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PA 499: Bachelor’s Capstone for
Paralegal Studies
1.Assignment 8: Internal Memorandum of Law
2.Bluebook citation
Unit 8 Assignment: Internal Memo
• Unit 8 Assignment is to prepare an Internal
Memorandum outlining your opponent’s case
for your supervising attorney.
• Why is this important to do?
• Need to include the following:
▫ Introduction/Issue statement: Example: “This
memorandum discusses the main arguments and
relevant case law expected to be presented by the
State of Florida.”
▫ Brief restatement of facts.
▫ Discussion Section outlining opponents main
arguments and law.
• Recommended number of pages: 3-5
When to Cite?
• When you rely on and use legal sources and legal
authorities in your own work, The Bluebook provides a
systematic citation form to “cite” those references.
• The citation follows the discussion from the source: It
is clear that only personal rights that can be deemed
"fundamental" or "implicit in the concept of ordered
liberty” are guaranteed personal privacy Palko v.
Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319, 325 (1937).
How to Cite?
• The order of the citation is important because
each part identifies something in the reference
that can lead the reader to the original source as
you found it.
• Each legal source has its own particular order to
follow and specific information that must be
included in the cite.
How to Cite Cases?
• A general case citation is as follows: Tom Reed
Gold Mines Co. v. United E. Mining Co., 39 Ariz.
533 (1932).
• Always underline or italicize case names:
▫ Smith Corp. v. Doe Inc.
• The “v.” is lowercase, is followed by a period,
and is not “vs.”:
▫ Paradise v. Parker,
• Follow case names by a comma, which is not
underlined or italicized:
▫ Arizona v. Fulminante,
How to Cite Cases?
• Do not include parties' first names, unless they
are the name of a corporation:
▫ Baker v. John Smith Inc.,
• If there is more than one plaintiff or defendant,
use only the first party on each side.
• Do not abbreviate United States in a case name:
▫ United States v. Michigan,
• Some words may be abbreviated, but do not
abbreviate them if they are the first word of a
party. Refer to the Bluebook for common
How to Cite Federal Cases?
• U.S. Supreme Court: Cite to U.S. If it's not yet
published there, cite to S. Ct., L. Ed., U.S.L.W.,
or LEXIS, in that order of preference. Do not
include parallel cites:
▫ Smith & Jones, Inc. v. Couch, 401 U.S. 313 (1985).
• U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeal: Cite to F., F.2d, or
F.3d. Note no space between the F. and the
number. Include the circuit in the cite:
▫ Davis v. Everett, 102 F.2d 24 (9th Cir. 1954).
How to Cite Federal Cases?
• U.S. District Courts: Cite to F. Supp. Note the
space between the F. and the Supp. Include the
district in the cite:
▫ Flanders v. Glissandi, 913 F. Supp. 885 (C.D. Cal.
How to Cite State Cases?
• Cite to the regional reporter. Include the court in
the cite:
▫ Hoyt, Inc. v. Irving-Johnson Corp., 425 P.2d 976
(Cal. App. 1976).
Kearney v. Lovejoy, 777 P.2d 1024 (Cal. 1993).
How to Cite Cases Available Only in
• Vaughn v. Wilson, No. 95-124, 1995 U.S. Sup. Ct.
LEXIS 3255, at *16 (1995).
How to Cite Quotations?
• Always give the exact page of a quote (i.e.
pinpoint cite), even when paraphrasing:
▫ "The Fourth Amendment protects people, not
places." Katz v. United States, 375 U.S. 76, 82
How to Cite Statutes?
• Federal Statutes: Cite to U.S.C. or U.S.C.A.
▫ 12 U.S.C. § 1986 (West 1996).
▫ 12 U.S.C.A. § 1986 (1996).
• State Statutes: The form varies by state.
▫ Cal. Pen. Code § 187 (West 1989).
▫ Neb. Stat. Ann. § 212-414(b) (West 1990).
▫ A.R.S. § 1-101 (2005).
How to Cite Constitutions?
• Federal:
▫ U.S. Const. amend. XX
▫ U.S. Const. art. I, § 2, cl. 3
• State:
▫ Cal. Const. art. XIV
How to Cite Secondary Sources?
• Books: John Knight, A Jury of Twelve, 225 (1st.
ed. 2001).
• Periodicals: Mary A. Jones, The Best of Trial
Briefs, 28 Neb. L. Rev. 102 (2006).
• Encyclopedias: 16 C.J.S. Evidence § 12
• Dictionaries: Black's Law Dictionary, 826 (7th
ed. 1998).
• Annotations: Tom McCannon, Annotation,
Searches and Warrants, 79 A.L.R.2d 1257 (1995).
How to Cite Court Rules?
• Federal:
▫ Fed. R. Civ. P. 12 (b)(6).
▫ Fed. R. Crim. P. 7(b).
• State:
▫ Haw. Fam. Ct. R. 106.
▫ N.J. Ct. R. 3:8-3.
How to Cite Electronic Sources?
• American Bar Association. Section on Legal
Education and Admissions to the Bar. Legal
Education and Bar Admission Statistics, 1963 –
2005, available at, (last
visited Oct. 18, 2006).
Miscellaneous Points
• When a cite is in the middle of a sentence, follow
it with a comma.
▫ In Yon v. Sambaed, 421 U.S. 119 (1992), the
Supreme Court held that . . .
• When a cite is at the end of a sentence, follow it
with a period.
▫ This decision was overruled in Ankeny v.
Burnside, 102 F.2d 65 (3d Cir. 1942).
Miscellaneous Points
• When you have a string cite (several cases cited
in a row) separate them with semicolons. Cite
federal cases first, then state cases, and cite
higher courts before lower ones.
▫ Several courts have held that the sun rises in the east.
Caruthers v. Druid, 414 U.S. 9 (1992); Major v. Minor,
2 F. Supp. 1245 (S.D.N.Y. 1912); California v. Parker,
421 P.2d 198 (Cal. App. 1978).
Miscellaneous Points
• To delete one or more words within a quote, use
ellipses. At the end of a sentence, follow the
ellipses by a period.
▫ "The time has come . . . to talk of many things." Lewis
Caroll, Alice in Wonderland 56 (1872).
• Never start a sentence with ellipses. If you start a
quote in the middle of a sentence, or if you
substitute letters or words in a sentence, use
▫ "[M]y troubles seemed so far away." Paul McCartney,
Yesterday 2 (1966).
Miscellaneous Points
• When one authority is quoting from another,
indicate it.
▫ "Citations stink." Brennan v. Marshall, 102 F.
Supp. 1234, 1236 (D. Mass. 1984) (quoting Scalia
v. Thomas, 313 U.S. 653, 655 (1976)).
Perry v. Schwarzenegger, 704 F. Supp.
2d 921 (2010)
Perry v. Schwarzenegger, 704 F. Supp.
2d 921 (2010)
Correct Citation: Perry v. Schwarzenegger,
704 F. Supp. 2d 921 (N.D. Cal. 2010).
Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public
Health, 957 A.2d 407 (S.C. Conn. 2008).
Kerrigan v. Commissioner of Public
Health, 957 A.2d 407 (S.C. Conn. 2008).
Correct Citation: Kerrigan v. Comm’r of Pub.
Health, 957 A.2d 407 (Conn. 2008).
Snetsinger v. Mont. Univ. Sys., 2004 MT
391 (December 30. 2004).
Snetsinger v. Mont. Univ. Sys., 2004 MT
391 (December 30. 2004).
Correct Citation: Snetsinger v. Mont. Univ.
Sys., 104 P.3d 445 (Mont. 2005).