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Nitrate Concentration (μmol/kg)
Antarctic
Nitrate concentration in the
surface waters along a NorthSouth transect at ~135°W*
20
Equatorial
Pacific
10
North
Pacific
0
60°S
40°S 20°S
0°
20°N
Latitude
40°N
60°N
*Source: J. Martin, R. Gordon, S. Fitzwater & W. Broenkow, “VERTEX: Phytoplankton/
Iron Studies in the Gulf of Alaska”, Deep-Sea Research, 36: 649-680 (1989)
Chlorophyll Concentration (μg/kg)
8
Nitrates
(a) with iron
(b) without
iron
6
4
Chlorophyll
(a) with iron
(b) without iron
2
0
0
Source:
1
2
3
4
Time (days)
J. Martin, R. Gordon, S. Fitzwater & W. Broenkow, “VERTEX: Phytoplankton/
Iron Studies in the Gulf of Alaska”, Deep-Sea Research, 36: 649-680 (1989)
Pump
Turbine
generator
Liquid
ammonia
Cold
deep water
Heat Exchanger
(ammonia condenser)
Electric power
Depth
Warm surface Heat Exchanger
water
(ammonia evaporator)
Ocean Energy Resource available (in
Source
barrels of oil equivalent)
Waves
Tides
Currents
Thermocline
Oil
1.5 million/year
1.6 million/year
15.0 million/year
900.0 million/year*
2,000 billion total reserves
*assuming that only 1% can be extracted
The places where OTEC promises the
best results
Temperature difference between surface
and depth of 1,000 m
Less than 18°C
22°C to 24°C
18°C to 20°C
More than 24°C
20°C to 22°C
Temperature difference between surface waters and the waters
at 1 km depth:
22-24°C
>24°C
40°N
20°N
0°
20°S
30°E
90°E
150°E
150°W
90°W
30°W
40°S
Total primary Number
Average
Total
production
of
Transfer
Annual Fish
Oceanic
Trophic Efficiency per production
Area (billion tons
2
region (million km ) carbon/year)
levels
tropic level
(million tons)
Open ocean 325
Coastal
36
Upwelling 0.36
16.3
3.6
0.12
5
3
1.5
~15%
~33%
~99%
2
120
120
Long-run inflation-adjusted world
prices of non-ferrous metals
(aluminum, copper, tin, zinc)
200
1977-79 Price Level = 100
100
1900
1925
1950
1975
2000
Euryhaline
Stenothermal
Narrow
Stenohaline
Stenothermal
Annual temperature
fluctuation Range
Wide
Range of annual salinity fluctuations
Narrow
Wide
Stenohaline
Euryhaline
Eurythermal
Eurythermal
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