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ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
DATA AVAILABILITY, DATA QUALITY
Criteria for the evaluation of life cycle assessment software packages and life cycle inventory data
with application to concrete
Karina E. Seto1 • Daman K. Panesar1 • Cameron J. Churchill2
Received: 25 August 2015 / Accepted: 9 February 2016
© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016
Responsible editor: Martin Baitz
1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada,
M5S 1A4
2
Engineering and Society Program, McMaster University, 1280 Main St W, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada,
L8S 4L7
 Daman K. Panesar
[email protected]
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Appendix A
Alternative Concrete Materials- Supplementary Information
GGBFS is a by-product of the steel industry, where rapid cooling of blast furnace slag results in fine, glassy
particles that can be used as a direct replacement for Portland cement (Siddique and Khan 2011). Typical
replacement rates range from 15-50%, and generally GGBFS cement concrete has similar strength
development (Kosmatka et al. 2011) and improved durability (Xu et al. 2008) compared to conventional
concrete.
FA is a by-product of coal-fired power stations. It is typically used as 10-30% by mass of the total cement
content, but recent development of high-volume FA concrete (HVFAC) has allowed for replacement levels
of more than 50% for use in structural applications (Marsh 2003). As with GGBFS, the improved durability
of concrete containing FA may also influence the service life of the concrete in certain applications.
SF is a byproduct that results from the manufacture of silicon or ferrosilicon (Khedr and Abou-Zeid 1994).
It is typically added in blended cement, replacing 5-8% of Portland cement. As a very fine pozzolanic
material, SF has been shown to improve compressive and bond strength and reduce permeability of
concrete (Khan and Siddique 2011).
PLC is produced by partially replacing Portland cement (PC) clinker with ground limestone; the
replacement level is greater than the 5% inherent in PC and typically ranges up to 10-15% (Thomas et al.
2013). Generally, limestone is ground to a higher fineness than typical PC, which improves the gradation of
the cement and can improve workability and increase strength (Tennis et al. 2011).
RAC replaces virgin aggregate with recycled construction and demolition waste materials (Henry et al.
2011; Dhir et al. 2004; Cabral et al. 2010). As mortar and cement paste may still be attached to recycled
aggregate particles, approximately 5% more cement is required in RAC mixes to obtain the same
compressive strength and workability, and RAC is not recommended for aggressive exposures due to
uncertain durability performance (Marinkovic et al. 2010).
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PCAT cement contains titanium dioxide (TiO2) that catalyzes a reaction to convert air pollutants to less
toxic forms. Most research has focused on NOx pollution reduction (Hassan 2010; Ortiz 2003; Poon and
Cheung 2007). It should be noted that in harsh exposure conditions, such as the freeze thaw conditions and
presence of deicing salts in Ontario, mixing photocatalytic cement into a concrete mix and then applying it
to the surface yields adequate durability (Morgan and Stevanovic-Briatico 2007; Hassan 2010).
Reference List for Appendix
Cabral, A. E., Schalch, V., Molin, D. C., & Ribeiro, J. L. (2010). Mechanical properties modeling of
recycled aggregate concrete. Construction and Building Materials , 24, 421-430.
Dhir, R., Paine, K., & Dyer, T. (2004). Recycling construction and demolition wastes in concrete.
Concrete, 38 (3), 25-28.
Hassan, M. (2010). Evaluation of the durability of titanium dioxide photocatalyst coating for concrete
pavement. Journal of Construction and Building Material , 1456-1461.
Henry, M., Pardo, G., Nishimura, T., & Kato, Y. (2011). Balancing durability and environmental impact in
concrete combining low-grade recycled aggregates and mineral admixtures. Resources, Conservation and
Recycling , 55, 1060-1069.
Khan, M. I., & Siddique, R. (2011). Utilization of silica fume in concrete: Review of durability properties.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling , 57, 30-35.
Khedr, S. A., & Abou-Zeid, M. N. (1994). Characteristics of Silica-Fume Concrete. Journal of Materials in
Civil Engineering , 6, 357-375.
Kosmatka, S. H., Kerkhoff, B., Hooton, R. D., & McGrath, R. J. (2011). Design and Control of Concrete
Mixtures (8th Edition ed.). Ottawa, ON: Cement Association of Canada.
Marinkovic, S., Radonjanin, V., Malesev, M., & Ignjatovic, I. (2010). Comparative environmental
assessment of natural and recycled aggregate concrete. Waste Management , 30, 2255-2264.
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Marsh, B. (2003). High-volume fly ash concrete. Concrete , 37 (4), 54-55.
Morgan, C., & Stevanovic-Briatico, V. (2007). Clean roads to clean air. APWA Reporter , 38-41.
Ortiz, I. (2003). Life cycle assessment as a tool for green chemistry: application to kraft pulp industrial
wastewater treatment by different advanced oxidation processes. Barcelona: Institut de Cie`ncia i
Tecnologia Ambientals, The Universitat Auto` noma de Barcelona.
Poon, C., & Cheung, E. (2007). NO removal efficiency of photocatalytic paving blocks prepared with
recycled materials. Construction and Building Materials , 21, 1746-1753.
Siddique, R., & Khan, M. I. (2011). Supplementary Cementing Materials. New York: Springer.
Tennis, P., Thomas, M., & Weiss, W. (2011). State-of-the-Art Report on Use of Limestone in Cements at
Levels of up to 15%. Skokie, IL: Portland Cement Association.
Thomas, M. D., Delagrave, A., Blair, B., & Barcelo, L. (2013, December). Equivalent durability
performance of Portland limestone cement. Concrete International , 39-45,65.
Xu, H., Provis, J., Deventer, J. v., & Krivenko, P. (2008). Characterization of Aged Slag Concretes. ACI
Materials Journal , 105 (2), 131-139.
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