Instructional Design Theories, History & Models C. Candace Chou Department Curriculum and Instruction University of St. Thomas [email protected] Brainstorm Write down as many words as you can related to “instructional design” Benefits of Instructional Design Business: tangible: e.g., increased output, ROI intangible: e.g., worker loyalty Education: activity-oriented, project-based, studentcentered instruction promote active learning What is a Teacher? Advocate Counselor Evaluator Coach Learner Motivator Organizer Judge Collaborator Referee Model Nurse Artist Confidant Listener Instructional Designer Three Categories of Questions in Instructional Planning Where are we going? •Instructional goals? •Content to be acquired? •Prerequisite content to be acquired? What will we do when we get there? How will we get there? •Assessment? •Information? •Pace? •Performance? •Materials? •Practice? •Context? •Activities? •Feedback? •Quality? •Sequence? Instructional System Design Instruction is a systematic process that involves teacher, learners, materials, and learning environment in order to achieve successful and identified learning goals. The “system” refers to an orderly, logical method of identifying, developing, and evaluating a set of strategies aimed at attaining a particular instructional goal (Morrison, Ross, Kemp, 2004) An instructional system is an arrangement of resources and procedures to promote learning. Design implies a systematic or intensive planning and ideation process prior to the development of something or the execution of some plan in order to solve a problem. Instructional System Design is used interchangeably with Instructional Design ISD is a systems approach for the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of instruction. Education Instruction Training Teaching (Source: Smith & Ragan, 1999) Training refer to those instructional experiences that are focused upon individuals acquiring very specific skills that they will normally apply almost immediately. Teaching refer to those learning experiences that are facilitated by a human being - not a videotape, textbook, or computer program, but a live teacher. Instructional Design Process Where are we going? (What are the goals of the instruction?) How will we get there? (What is the instructional strategy and the instructional medium?) How will we know when we have arrived? (What should our tests look like? How will we evaluate and revise the instructional materials?) (Regan & Smith, 2005) ID Definition Instructional design refers to the systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation. (Smith and Ragan, 2005) Definition I Instruction Design as a Process: Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities. Definition II Instructional Design as a Discipline: Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies. Definition III Instructional Design as a Science Instructional Design is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity. Definitions IV Instructional Design as Reality Instructional Design can start at any point in the design process. Often a glimmer of an idea is developed to give the core of an instruction situation. By the time the entire process is done the designer looks back and she or he checks to see that all parts of the “science” have been taken into account. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred in a systematic fashion. Who’s Who in Instructional Design Process Project manager Instructional Designer Instructor/Trainer/Facilitator Subject-matter Expert (SME) Programmer/Developer Graphic Artist/Designer Evaluator History of Instructional Design I The origins: World War II Psychologists and educators were called to develop training materials for the military services. Early Development: The Programmed Instruction Movement, mid-1950s Skinner (1958) introduced ideas on increasing human learning and the characteristics of effective instructional materials, called programmed instructional materials Present instruction in small steps, require active responses to frequent questions, immediate feedback History of Instructional Design II The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives Rober Mager (1962) emphasized on objectives for desired learner behaviors Bloom’s (1956) taxonomy employed hierarchical relationship among various types of outcomes Robert Gagne (1962): Events of Instruction, Hierarchical analysis, Domains of learning (psychomotor skills, verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, and attitudes) History of Instructional Design II 1970s: Leslie Briggs demonstrated that an instructionally designed course could produce up to 2:1 increase over conventionally designed class in terms of achievement, reduction in variance, and reduction of completion time, save $$$ in salary cost. 1980s: increased use of microcomputer has a major effect on ID practices, computer-based instruction, drill and practice 1990s, constructivism, problem-solving and collaboration, social-cultural issues, and rapid prototyping Learning Theories & the Implications for ID Behaviorism: Behavioral theory emphasized the influence of the environment on learning. According to behaviorism, learning has occurred when learners evidence the appropriate response to a particular stimulus, e.g., Pavlov’s classical condition. ID example: drill and practice. Memorization for basic