM.0709201322
Barbieri MC, Soares NT, Ferrari RAP et al.
The experience of motherhood: perception…
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
THE EXPERIENCE OF MOTHERHOOD: PERCEPTION OF WOMEN
PARTICIPANTS FROM PRENATAL GROUPS
VIVÊNCIA DA MATERNIDADE: PERCEPÇÃO DE MULHERES PARTICIPANTES DE GRUPOS DE
PRÉ-NATAL
LA EXPERIENCIA DE LA MATERNIDAD: PERCEPCIÓN DE LAS MUJERES PARTICIPANTES DE
GRUPOS PRENATALES
Mayara Caroline Barbieri1, Nataly Tsumura Soares2, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta Ferrari3, Marcela de
Oliveira Demitto4, Mauren T. G. Mendes Tacla5
ABSTRACT
Objective: to analyze the experience of motherhood for women participating in prenatal groups focusing on
the Theory of Leininger. Method: a qualitative study with 28 women in the late puerperal period and who
attended prenatal groups, in two Basic Health Units in Londrina/Parana/Brazil. The interviews were
conducted after approval of the research project by the Ethics Committee in Research, CAAE n°
0042.0.268.000-09 and analyzed using the Content Analysis. Results: from the discourse analysis resulted
three categories, from the perspective of the Theory of Cultural Care: Experience of pregnancy and
childbirth; Taking care of the child after hospital discharge; Participation in groups of prenatal care.
Conclusion: groups provided the shared construction of knowledge and clarification of myths, taboos and
beliefs that may interfere with maternal and child health, but a service based on the theory of Cultural Care
promotes attention that meets the characteristics of each social group reducing potential hazards.
Descriptors: Postpartum Period; Prenatal Care; Mother-Child Relations; Women's Health.
RESUMO
Objetivo: analisar a vivência da maternidade de mulheres participantes de grupos de pré-natal com enfoque
na Teoria de Leininger. Método: estudo qualitativo com 28 mulheres no período puerperal tardio e que
frequentaram grupos de pré-natal, em duas Unidades Básicas de Saúde de Londrina/PR/Brasil. As entrevistas
foram realizadas após aprovação do projeto de pesquisa pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa, CAAE n°
0042.0.268.000-09 e, analisadas utilizando-se a Análise de conteúdo. Resultados: da análise dos discursos
resultaram em três categorias sob a ótica da Teoria do Cuidado Cultural: Vivência da gestação e o parto;
Cuidar da criança após a alta da maternidade; A participação nos grupos de pré-natal. Conclusão: os grupos
proporcionaram a construção compartilhada de conhecimento e esclarecimento de mitos, tabus e crenças que
podem interferir na saúde maternal-infantil, mas uma assistência embasada na teoria do Cuidado Cultural
favorece uma atenção que atenda as peculiaridades de cada grupo social reduzindo possíveis agravos.
Descritores: Período Pós-Parto; Cuidado Pré-Natal; Relações Mãe-Filho; Saúde da Mulher.
RESUMEN
Objetivo: analizar la experiencia de la maternidad de mujeres que participaran en los grupos prenatales
centrados en la Teoría de Leininger. Método: estudio cualitativo con 28 mujeres en el último período
puerperal y que asistieron grupos prenatales, en dos Unidades Básicas de Salud de Londrina / Paraná / Brasil.
Las entrevistas se llevaron a cabo después de la aprobación del proyecto de investigación por el Comité de
Ética en Investigación, CAAE n° 0042.0.268.000-09 y analizados utilizando el Análisis de Contenido.
Resultados: del análisis de los discursos resultaran en tres categorías, desde la perspectiva de la Teoría del
Cuidado Cultural: La experiencia del embarazo y el parto; El cuidado del niño después del alta hospitalaria,
la participación en los grupos de cuidado prenatal. Conclusión: los grupos proporcionaran la construcción
compartida del conocimiento y la aclaración de los mitos, tabúes y creencias que pueden interferir en la salud
materna e infantil, pero un servicio basado en la teoría del Cuidado Cultural promueve la atención que
cumpla con las características de cada grupo social, reduciendo posibles daños. Descriptores: El Periodo
Posparto; Atención Prenatal; Relaciones Madre-Hijo; Salud de la Mujer.
