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Define science.
List the instrument and the unit used to measure:
Volume: graduated cylinder/ml
metric ruler/cm3
Length: metric ruler/cm3
Measure the key in both centimeters and convert it to millimeters.
3.3 cm. = 33 mm.
4. A. Using water displacement (Figure 2), calculate the volume of the rock. Show your work & correct unit!
40ml-20ml= 20ml is the volume of the rock
B. If the mass of the rock = 60 grams, what is the density of the rock? Show your work & correct unit!
5. Compare and contrast the 3 states of matter. Include information about each one’s shape, volume, the
arrangement and motion of particles.
Liquid – definite volume, no definite shape
Solid – definite volume and definite shape
Gas- no definite volume, no definite volume
molecules move around
molecules vibrate in place
molecules move around very fast
6. In an atom:
A proton is: positive and in the nucleus
A neutron is: neutral and in the nucleus
An electron is: negative and in the electron cloud around the nucleus
The atomic number equals: number of protons and the number of electrons
The mass number equals: the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
7. Given a periodic table:
How do you find the number of protons in an element? The atomic number
How do you find the number of neutrons? Atomic mass (rounded off) minus the atomic number
How do you find the number of electrons? The atomic number
8. What is the difference between an element, a compound and a mixture? Give an example of each.
Element – a substance with only one kind of atom
Compound – two or more elements chemically combined
Mixture – two or more substances physically combined (easier to take apart)
9. What is the difference between a chemical and physical change? Give an example of each.
Chemical change – when substances combine and form a new substance with new characteristics
Ex. Baking soda and vinegar, rusting metal
Physical change – when substances combine physically and no new substance if formed
Ex. Ripping paper, lemonade
10. List and describe the five phase changes and whether energy is gained or lost to cause each one.
Evaporation – liquid to gas
Condensation – gas to liquid
Sublimation – solid to gas
Melting – solid to liquid
Freezing – liquid to solid
heat gained
heat lost
heat gained
heat gained
heat lost
(Deposition - gas to solid
heat lost
This is the 6th but we don’t usually study this one. 0
11. Density of Liquid A = 1.98 g/mL
Density of Liquid B = 0.75 g/mL
Density of Liquid C = 1.14 g/mL
Density of Liquid D = 0.50 g/mL
If the liquids were poured into a beaker, they create a density column.
Using the densities, label the beaker.
12. Write the formula to calculate density. What is the density of the object if the mass is 250 grams and has a
volume of 500 ml? Will this object sink or float when placed in water? Explain your answer.
D=5g/mL It will float because it is less dense than water which is 1g/mL.
Below is a scenario. Read it carefully and answer Questions #13 - 18.
A. Shara wanted to find out if flowers grew faster with sugar in the water.
B. She believed the sugar would make the flower grow faster.
C. Shara filled 4 jars with 200 ml of water. Jar A had 10 ml of sugar added; Jar B had 20 ml. of sugar
added and Jar C had 30 ml. of sugar added.
D. Jar D had no sugar in it.
E. The flowers in the sugar water all died. The more sugar in the water, the faster the flowers died.
F. The flower in Jar D ( no sugar) lasted for 10 days.
13. Which letter represents the problem? A
14. In which statement does Shara state her hypothesis? B
15. What is the control in the experiment? D
16. What is the independent variable in this experiment? sugar
17. What is the dependent variable in this experiment? Growth of plant
18. In which statement is the conclusion? E
19. Using the chart, explain how you could distinguish between magnetite and hematite?
Magnetite has a black streak and has an iron black color.
Hematite has a red/red brown streak and has a reddish brown color.
20. Which mineral in the table will scratch every other mineral in the table? Corundum
21. List the hardness of the following from the field hardness kit.
Fingernail =
copper =
glass = 5.5 - 6
22. What does the streak tell you about the mineral?
The color of the powdered mineral
What are some negative effects of mining?
Water and air pollution and destruction of the land.
24. List the two classifications of igneous rocks. Define and give an example of each.
Extrusive (formed in the ground with larger grains) – granite
Intrusive (formed at the surface with smaller grains) - basalt
25. List the three classifications of sedimentary rocks. Define and give an example of each.
Clastic – made from pieces or rock
Organic – made from once living substances
Chemical – precipitates out of solution
conglomerate, sandstone, shale
limestone, coal
rock salt
26. Name and describe the 5 agents of physical weathering
Ice wedging
(There are more, these are the more common ones.)
27. Explain why fossils are usually found in sedimentary rocks rather than igneous or metamorphic rocks.
Igneous rocks are formed from magma/lava and that would burn the “fossil” up.
Metamorphic rocks are formed under high temperature and pressure deep in the ground and this would destroy
the “fossil.”
28. How are rocks and minerals similar? How are they different?
Rocks are made from minerals.
Both contain some of the same compounds.
29. How do animals aid in soil formation?
Animals the burrow or dig in the soil aerate it giving the soil more exposure to the atmosphere.
30. Bedrock has been exposed at the surface, what are the steps/processes involved to create a developed soil
Top layer
Horizon A
Horizon B
Horizon C
dark, rich in organics and decaying plants and animals, humus
leaching of minerals, less humus
large rock fragments, no organic materials
31. Draw and explain the processes within the rock cycle.
Igneous rock
Sedimentary rock
Metamorphic rock
High temp and