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Minerals, Metals
and
Meeting
Sustainability
Future Material Needs
W.J. Rankin, CSIRO
Contents
Preface
xv
Acknowledgements
xvii
1
Introduction
2
Materials and the materials
cycle
5
2.1
Natural
2.2
Materials, goods
2.3
The material groups
9
2.3.1
Biomass
9
2.3.2
Plastics
2.3.3
Metals and
2.3.4
Silicates and other inorganic
resources
2.4
The materials
2.5
The
2.6
3
1
and services
6
10
alloys
10
compounds
10
cycle
recyclability
Quantifying
5
12
of materials
the materials
14
cycle
15
2.6.1
Materials and energy balances
16
2.6.2
Material flow
16
2.7
References
2.8
Useful
analysis
23
sources of
information
24
An introduction to Earth
3.1
The crust
3.2
The
3.3
3.4
25
25
hydrosphere
and
biosphere
26
3.2.1
Life
3.2.2
The Earth's biomes
28
3.2.3
services
30
on
Earth
Ecosystem
Some
implications
27
of the basic laws of science
3.3.1
Thermal energy flows to the
3.3.2
The
3.3.3
The Sun
The
greenhouse
as
biosphere
and
effect
31
hydrosphere
32
32
driver of both change and order
biogeochemical cycles
33
34
3.4.1
The carbon and oxygen
3.4.2
The
water
3.4.3
The
nitrogen cycle
37
3.4.4
The
phosphorus cycle
38
cycle
cycles
35
36
vi
Minerals, Metals and Sustainability
3.4.5
4
38
cycle
3.5
References
40
3.6
Useful sources of information
40
An introduction to
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
5
The sulfur
sustainability
41
The environmental context
42
4.1.1
The
4.1.2
The ecological footprint
43
4.1.3
The tragedy of the
46
A brief
state of the environment
commons
of the idea of
history
sustainability
4.2.1
The
4.2.2
International
4.2.3
Corporate developments
rising public awareness
47
48
development and sustainability
4.3.1
Alternative definitions of sustainability
4.3.2
Interpretations
4.3.3
Responses
Sustainability
of
to the
47
47
developments
The concepts of sustainable
42
sustainability
challenge of sustainability
49
49
51
52
frameworks
53
bottom line
54
4.4.1
Triple
4.4.2
Eco-efficiency
54
4.4.3
The Natural
54
4.4.4
Natural Capitalism
55
4.4.5
Biomimicry
55
4.4.6
The five
4.4.7
Green
4.4.8
Putting the
Step
capitals
model
chemistry and
green
55
engineering
frameworks into context
56
56
4.5
A model of
4.6
References
60
4.7
Useful sources of information
61
Mineral
sustainability
resources
58
63
5.1
Formation of the Earth
63
5.2
The
65
5.3
Formation of the crust
66
5.3.1
Continental crust
67
5.3.2
Oceanic crust
68
5.3.3
The distribution of elements
68
5.4
geological time scale
Minerals and rocks
71
5.4.1
Mineral classes
72
5.4.2
Rock classes
75
Contents
5.5
6
5.4.3
The rock cycle
81
Mineral
deposits
82
5.5.1
Formation of mineral
5.5.2
Common forms of mineral
5.5.3
The distribution of base and
5.6
Resources and
5.7
Extracting value from the
precious metal deposits
reserves
85
86
crust
89
90
92
5.7.3
The effect of breakage
5.7.4
By-products and co-products
94
5.7.5
The
94
efficiency
on
the surface
area
of materials
of extraction
93
94
sources
The minerals
6.5
84
Chemical separation
Useful
6.4
deposits
Physical separation
5.9
6.3
83
5.7.2
References
6.2
deposits
5.7.1
5.8
6.1
vii
of information
95
industry
97
Mineral commodities
97
6.1.1
Traded commodities
6.1.2
Mineral
6.1.3
Reserves and resources of mineral commodities
commodity
97
statistics
How mineral commodities are traded
100
101
105
6.2.1
Mineral and metal markets
105
6.2.2
The
107
complexities
of trading mineral commodities
The economic value of mineral commodities