1
Nurse, Resident in Child Health Nursing, State University of Londrina/UEL. Londrina (Parana), Brazil. E-mail: [email protected];
Nurse, Master in Nursing, Nurse Resident in Child Health Nursing, State University of Londrina/UEL. Londrina (PR), Brazil. E-mail:
[email protected]; 3Nurse, PhD, Adjunct Professor of the Department of Nursing, Residence Coordinator in Nursing in Child
Health, State University of Londrina/UEL. Londrina (PR), Brazil. E-mail: [email protected]; 4Nurse, Master in Nursing, Nurse
Resident in Child Health Nursing, State University of Londrina/UEL. Londrina (PR), Brazil. E-mail: [email protected] ; 5Nurse,
PhD, Assistant Teacher of the Department of Nursing, Deputy Coordinator of Residence in Child Health Nursing, State University of
Londrina/UEL. Londrina (PR), Brazil. E-mail: [email protected]
2
English/Portuguese
J Nurs UFPE on line., Recife, 7(9):5533-40, Sept., 2013
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INTRODUCTION
Pregnancy is considered a period of the life
cycle that, in most cases, could elapse
without health problems. However, it is a
phase characterized by complex adaptive
physiological
changes,
emotional,
interpersonal and sociodemographic, which
carry a potential risk of imminent death and
therefore demand attention multidisciplinary
health team.1
To carry out the consultation is necessary
prenatal care practice beyond answering
questions to stimulate uptake of the program
by pregnant women. During the consultation
must
occur
anamnesis
comprehensive
appreciation of woman talking and general
physical examination so as to enable the
classification of risk behaviors and effective
adopt. 2
The educational activities throughout all
stages of pregnancy and childbirth is critical,
but it is at conception that women should be
better targeted in order to live pregnancy and
childbirth positively be encouraged as to the
realization of self-care to have less risk of
puerperal complications and also more
successful in the care of the child after birth.3
Among the tasks of the health care team,
the nurse care plan falls during the prenatal
care of pregnant women including in their
physical, psychological and educational.
Therefore, in addition to technical and
scientific concepts, this professional must also
get information about the beliefs and family
values, to demystify what can be negative to
the healthy condition of women and children.4
Leininger
conceptualizes
transcultural
nursing as a specific area of nursing practice
in order to create a care that values the
cultural heritage and way of life.5 The basis of
this care is offered from three modes of
action.
The
first
is
the
preservation/maintenance care culture in
which professional actions should focus on
supporting clients to people of a particular
culture.
The
second
mode
is
the
accommodation/cultural negotiation of care
that encourage people of a particular cultural
group to an adaptation or negotiating their
way of life. The latter mode of action is
geared toward repatterning/restructuring of
the cultural care that focuses on the
reorganization or modification of lifestyles,
trying to respect the cultural values and
beliefs.6 Whereas the cultural care can offer
subsidies to higher quality of care in
pregnancy and childbirth. The present study
aimed to analyze the experience of
English/Portuguese
J Nurs UFPE on line., Recife, 7(9):5533-40, Sept., 2013
DOI: 10.5205/reuol.3529-29105-1-SM.0709201322
The experience of motherhood: perception…
motherhood for women participating in
prenatal groups focusing on Theory Leininger
METHOD
Qualitative study with women who were in
the late postpartum period and had
participated in groups of prenatal care in two
Basic Health Units in the north of the city of
Londrina, Paraná, in the months from January
to August 2009.
These groups were organized and
implemented in 2008 by the nurses area
residents of Child Health nurses with UBS. The
aim was to gather together so that mothers
could
answer
your
questions,
share
experiences and be guided in fetal
development, preparation for childbirth, care
during pregnancy and childbirth and care of
the newborn. Meetings are held weekly, one
hour before the service of the gynecologist
time determined by the service to offer
assistance, consultation and pre-pregnant
group. The selection of women for the current
study was randomized, with prior appointment
by phone or communication of Community
Health Agents (CHA) during home visits.
