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Instructional Design
& Models
C. Candace Chou
Department Curriculum and Instruction
University of St. Thomas
[email protected]
Write down as many words
as you can related to
“instructional design”
Benefits of
Instructional Design
tangible: e.g., increased output, ROI
intangible: e.g., worker loyalty
activity-oriented, project-based, studentcentered instruction
promote active learning
What is a Teacher?
Three Categories of Questions
in Instructional Planning
Where are we going?
•Instructional goals?
•Content to be acquired?
•Prerequisite content to be acquired?
What will we do
when we get there?
How will we get
Instructional System Design
Instruction is a systematic process that
involves teacher, learners, materials, and
learning environment in order to achieve
successful and identified learning goals.
The “system” refers to an orderly, logical
method of identifying, developing, and
evaluating a set of strategies aimed at
attaining a particular instructional goal
(Morrison, Ross, Kemp, 2004)
An instructional system is an arrangement of
resources and procedures to promote learning.
Design implies a systematic or intensive planning and
ideation process prior to the development of
something or the execution of some plan in order to
solve a problem.
Instructional System Design is used interchangeably
with Instructional Design
ISD is a systems approach for the design,
development, implementation, and evaluation of
(Source: Smith & Ragan, 1999)
Training refer to those instructional
experiences that are focused upon individuals
acquiring very specific skills that they will
normally apply almost immediately.
Teaching refer to those learning experiences
that are facilitated by a human being - not a
videotape, textbook, or computer program,
but a live teacher.
Instructional Design Process
Where are we going?
(What are the goals of the instruction?)
How will we get there?
(What is the instructional strategy and the
instructional medium?)
How will we know when we have arrived?
(What should our tests look like? How will we
evaluate and revise the instructional materials?)
(Regan & Smith, 2005)
ID Definition
Instructional design refers to the
systematic and reflective process of
translating principles of learning
and instruction into plans for
instructional materials, activities,
information resources, and
evaluation. (Smith and Ragan,
Definition I
Instruction Design as a Process:
Instructional Design is the systematic
development of instructional specifications
using learning and instructional theory to
ensure the quality of instruction. It is the
entire process of analysis of learning
needs and goals and the development of a
delivery system to meet those needs. It
includes development of instructional
materials and activities; and tryout and
evaluation of all instruction and learner
Definition II
Instructional Design as a Discipline:
Instructional Design is that branch of
knowledge concerned with research and
theory about instructional strategies and
the process for developing and
implementing those strategies.
Definition III
Instructional Design as a Science
Instructional Design is the science of
creating detailed specifications for the
development, implementation, evaluation,
and maintenance of situations that
facilitate the learning of both large and
small units of subject matter at all levels of
Definitions IV
Instructional Design as Reality
Instructional Design can start at any point
in the design process. Often a glimmer of
an idea is developed to give the core of an
instruction situation. By the time the entire
process is done the designer looks back
and she or he checks to see that all parts
of the “science” have been taken into
account. Then the entire process is written
up as if it occurred in a systematic fashion.
Who’s Who in Instructional Design
Project manager
Instructional Designer
Subject-matter Expert (SME)
Graphic Artist/Designer
History of Instructional Design I
The origins: World War II
Psychologists and educators were called to
develop training materials for the military services.
Early Development: The Programmed Instruction
Movement, mid-1950s
Skinner (1958) introduced ideas on increasing
human learning and the characteristics of effective
instructional materials, called programmed
instructional materials
Present instruction in small steps, require active
responses to frequent questions, immediate
History of Instructional Design II
The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives
Rober Mager (1962) emphasized on objectives for
desired learner behaviors
Bloom’s (1956) taxonomy employed hierarchical
relationship among various types of outcomes
Robert Gagne (1962): Events of Instruction, Hierarchical
analysis, Domains of learning (psychomotor skills, verbal
information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, and
History of Instructional Design II
1970s: Leslie Briggs demonstrated that an
instructionally designed course could produce up to
2:1 increase over conventionally designed class in
terms of achievement, reduction in variance, and
reduction of completion time, save $$$ in salary cost.
1980s: increased use of microcomputer has a major
effect on ID practices, computer-based instruction,
drill and practice
1990s, constructivism, problem-solving and
collaboration, social-cultural issues, and rapid
Learning Theories & the
Implications for ID
Behaviorism: Behavioral theory emphasized
the influence of the environment on learning.