6.3.1
Hotelling's rule
6.3.2
Limitations of
109
109
Hotelling's
rule
110
The mining project cycle
112
6.4.1
Exploration
113
6.4.2
Evaluation and
development
113
6.4.3
Design,
6.4.4
Production
114
6.4.5
Project decline and closure, remediation and restoration
114
construction and
The nature of the minerals
commissioning
industry
114
115
6.5.1
Location
115
6.5.2
Hazardous nature
115
6.5.3
Size and structure
116
6.5.4
Minerals
companies
117
6.5.5
Industry
associations
120
6.5.6
Industry culture
6.5.7
Trends shaping the
120
industry
121
j
vIM
MmeraH, Metah and SusUtnabtHty
6.6
6.7
The economic and social
Mining
6.6.2
The
6.6.3
Artisanal and small-scale
6.7.3
Status of the
6.9
Useful
Producing
7.3
8
Sustainability
123
124
mining
and sustainable
development
and formation of the ICMM
reporting and sustainability indicators
industry
124
124
125
128
128
sources
ores
Extracting
122
122
development
Industry developments
References
7.2
industry
6.7.2
6.8
7.1
as a route to
resources curse
The minerals
6.7.1
7
impacts of mining
6.6.1
of information
and
130
concentrates
131
rock from the crust
131
7.1.1
Surface
7.1.2
Underground mining
134
7.1.3
Solution mining
136
mining
Beneficiating mined
132
material
7.2.1
Size reduction
7.2.2
Separating particles
136
137
solids from
140
7.2.3
Separating
7.2.4
Agglomerating particles
Examples
water
143
146
of mineral beneficiation flowsheets
7.3.1
Mineral sand concentrates
7.3.2
Production of iron
7.3.3
Base metal sulfide
ore
fines and
147
147
lump
concentrates
147
152
7.4
References
152
7.5
Useful
152
sources of information
Producing metals and manufactured mineral products
8.1
Theoretical considerations
8.2
Metals
153
153
155
8.2.1
The
8.2.2
Metallurgical
8.2.3
Smelting
161
8.2.4
Leaching
167
8.2.5
The stages in the extraction of a metal
170
8.2.6
The production of some
174
8.3
Cement and
8.4
Glass
principles of metal
extraction
156
reactors
concrete
161
important
metals
183
185
Contents
9
8.5
Mineral fertilisers
186
8.6
Commodity
187
8.7
References
188
8.8
Useful sources of information
188
9.1
Direct and indirect energy and gross energy
9.2
Embodied energy
189
Calculation of embodied energy
192
9.2.2
Values of embodied energy
194
Embodied energy and global warming
potential
9.3.1
Hydrometallurgy
9.3.2
Global greenhouse gas
production
9.3.3
Impact of the
electricity used
versus
source
The effect of
9.5
The lower limits of energy
declining
ore
of
196
pyrometallurgy
197
198
198
grade and liberation size
on
energy
consumption
9.5.3
Energy
required for
Energy
required for chemical
9.6
Energy sustainability
9.7
References
water in
10.1
Global
water resources
10.2
Water in the minerals
10.3
The embodied
10.4
Water
10.5
References
processing
reporting
10.6
Useful
primary production
material
202
203
205
213
industry
215
metals
216
indicators and reporting
218
219
of information
220
primary production
11.1
Wastes and their
11.2
Solid
223
origin
223
wastes
225
11.2.1
Calculation of the quantities of solid
11.2.2
Quantities produced
Liquid
202
213
water content of
sustainability
Wastes from
198
210
The role of
sources
sorting and separating
indicators and
consumption
200
Energy required for moving materials
9.5.2
11.4
requirement
191
9.4
11.3
189
9.2.1
9.5.1
11
ceramics
Energy consumption in primary production
9.3
10
ix
Wastewater
11.3.2
Acid and metalliferous
Gaseous wastes
225
228
wastes
11.3.1
wastes
228
228
drainage
229
232
Mirwats, Mrt»!»