The data were obtained through recorded
interviews, after signing the consent form. We
used a semistructured instrument containing
questions, which appeared in issues such as
age of the mother and child, number of
children, gestational age, birth, often in
groups and child care.
After transcription of recorded interviews,
the data were grouped into categories, using
Content Analysis, specifically Thematic
Analysis.7 For preservation of women's identity
and identification of discourses, were used in
this study, popular expressions: "mother first
trip - MFT" to name the firsts; "mother second
trip - MST" for secundiparous (mother's second
son) and; "mother of third trip - MTT" and
mothers of the third child or more.
This study received authorization signed
the Informed Consent and clarified after the
approval of the Ethics Committee on Research
Involving Human Beings (protocol 039/09) and
CAAE n° 0042.0.268.000-09.
RESULTS
The subjects were 28 mothers, a total of
170 participants in the pre-natal groups. Most
women were between 25 and 35 years old
(60,0%) and 24,0% 20-24 years old, 12,0%
between 10 and 19, and only 4,0% over 35
years old. Regarding parity, 48,0% were
primiparous, 24,0% aged between 25 and 34
and 20,0% between 20 and 24 years old. The
secundiparous accounted for 32,0%, from 195534
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Barbieri MC, Soares NT, Ferrari RAP et al.
37 years old and the terciparous 12,0%, from
25-34 years old.
From the analysis of discourses of women
seized three thematic categories: I. The
experience of pregnancy and childbirth; II.
The child care after hospital discharge; III.
Participation in group prenatal care.
I. The experience of pregnancy and
childbirth
This category covers the woman's feelings
about pregnancy, care during conception,
fears and anxieties experienced during
pregnancy.
As the frequency in the group of pregnant
women, 86,0% attended on a three
encounters, while 14,2% in more than four.
Participation in the groups was hampered for
several reasons, among them, have another
child and not be released by the employer.
DOI: 10.5205/reuol.3529-29105-1-SM.0709201322
The experience of motherhood: perception…
influenced the choice,
experience quietly.
which made
the
Said that natural childbirth is the best birth
you have, which contraction would come,
right now he said that cesarean is more
risky to catch infection, which is more
difficult then to walk, which is complicated,
it has to stay home [.. .] (MPV 25)
Helped a lot, because I walked a lot and
helped me to have a smooth delivery. (MSV
18)
At the time I remembered some things that
they said that I helped in childbirth, who
was breathing quiet, I help. Whoa! But as
helped. (MSV 20)
[...] I would not because of my other
daughter, because I had to take her to
school [...] (MSV 23)
Most of the women in this study, performed
the vaginal birth (52.0) and 48.0% was
submitted to surgical childbirth. It should be
noted that some women who underwent
Cesarean would have realized the natural
childbirth, but could not due to physical
factors such as clinical or disproportion
cefalo-pelvic or intrapartum complications.
[...] depends on each one, because there are
people working and the boss releases, we
have that the boss does not release, so it
depends on each mother. (MPV 15)
[...] Cesarean was because I had no
dilation. I wanted normal right! But it did
not work, then had to leave for cesarean
section. (MPV 5)
Among the issues discussed at the
meetings, topics about pregnancy that
included:
feeding
pregnant,
practical
exercises, defects in pregnancy and fetal
development were most attracted the
attention of women participants, especially
the "mothers of the second and third trip". On
the other hand, the issues relating to
breastfeeding, baby care and mode of delivery
were the most significant for the "first-time
mothers." It can be observed that these
differences were related to the time of life of
women during pregnancy and participants in
both groups.
Were cesarean. It was not by choice, it was
the latter case, because the baby had no
strength left, I was going to 'shock', I tried
the normal delivery for eight hours and
nothing. (MTV 16)
I think more power, because they speak
what we can eat, I was not taking soda and I
was dying, so he said he was not wrong.
