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74
J Vector Borne Dis 53, March 2016
disease17, 19. Several studies indicate the importance of
the peri-domicile in new human settlements, for the presence of farms with chicken coops, dairy cattle, swine,
and horses8; and the communities of phlebotomines inhabiting in fragments of forest close by influence the dynamics of parasitic transmission for Leishmania species
due to changes in the differential access to reservoirs and
hosts communities70.
L. hartmanni was the only registry that was different
from verrucarum belonging to the subgenus
Helcocyrtomyia—sanguinaria series24, with a significant
presence in the coffee ecosystems and wild forests
associated with animal burrows and trees of great
bearing14, 71. It was implicated in the transmission of
Leptodactylus colombiensis, an etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis72.
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CONCLUSION
The presence of a community represented by the
group verrucarum of the genus Lutzomyia with a history
of the transmission of protozoa responsible for the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis constitutes a pattern that is
interesting for the biogeography and phylogeny of this
group of species at the confluence of the Pamplonita River,
and allows for the planting of questions with reference to
the variation in structure and composition of the species
present in the altitudinal range of the confluence (2400–
800 m) to the city of Cúcuta (capital of the department of
Norte de Santander). The possible ecology of the transmission of leishmaniasis in this zone, adaptation to artificial human ecosystems, and the influence of the modifications to the landscape are the aspects that favour the
domestication of populations of phlebotomines compatible with Leishmania species. The invasion of reservoirs,
and the presence of domestic animals and susceptible
hosts; might favour the ecology of the disease in human
ecosystems, contributed to the emergence of outbreaks
and epidemics of leishmaniasis. In conclusion, it is necessary to identify patterns of diversity of the Lutzomyia
genus, rates of natural infection of Leishmania, biting
behaviour, and nursery sites in order to identify the areas
of most probable emergence and to generate a prevention
strategy for this disease.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
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The authors are grateful to Convocatory 528–
Colciencias for providing Ph.D scholarship to Richard
Hoyos-López and University of Pamplona-research
vice-rectory (Intern convocatory).
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