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LINKING WORDS –COHESION
CHOOSE THE APPROPRIATE WORD TO FILL THE GAP
TIME
1. I’ve been waiting an eternity for this moment. At last I can hold you in my arms, Clementine.
2. A friend of mine got a job on a ranch near Buenos Aires. At first(,) he found life very hard , but it
didn’t take him long to find his feet.
3. The food’s in the oven and dinner will be ready in an hour. In the meantime let’s go and do some
gardening.
4. We are always looking for bright young men to join our staff. However, there are no vacancies at
present.
5. The police received the bomb threat at 6.15 and arrived at the scene six minutes later. By then,
the cinema had already been evacuated and the adjoining streets cordoned off.
6. On my twelfth birthday, I was finally told where babies come from. Until then, I had imagined
they came from the supermarket like everything else.
ORDERING POINTS, ADDING INFORMATION
1. It’s luxurious, it’s not too expensive, and the food’s out of this world. On top of that there’s the
Italian barman: my friends think he’s the real reason I always go there.
2. I don’t want to have a drink with you, because it’s too early in the day and also I don’t like you
very much. Besides, I’m not thirsty.
3. We are not wholly satisfied with your work to date, particularly in terms of productivity.
Moreover, on more than one occasion your poor timekeeping record has been brought to our
attention.
REFORMULATING, CLARIFYING
1. It came as a surprise to hear that Clea was married. In fact, it came as a shock.
2. The only thing Chantal wants for her birthday is a new English grammar book. At least, I think
that’s all she wants.
3. Our hotel was what the travel agents describe as ‘lively and colourful’. In other words, it was in
the red light district.
4. I don’t know how you can listen to that music. I mean, it sounds like Rambo’s foreign policy: no
harmony but lots of explosions.
COMPARING AND CONTRASTING
1. All three films give an extremely fine grained result. Delta, however, cannot quite match T-Max
100 for the fineness of its structure.
2. The Delco freezer is cheap and efficient. Sometimes, though, it can be difficult to open.
3. Batman Returns is surely Hollywood at its most original. Nevertheless, the film has its faults.
4. He’s not much to look at, and he’s certainly no hero. But I love him.
5. Managers are advised to avoid confrontation. Instead, they should encourage staff to discuss
their problems.
6. Professional cyclists do not get stomach pains, even though they eat and drink while competing.
Likewise, swimmers rarely suffer.
7. You say I was driving fast and dangerously. On the contrary, I was observing the speed limit and
driving with great care.
CONCLUDING, SUMMARIZING, GENERALIZING
1. The earnings gap between men and women on Europe is at its highest in Britain. On average,
women in British industry receive 69 percent of men’s earnings.
2. The Personnel Manager interviews all job applicants here. On the whole, she looks for potential
rather than experience or qualifications.
3. And what was worse, it was raining all the time. All in all, it was a disastrous weekend.
4. (430 students voted in favour of the motion to ban smoking on the college premises, while 462
voted against.)Overall, students at the college are against a smoking ban.
5. At the back of the bookshelf, I found the cassettes of the telephone calls. It was Barbara, then,
who had been tapping the Palace phone lines.
GIVING EXAMPLES, FOCUSING
1. My cat seems to think she’s a dog. Yesterday, for instance, she bit the postman, and this
morning she jumped up and started licking my face.
2. Yes, I am studying English at the moment. It’s primarily for my job, but it also means I’ll find it a
lot easier to travel.
3. His parents said I was a bad influence on him. In particular they accused me of taking him
drinking last Sunday morning; they didn’t mention any other ways in which I was supposed to
have corrupted him.
CHANGING SUBJECT, REFERRING TO SUBJECT
1. I spent the rest of the day watching the cycling on television. Talking about bikes, have you got
yours mended yet?
2. Darlene is as miserable as ever, and Jackie never comes to visit us. Anyway, I’m sure you don’t
want to hear about my problems, so let’s get back to those holiday plans.
3. I had a letter from Patrick Eggli the other day. By the way, I don’t suppose you remember Carine
Imhof?
4. Education is still way behind the rest of Europe, and the Health Service is in crisis. As for the
economy, there’s no immediate sign of an end to the recession.
CAUSE AND EFFECT, REASON AND RESULT, INTERFERENCE
1. It is not advisable to drink beer after vigorous exercise because alcohol is a diuretic – it makes
you urinate. Thus rather than replacing what you have lost in sweat, it promotes dehydration.
2. Finally, I found the pricing to be as attractive as the other features detailed above. Accordingly I
recommend purchase of the A/EU/W4CAE Mark 1.
3. With The Last of the Mohicans, Day-Lewis has found that vital element – star quality. As a result,
he is a strong candidate for an Oscar.
4. Sorry I didn’t come out last night, but I was feeling a bit under the weather. That’s why I stayed
at home and watched telly.
5. Don’t forget to pack insect repellent. Otherwise, you might find yourself eaten alive by the local
mosquitoes.
6. ‘’She’s only inviting you because you’ve got a car.”
“In that case I won’t go.”
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