(MSV 4)
I found it very interesting. It is alcohol, this
is the last, this was what interested me
even more. (MSV 11)
The normal delivery was the most
interesting, because I wanted normal
delivery anyway. (MPV 3)
Was breastfeeding, I was not sure how to
breastfeed, the nipple, I felt like it.
Everyone explained how it was, and spoke of
the baby. Whoa! Things I did not know I
learned a lot by the group. How to hold the
baby at the time of breast-feeding, you
could eat and could not [...] (MPV 9)
Regarding the topics discussed in the
group, the mothers reported that the
approach to the types of labor positively
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J Nurs UFPE on line., Recife, 7(9):5533-40, Sept., 2013
Cesarean was because his little head was
attached, but tilted up. (MPV 12)
II. The child care after hospital discharge
This category deals with the experiences of
women in caring for children and about
breastfeeding, from participation in groups
during gestation.
With regard to the care of child hygiene
were developed practical activities, using
doll, bath, soap, towel, showing up as it
should be bathing and hygiene of the
umbilical stump. In the mothers' discourse was
evident that the meetings provided greater
security to run your child care (78,0%),
minimizing anxiety, especially for "first-time
mothers."
I never took a bath in a newborn child, only
four months on, then I saw and found easy,
time to do with it, it seemed to me that I
already knew. (MPV 14)
[...]navel hygiene, which at the time my
youngest had to go merthiolate and dry,
now just pass water and dry, then these
updates, these topics are always changing
something, then helped a lot. (MTV 19)
[...] a lot of people told me so "ah navel
it're a cable, you have to put a coin. I'll
coin? I'm Not crazy [...] (MSV 24)
It can be observed that the interest of the
"mothers of the second and third trip" was
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Barbieri MC, Soares NT, Ferrari RAP et al.
higher on nutritional care, safety and hygiene
of the child.
[...] I think every day we see new things,
and it's good for us to learn because it has
so much myth, much that has nothing to do.
(MSV 11)
[...] We talk, we address various topics,
honey before age two can not give these
things feed [...] (MTV 19)
Ah! Because I was very curious, even though
my girl, I still had enough curiosity. (MSV 1)
Some
women
reported
that
their
participation in the group did not influence
the care of their child after birth, as some had
children, and others, for not participating in
the group on the day in which they discussed
the issue of child care.
Not because I had a son, I already knew
everything she said. So, for this day since I
had no idea about what she was talking and
did not actually influence me much. (MSV
13)
So that part of baby care I did not get was
what I wanted most, but not got what I was
taking care of him was by myself. (MPV 15)
With regard to breastfeeding, only one
parent, due to HIV positive not breastfeed her
child, the other 27 started lactation. Groups
were developed activities on breastfeeding
and used as doll and resources within guinea
pig to demonstrate the position of the baby
sucking. As to the speeches of breastfeeding
mothers were favorable for this practice to be
beneficial for both.
Ah! It's a unique feeling, knowing that only I
can give all that he needs. (MPV 2)
One thing I remember now that when you're
breastfeeding, at least once look into the
baby's eyes, it is very important to look into
his eyes while breastfeeding, which is a
transmission of caring love, trust. (MPV 21)
You treat him with more affection, you
know that the beginning is totally
dependent baby compared to you, I came to
understand more, to observe the reaction of
the baby. (MTV 6)
I'm even seeing time bottle feeding. Then he
will talk ready now she's gone. I'll have to go
back to school, now wanted to return in
August, but I think I will not go there. (MPV
3)
A part of women did not offered breast
milk during the interview justifying that milk
production had little or dried milk, most
often, by experiencing stressful situations.
I spent very nervous then my milk dried up.
Now, he takes regular cow's milk and baby
food now. (MSV 1)
My milk dried up because of the pressure, I
had high blood pressure when I went to win,
so I was nervous because of the pressure and
my milk dried up. (MPV 9)
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J Nurs UFPE on line., Recife, 7(9):5533-40, Sept., 2013
DOI: 10.5205/reuol.3529-29105-1-SM.0709201322
The experience of motherhood: perception…
[...] Now I got to give cow's milk, because
my chest was not supporting him (MPV 25)
III. Participation in prenatal groups
This category deals with the significance of
women's participation in groups during
gestation.