information Cognitive Learning Theories Gagne: Principles of Instruction Translate behaviorist and information -processing theories into instructional strategies Types of learning • Intellectual skills (problem solving, higher-order thinking, defined concepts, concrete concepts, discriminations) • Cognitive strategies • Verbal information • Motor skills • Attitudes Gagné: Events of Instruction 1. Gain attention 2. Informing the learner of the objectives 3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning 4. Presenting new materials 5. Providing learning guidance 6. Eliciting performance 7. Providing feedback about correctness 8. Assessing performance 9. Enhancing retention and recall Gagné (continued) Learning hierarchies: Learning is a building process that the lower-level skills provide the foundation for higher-level skills. Math example: to work with long division problems requires the prerequisite math skills in number recognition, number facts, simple addition and subtraction, multiplication, and simple division. ID examples: drills, tutorials, simulation Constructivism Learning is always a unique product “constructed” as each individual learner combines new information with existing knowledge and experiences. Individuals have learned when they have constructed new interpretations of the social, cultural, physical, and intellectual environments in which they live. (Dick & Carey, 2001) ID examples: problem-solving, project-based learning Instructional Design Models Morrison, Ross, & Kemp Model Understanding by Design (UbD) 1. Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences & instruction Generic ID Model: ADDIE Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation The Analysis Phase Problem Statement Needs Assessment Task & Learner Analysis Who is the audience? What do they need to learn? What is the budget? What are the delivery options? What constraints exist? When is the project due? What will the students do to determine competency (Powers, 1997)? The Design Phase Select the most appropriate Web-based environment by examining the kinds of cognitive skills required to achieve your goal (Driscoll, 1998, p. 50) Write the instructional objectives; select an overall approach and the program’s look and feel; outline units, lessons, and modules (Hall, 1997) Design course content specifically for use with an interactive, electronic medium (Porter, 1997) The Design Phase II What are your objectives? What skills, knowledge and attitudes are you trying to develop? What resources and strategies will you use in your instruction? How will you structure the content of your learning materials? How will you assess the learner’s understanding and whether or not they have met the objectives of the instruction? (http://et.sdsu.edu/wschutt/addie/addieindex.htm ) The Development Phase Obtain and/or create the required media. Use the Internet's strength to present information in many different multimedia formats so that the learners' preferences can be met (Porter, 1997, p. 196). Determine the appropriate interactions. They should be creative, innovative, and encourage learners to explore further (Porter, 1997, p. 200). Plan activities that allow for student group work to help construct a supportive social environment (Simonson et al, 2000, p. 115). The Implementation Phase Duplicate and distribute materials. Install and maintain the course. Discover errors through testing with target audience Be prepared in the event that technical problems occur and discuss alternative plans with the students ahead of time (Simonson et al, 2000, p. 115). The Evaluation Phase Test for instructional standards. Plan several points during the course when students can provide anonymous feedback so that the instructor is aware of student confusion and misunderstanding (Schrum, 1998). Conduct formative evaluations to improve the course and summative evaluations to judge the effect of the course (Bourne et al, 1997). Use the Worksheet to compare all four Instructional Design Models Needs Assessment Define problems Target population Task Content Job analysis SME role (Subject Matter Expert) Tasks A task is an action designed to contribute a specified end result to the accomplishment of an objective. It has an identifiable beginning and end that is measurable component of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job. A task statement has an action and a result (product) For example: Adjust gears on a 10 speed bike Print a Microsoft World document on Windows XP SME vs Trainers SME are responsible on how tasks, to include the order of performance steps, are to be performed, while trainers are responsible on how that material will be presented (demonstrate - practice - hands-on test). SME are responsible on technical-jargon, while trainers decide if that jargon needs to be explained (unless the jargon is offensive). SME are responsible what is acceptable performance, while trainers decide how that performance will be evaluated (written, hand-on, oral). SME are responsible for providing the performance objectives, while trainers are responsible for turning the objectives into a viable learning or performance objectives (task - observable action, conditions, standards - at least one measurable criterion). Two Minute Paper Summarize the most important points of today’s lecture What is the muddies point in today’s material?