11.5
11.6
<nnl
11.4.1
The types of gases
11.4.2
The quantities of gas produced in smelting
The impact of
in
smelting
232
232
wastes on humans and the environment
235
Examples of the impacts of mining wastes
236
11.5.2
Toxicity
238
11.5.3
Bioavailability
241
The international
regulation of
wastes
242
11.6.1
The Basel Convention
242
11.6.2
REACH and the
European Chemicals Agency
243
of the Basel Convention and REACH
243
Implications
11.7
References
244
11.8
Useful sources of information
245
Management
12.1
12.2
12.3
of wastes from
Management
primary production
of solid wastes
Waste rock
12.1.2
Tailings
12.1.3
Residues from leaching operations and water
12.1.4
Slags
248
249
treatment
253
254
Management of liquid
wastes
Technologies for water
12.2.2
Management
of
12.2.3
Management
of AMD
255
treatment
cyanide
solutions
255
257
258
Gaseous wastes
262
12.3.1
Gas
cooling and
12.3.2
Gas
cleaning
12.3.3
Sulfur dioxide removal
heat recovery
262
263
266
12.4
Waste, effluent and emission sustainability indicators
12.5
References
12.6
Useful sources of information
267
268
Secondary materials
13.1
247
247
12.1.1
12.2.1
13
produced
11.5.1
11.6.3
12
5ust»*n»Mity
and
269
recycling
Options for end-of-life products
13.1.1
Recycling
13.1.2
Reuse
13.1.3
Remanufacturing
271
271
271
272
272
13.2
Drivers of
13.3
The benefits and limitations of
recycling
273
13.4
Recycling terminology
274
recycling,
reuse
and
remanufacturing
273
Contents
13.5
Recovery, recycling
13.6
The energy
and return rates for
for
required
13.6.1
The Gross
13.6.2
The effect of
common
275
recycling
278
Energy Requirement for recycling
repeated recycling
279
life
279
13.7
The effect of
13.8
Recycling materials from simple products
13.9
275
materials
recycling
on resource
281
13.8.1
Construction and demolition wastes
281
13.8.2
Glass
281
13.8.3
Metals
282
284
Recycling materials from complex products
284
13.9.1
Cars
13.9.2
Waste electrical and electronic
13.10
Design
for the Environment
13.11
References
13.12
Useful
The future
287
equipment
291
292
294
of information
sources
availability
295
of minerals and metals
295
14.1
The determinants of
14.2
Potential
14.3
Crustal
resources
14.3.1
The distribution of the elements in the crust
297
14.3.2
The
297
14.3.3
Hubbert's
14.3.4
Are many mineral
14.3.5
sources
long-term supply
296
of minerals
297
mineralogical barrier
curve
Crustal rocks
as a
14.4
Resources in seawater
14.5
Resources
on
and the concept of peak minerals
deposits
299
still to be discovered?
300
source of scarce elements
304
305
the seabed
308
from land
14.5.1
Deposits originating
14.5.2
Deposits originating from
sources
14.5.3
Deposits originating from
sources on
14.5.4
Recovery and processing of deep
14.5.5
Legal aspects: the Convention of the Sea
308
sources
in
ocean
basins
continents and in
ocean
deposits
310
ocean
basins
310
311
312
14.6
Summary and conclusions
313
14.7
References
313
14.8
Useful
sources
of information
314
The future demand for minerals and metals
15.1
15.2
The determinants of
Projections
long-term
demand
of the demand for mineral commodities
315
315
316
xii
Minerals, Metals and Sustainability
15.3
Materials and
16
17
318
substitution
321
Substitution limits and constraints
15.3.1
15.4
technological
322
Dematerialisation
15.4.1
Intensity-of-use
322
15.4.2
Drivers of dematerialisation
325
15.4.3
Counters to dematerialisation
327
15.4.4
A
328
case
15.5
The IPAT
15.6
Summary
15.7
References
15.8
Useful
Towards
study
329
equation
330
and conclusions
330
sources
331
of information
333
zero waste
16.1
The waste
16.2
Reducing
16.3
Cleaner
16.4
Wastes
16.5
Waste reduction
333
hierarchy
and
eliminating
335
wastes
336
production
as raw
337
materials
through
process
346
re-engineering
346
simplification
16.5.1
Examples
of flowsheet
16.5.2
Examples
of novel equipment
16.5.3
Examples
of novel
348
350
processing conditions
16.6
Industrial
ecology
352
16.7
Making
it
happen
359
16.8
References
16.9
Useful
Towards
17.1
363
sources
365
of information
367
sustainability
Closing
the materials
17.1.1
The ICCM
17.1.2
The Five Winds
17.1.3
An
17.1.4
Drivers of
367
cycle
stewardship
368
model
stewardship
model
integrated strategy for the
370
minerals and metals sector
371
373
stewardship
sustainability
17.2
Market- and
17.3
What does the future hold?
375
17.3.1
The'Great Transition'scenario
375
17.3.2
The World Business Council for Sustainable
17.4
Summary
17.5
References
policy-based approaches
and conclusions
to
transitioning
to
374
Development scenario
378
379
380
Contents
Appendix
I: A note
on
units and
383
quantities
International System of Units
Scientific notation,
Appendix
II: A review of
383
significant figures and order of magnitude
some
important
xiii
scientific
383
387
concepts
11.1
The
11.2
Conservation of matter
389
11.3
Energy, heat
389
11.4
Electromagnetic radiation
392
11.5
Heat transfer
393
Appendix
III: GRI
Appendix
IV:
nature of matter
and the laws of thermodynamics
Sustainability
Processing
395
Indicators
routes for extraction of common
metals from their
ores
401
407
Index
Elements
387
arranged
The Periodic Table
in
alphabetical
order
420
422
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