Of the 28 women, only one did not consider
the group a positive influence for the
gestational period, as just participated in a
meeting on caring for the newborn and the
topic was not of interest. For other meetings
contributed significantly both for self-care as
well as for the exchange of experiences
among mothers, making them more secure
and peaceful.
It was good because, I'm first-time mother,
even though mother, guiding people, but
the group was good too, I learned in time to
give the baby a bath. Helped me to stay
calm. (MPV 22)
I think it was for more understanding, so for
me it was worth much because it's like you
matured a little more, it seems that
everything you learn (pause) it always seems
to lack a little something to fill is equal
study you can study the rest of life, but will
always show things you have to learn for me
was learning a lot. (MTV 6)
With other pregnant women we end up
learning something else. (MSV 24)
Until the debate mothers also helps,
because we question and they will answer
and clarify our doubts. (MPV 9)
For group
addressed and
moments of
exchange of
experiences.
participants prenatal issues
the resources used offered
learning, interaction and
theoretical and practical
It was good because they always said that
when you have a question, or want the next
lecture in any subject then you write, or
have a question [...]. They showed video
had doll, because it explains more than just
talk, show there and we learn more, used
that chest. (MPV 9)
[...] These people, they convey a trust a
friendship, a caring and support for
mothers. (MPV 21)
I think it's good, because I always went when
I was about to see, so we have to get there
1h, 2h but only meets, at least we have
something to occupy their time, I think very
good. (MSV 1)
[...] Told me everything, like baby care,
how to care for me, how to act when the
time of contraction, or during pregnancy.
(MPV 2)
Many mothers evaluated the whole process
of executions of groups as satisfactory,
considering it as a facilitator for both
membership meetings and for understanding
the issues addressed. The all reported that
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Barbieri MC, Soares NT, Ferrari RAP et al.
groups cannot finish, mainly because they
offer a support is essential, especially for
"first-time mothers."
Sure. I think I had to open more, so I guess
not only so, but also for teenagers, are
starting a life, need a more in matter of
[...] ah! No way, certain care, we see so
many 13 year old girl without any structure,
without mother, is complicated. (MTV 6)
I think so. Because a lot of people would
meet there, would be quieter, even more
than I had the first, when he had lived my
mother. (MPV 10)
I think, for women who have more children
have more experience, but has a lot of
brand new girl who does not know, to dispel
doubts them and to calm them, for they do
not know what will go ahead. (MSV 17)
The account of some participants drew
attention to the fact that other groups should
be formed as a group of postpartum women,
for example.
In the case of baby food I've had a bit of
trouble. She even had the baby food was
rice beans and broth. I have no idea how to
make baby food, will be salt, fat goes, I do
not know if I even had a lecture would.
Pretty soon, she'll start eating everything
she sees she starts moving his little mouth.
(MTV 16)
I could keep talking about breastfeeding,
baby bath and feeding of the mother and
child, what should and should not eat from
that age. (MPV 26)
DISCUSSION
The results of this study showed that the
majority of women who participated in the
program group prenatal belonged to the young
age group, as this found in another survey
conducted by nurses, psychologists and
sociologists at the Federal University of Santa
Catarina, with pregnant women and their
partners in the so called "group of pregnant
women and pregnant couples." Most of these
meetings were attended by women, mostly
aged between 19 and 32 years old.8
Another fact observed in the present study
was that, regardless the age or number of
previous pregnancies, women felt safer and
more peaceful after participating in the
groups. They could also answer questions and
conflicts, as often this experience cause
apprehension, especially to new mothers
journey. The setbacks and joys of
experiencing motherhood justify the anxiety,
fear and anxiety, because pregnancy requires
a deep adaptive process of woman, her
partner and other family members because of
the intense physical, psychological, family and
social inherent in it. The physical discomforts
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J Nurs UFPE on line., Recife, 7(9):5533-40, Sept., 2013
DOI: 10.5205/reuol.3529-29105-1-SM.0709201322
The experience of motherhood: perception…
and emotional changes may have an impact on
how the pregnancy is experienced.9
These feelings can be minimized even
during pregnancy and nursing is one of the
professional health care team that can
provide meetings for women to share new
learning and maternal experience. Therefore,
these
meetings
must
overcome
the
physiological line of maternity, can not be
used solely mechanical methods rather
focused on people and exchange experiences.