According to behaviorism, learning has
occurred when learners evidence the
appropriate response to a particular stimulus,
e.g., Pavlov’s classical condition.
ID example: drill and practice. Memorization
for basic information
Cognitive Learning Theories
Gagne: Principles of Instruction
Translate behaviorist and information -processing
theories into instructional strategies
Types of learning
Intellectual skills (problem solving, higher-order
thinking, defined concepts, concrete concepts,
Cognitive strategies
Verbal information
Motor skills
Gagné: Events of Instruction
Gain attention
Informing the learner of the objectives
Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning
Presenting new materials
Providing learning guidance
Eliciting performance
Providing feedback about correctness
Assessing performance
Enhancing retention and recall
Gagné (continued)
Learning hierarchies: Learning is a building process
that the lower-level skills provide the foundation for
higher-level skills.
Math example: to work with long division problems
requires the prerequisite math skills in number
recognition, number facts, simple addition and
subtraction, multiplication, and simple division.
ID examples: drills, tutorials, simulation
Learning is always a unique product “constructed” as
each individual learner combines new information
with existing knowledge and experiences. Individuals
have learned when they have constructed new
interpretations of the social, cultural, physical, and
intellectual environments in which they live. (Dick &
Carey, 2001)
ID examples: problem-solving, project-based learning
Instructional Design
Morrison, Ross, & Kemp Model
Understanding by Design (UbD)
1. Identify desired results
2. Determine acceptable evidence
3. Plan learning experiences
& instruction
Generic ID Model: ADDIE
The Analysis Phase
Problem Statement
Needs Assessment
Task & Learner Analysis
Who is the audience?
What do they need to learn?
What is the budget?
What are the delivery options?
What constraints exist?
When is the project due?
What will the students do to determine
competency (Powers, 1997)?
The Design Phase
Select the most appropriate Web-based environment
by examining the kinds of cognitive skills required to
achieve your goal (Driscoll, 1998, p. 50)
Write the instructional objectives; select an overall
approach and the program’s look and feel; outline
units, lessons, and modules (Hall, 1997)
Design course content specifically for use with an
interactive, electronic medium (Porter, 1997)
The Design Phase II
What are your objectives?
What skills, knowledge and attitudes are you trying to
What resources and strategies will you use in your
How will you structure the content of your learning
How will you assess the learner’s understanding and
whether or not they have met the objectives of the
( )
The Development Phase
Obtain and/or create the required media.
Use the Internet's strength to present information in
many different multimedia formats so that the
learners' preferences can be met (Porter, 1997, p.
Determine the appropriate interactions. They should
be creative, innovative, and encourage learners to
explore further (Porter, 1997, p. 200).
Plan activities that allow for student group work to
help construct a supportive social environment
(Simonson et al, 2000, p. 115).
The Implementation Phase
Duplicate and distribute materials.
Install and maintain the course.
Discover errors through testing with target audience
Be prepared in the event that technical problems
occur and discuss alternative plans with the students
ahead of time (Simonson et al, 2000, p. 115).
The Evaluation Phase
Test for instructional standards.
Plan several points during the course when
students can provide anonymous feedback so
that the instructor is aware of student confusion
and misunderstanding (Schrum, 1998).
Conduct formative evaluations to improve the
course and summative evaluations to judge the
effect of the course (Bourne et al, 1997).
Use the Worksheet to
compare all four
Instructional Design
Needs Assessment
Define problems
Target population
Task Content
Job analysis
SME role (Subject Matter Expert)
A task is an action designed to contribute a specified
end result to the accomplishment of an objective. It
has an identifiable beginning and end that is
measurable component of the duties and
responsibilities of a specific job. A task statement has
an action and a result (product)
For example:
Adjust gears on a 10 speed bike
Print a Microsoft World document on Windows XP
SME vs Trainers
SME are responsible on how tasks, to include the order of
performance steps, are to be performed, while trainers are
responsible on how that material will be presented
(demonstrate - practice - hands-on test).
SME are responsible on technical-jargon, while trainers
decide if that jargon needs to be explained (unless the jargon
is offensive).
SME are responsible what is acceptable performance, while
trainers decide how that performance will be evaluated
(written, hand-on, oral).
SME are responsible for providing the performance
objectives, while trainers are responsible for turning the
objectives into a viable learning or performance objectives
(task - observable action, conditions, standards - at least one
measurable criterion).
Two Minute Paper
Summarize the most
important points of today’s
What is the muddies point in
today’s material?