PA 499: Bachelor’s Capstone for Paralegal Studies Agenda 1.Assignment 8: Internal Memorandum of Law 2.Bluebook citation Unit 8 Assignment: Internal Memo • Unit 8 Assignment is to prepare an Internal Memorandum outlining your opponent’s case for your supervising attorney. • Why is this important to do? Requirements • Need to include the following: ▫ Introduction/Issue statement: Example: “This memorandum discusses the main arguments and relevant case law expected to be presented by the State of Florida.” ▫ Brief restatement of facts. ▫ Discussion Section outlining opponents main arguments and law. • Recommended number of pages: 3-5 When to Cite? • When you rely on and use legal sources and legal authorities in your own work, The Bluebook provides a systematic citation form to “cite” those references. • The citation follows the discussion from the source: It is clear that only personal rights that can be deemed "fundamental" or "implicit in the concept of ordered liberty” are guaranteed personal privacy Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319, 325 (1937). How to Cite? • The order of the citation is important because each part identifies something in the reference that can lead the reader to the original source as you found it. • Each legal source has its own particular order to follow and specific information that must be included in the cite. How to Cite Cases? • A general case citation is as follows: Tom Reed Gold Mines Co. v. United E. Mining Co., 39 Ariz. 533 (1932). • Always underline or italicize case names: volume ▫ Smith Corp. v. Doe Inc. • The “v.” is lowercase, is followed by a period, and is not “vs.”: ▫ Paradise v. Parker, • Follow case names by a comma, which is not underlined or italicized: ▫ Arizona v. Fulminante, How to Cite Cases? • Do not include parties' first names, unless they are the name of a corporation: ▫ Baker v. John Smith Inc., • If there is more than one plaintiff or defendant, use only the first party on each side. • Do not abbreviate United States in a case name: ▫ United States v. Michigan, • Some words may be abbreviated, but do not abbreviate them if they are the first word of a party. Refer to the Bluebook for common abbreviations. How to Cite Federal Cases? • U.S. Supreme Court: Cite to U.S. If it's not yet published there, cite to S. Ct., L. Ed., U.S.L.W., or LEXIS, in that order of preference. Do not include parallel cites: ▫ Smith & Jones, Inc. v. Couch, 401 U.S. 313 (1985). • U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal: Cite to F., F.2d, or F.3d. Note no space between the F. and the number. Include the circuit in the cite: ▫ Davis v. Everett, 102 F.2d 24 (9th Cir. 1954). How to Cite Federal Cases? • U.S. District Courts: Cite to F. Supp. Note the space between the F. and the Supp. Include the district in the cite: ▫ Flanders v. Glissandi, 913 F. Supp. 885 (C.D. Cal. 1996). How to Cite State Cases? • Cite to the regional reporter. Include the court in the cite: ▫ Hoyt, Inc. v. Irving-Johnson Corp., 425 P.2d 976 (Cal. App. 1976). Kearney v. Lovejoy, 777 P.2d 1024 (Cal. 1993). How to Cite Cases Available Only in Lexis? • Vaughn v. Wilson, No. 95-124, 1995 U.S. Sup. Ct. LEXIS 3255, at *16 (1995). How to Cite Quotations? • Always give the exact page of a quote (i.e. pinpoint cite), even when paraphrasing: ▫ "The Fourth Amendment protects people, not places." Katz v. United States, 375 U.S. 76, 82 (1965). How to Cite Statutes? • Federal Statutes: Cite to U.S.C. or U.S.C.A. ▫ 12 U.S.C. § 1986 (West 1996). ▫ 12 U.S.C.A. § 1986 (1996). • State Statutes: The form varies by state. ▫ Cal. Pen. Code § 187 (West 1989). ▫ Neb. Stat. Ann. § 212-414(b) (West 1990). ▫ A.R.S. § 1-101 (2005). How to Cite Constitutions? • Federal: ▫ U.S. Const. amend. XX ▫ U.S. Const. art. I, § 2, cl. 3 • State: ▫ Cal. Const. art. XIV How to Cite Secondary Sources? • Books: John Knight, A Jury of Twelve, 225 (1st. ed. 2001). • Periodicals: Mary A. Jones, The Best of Trial Briefs, 28 Neb. L. Rev. 102 (2006). • Encyclopedias: 16 C.J.S. Evidence § 12 (1996). • Dictionaries: Black's Law Dictionary, 826 (7th ed. 1998). • Annotations: Tom McCannon, Annotation, Searches and Warrants, 79 A.L.R.2d 1257 (1995). How to Cite Court Rules? • Federal: ▫ Fed. R. Civ. P. 12 (b)(6). ▫ Fed. R. Crim. P. 7(b). • State: ▫ Haw. Fam. Ct. R. 106. ▫ N.J. Ct. R. 3:8-3. How to Cite Electronic Sources? • American Bar Association. Section on Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar. Legal Education and Bar Admission Statistics, 1963 – 2005, available at http://www.abanet.org/legaled/stats.html, (last visited Oct. 18, 2006). Miscellaneous Points • When a cite is in the middle of a sentence, follow it with a comma. ▫ In Yon v. Sambaed, 421 U.S. 119 (1992), the Supreme Court held that . . . • When a cite is at the end of a sentence, follow it with a period. ▫ This decision was overruled in Ankeny v. Burnside, 102 F.2d 65 (3d Cir. 1942). Miscellaneous Points • When you have a string cite (several cases cited in a row) separate them with semicolons. Cite federal cases first, then state cases, and cite higher courts before lower ones. ▫ Several courts have held that the sun rises in the east. Caruthers v. Druid, 414 U.S. 9 (1992); Major v. Minor, 2 F. Supp. 1245 (S.D.N.Y. 1912); California v. Parker, 421 P.2d 198 (Cal. App. 1978). Miscellaneous Points • To delete one or more words within a quote, use ellipses. At the end of a sentence, follow the ellipses by a period. ▫ "The time has come . . . to talk of many things." Lewis Caroll, Alice in Wonderland 56 (1872). • Never start a sentence with ellipses. If you start a quote in the middle of a sentence, or if you substitute letters or words in a sentence, use brackets. ▫ "[M]y troubles seemed so far away." Paul McCartney, Yesterday 2 (1966). Miscellaneous Points • When one authority is quoting from another, indicate it. ▫ "Citations stink." Brennan v. Marshall, 102 F. Supp. 1234, 1236 (D. Mass. 1984) (quoting Scalia v. Thomas, 313 U.S. 653, 655 (1976)). Perry v. Schwarzenegger, 704 F. Supp. 2d 921 (2010) Perry v. Schwarzenegger, 704 F. Supp. 2d 921 (2010) Correct Citation: Perry v. Schwarzenegger, 704 F. Supp. 2d 921 (N.D. Cal. 2010). Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public Health, 957 A.2d 407 (S.C. Conn. 2008). Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public Health, 957 A.2d 407 (S.C. Conn. 2008). Correct Citation: Kerrigan v. Comm’r of Pub. Health, 957 A.2d 407 (Conn. 2008). Snetsinger v. Mont. Univ. Sys., 2004 MT 391 (December 30. 2004). Snetsinger v. Mont. Univ. Sys., 2004 MT 391 (December 30. 2004). Correct Citation: Snetsinger v. Mont. Univ. Sys., 104 P.3d 445 (Mont. 2005).