The existence of this involvement creates an
atmosphere of mutual understanding and
cohesion of the group members, and this
favors its continuation in a harmonious and
constructive. In this climate, its members feel
encouraged to participate and express their
ideas, promoting the sharing of experiences,
expectations, fears and doubts that are
inherent to the pregnancy.9
It is worth noting that such experiences can
be linked to past experiences between the
generations and that should be considered by
the professionals, because each social group
has its ways of life. So centered care culture
favors the preservation of the mother,
negotiation and re-patterning, based on the
possible impact of culture on their health.
In research conducted with pregnant
women and caregivers in Santa Catarina
revealed that participation in group prenatal
facilitated the understanding of this new
phase of life, contributed to demystify and
revise beliefs and myths related to pregnancy,
childbirth
and
postpartum,
expanded
knowledge about care of you and the baby
and women's rights throughout the process.8 It
is a fact that for pregnancy, childbirth and the
postpartum period, to be conducted by the
mother safely, harmonic and pleasant, all
these stages must be addressed and worked in
the
pre-natal,
avoiding,
above
all,
unnecessary frustrations and concerns team
and family.10
When it opens the discussion on the issue
of delivery, note that if motherhood is one of
the most important experiences physical,
psychological and intersubjective life of
women and childbirth, while physiological
episode is the culmination of biochemical
phenomena, and while emotional event,
psychological and existential, is the very
transcendence.11
Authors point out that women, making
them feel more secure and confident, expect
and
should
receive
information
and
explanations about the labor and birth. For
them, it is extremely important that the
professional explain, calmly, the procedures
to be undertaken, talk about the well-being of
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DOI: 10.5205/reuol.3529-29105-1-SM.0709201322
The experience of motherhood: perception…
the fetus and talk to the mother during all
stages of the evolution of childbirth.12
the learning experience through exchanges of
experiences.8
This fact was strongly evidenced in the
interviews, in which women, after receiving
information and tips on how to prepare for
childbirth, knowing what would happen in
each procedure and how to react in certain
situations, they felt less distressed and
nervous.
Some participants reported how much they
were influenced by family and friends,
especially regarding care of the baby, but to
participate in the groups could have greater
independence from the acquired knowledge.
Furthermore, even though these myths,
taboos and beliefs are considered familiar
popular practices require greater professional
attention, since such attitudes must be
respected, since it preserves the health of the
child, so as not to create conflicts within the
family.17 Nursing is a profession that should
develop coherent cultural care, whereas
nurses provide care to social groups with
different cultures.6
Study in a public hospital in the city of São
Paulo showed that health professionals
considered
cesarean
delivery,
when
recommended, as a humanized birth.
Therefore,
they
considered
that
standardization,
systematization
and
implementation of educational delivery to act
as essential factors for the electivity of
cesarean not straddling normal delivery.12
After delivery and discharge the woman
undergoes
a
physical
and
emotional
experiences the confrontation between the
expectations built up during pregnancy and
everyday reality of that period.13 Therefore, it
is necessary that the guidelines offered to
pregnant women during prenatal care are
included for postpartum so that she'll
gradually assimilating the child care and selfcare.14
The women in this study reported that the
activities in groups of pre-natal care to the
child, from hygiene to breastfeeding were also
properly explained and understood, making
them more secure and peaceful, even stopped
running popular practices as offering tea and
water during the period of exclusive
breastfeeding, apply "merthiolate" or put
money in the navel, which considered the risk
to their children.
The nursing staff plays a key role in the
educational process, the address information
necessary for the individual to have
knowledge of their actions and consequences
on their health.14 It is evident that nursing
professionals should evaluate their daily
professional practice based on his experiences
in rethinking maternal positive and negative
influence of the culture for successful
practices related to motherhood.15 The theory
of culture care explained by Leininger
associated educational practices should be
guided in a relationship to occur horizontally
sharing knowledge and practices.16
Another study also showed positivity of
prenatal groups, because the participants
were able to better reflect on this new phase
of life and their transformations in order to
debunk erroneous beliefs and understand the
care needed with you and your child, as well
as reaffirm activity in this group strengthens
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J Nurs UFPE on line., Recife, 7(9):5533-40, Sept., 2013
Even
after
the
guidelines
and
considerations concerning, for example,
breastfeeding, its benefits and real historical
significance, it is important that the woman
be considered within its social and economic
context, respecting their feelings, values and
beliefs of order to condition it to decide on
any matter relating to their experiences,
without feeling judged or evaluated by staff.10
It is true that nowadays mothers have a
greater knowledge about the benefits of
breastfeeding. However, weaning is still
common, and some of their reasons, including
some present in the speeches of the
participants in this study would be the lack of
a cultural support, beliefs in myths and taboos
as "lack of milk" and "weak milk" but mainly by
the characteristic life anxious and tense that
the contemporary woman has experienced.
But that maternal anxiety, cannot always be
solved only in groups and, in some cases,
individual monitoring is needed in order to
alleviate this anxiety and guilt that women
can more safely assume the role of mother
and provider of food for your child, feeling
adequately assisted in their doubts and
difficulties.18
Groups enabled the study participants the
opportunity to exchange knowledge and
experiences in which knowledge was created
collectively.
This
process
aids
in
understanding about the process of birth,
healthy alternatives to experience the process
and creates subsidies for overcoming
limitations in performing care safely.8
The theory of Cultural Care approached by
Leininger is of great value because it does not
provide specific guidance for the nursing care
she guides a framework for making decisions
based on customer benefit.6 Therefore, the
participant should be considered as a subject
in all the needs, desires and interests, not just
their satisfaction / dissatisfaction with the
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ISSN: 1981-8963
Barbieri MC, Soares NT, Ferrari RAP et al.
service they received, but also as able to
critically reflect on the objectives and the
form of that service, not only as the object of
the action, but as having a potential for
proactivity with regard to the control
variables determinants of health and illness
for themselves and their community.19
Practice listening, how groups of prenatal
technologies that do not require highly
complex, but the reorganization of work in
the health service, can be a factor as
effective management and analysis of
epidemiological indicators of outcome or then
production and productivity of the process of
care for maternal and child health.19 Such
considerations reinforce what most women
report on participation in groups, when they
said that it had a positive influence on their
maternal experiences and encounters can not
stop because they provide relevant guidance
to self-care and care of your child for both the
first-time mothers and for the other.
FINAL REMARKS
For some mothers' second and third trip
"groups allowed more support during
pregnancy and the" new mothers "at childbirth
and infant care, reinforcing that child care
should be started in the period pregnancy,
preparing the mother, which the child will be
entirely dependent. Additionally, the groups
provided the shared knowledge construction.
It also favored for clarifying some myths,
taboos and beliefs that may influence the care
of the newborn. Thus, it is necessary that the
approach in the groups should be based on
cultural care, focusing on beliefs and
individual
and
collective
values,
the
preservation, negotiation and re-patterning of
care.
Other studies should be conducted on the
subject, especially evaluative research, even
if difficult to operationalize, to provide grants
to improve the quality of maternal and child
health services in primary health care.
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Submission: 2012/08/05
Accepted: 2013/07/03
Publishing: 2013/09/01
Corresponding Address
Mayara Caroline Barbieri
Avenida São João, 1329 /Bl. E / Ap. 62
CEP: 86039-290  Londrina (PR), Brazil
5540