Food and Digestion Lecture Elizabeth Kim Eugene Baeg Jihun Jeong Zenith Shrestha Bellwork Time! ● Work with your table on this! ● List at least 5 foods that you ate for breakfast today. ● Try to list as many organs that you think helped in the digestion of your breakfast. See how many you got correct! ● The person in the middle stand up and HONESTLY say how many you got! 5 Teaching Points ● ● ● ● Food provides us with energy. Helps grow and repair cells. Our body requires 6 essential nutrients `to function. There are many organs involved in digestion, which is when food is broken down into usable forms of energy (ATP). ● There are two types of digestive processes, mechanical and chemical reactions. Food and its purposes ● Food provides us with energy for everything ● Provides materials for growing and for repairing tissues ● Food contain nutrients, substances that provide energy and help carry out essential processes like respiration, etc. Carbohydrates ● ● ● ● Provides short term energy Made up of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen Make materials to make cell parts Pasta, rice, potato, etc. Fats ● ● ● ● Healthy Fats 2x energy than carbohydrates (long term energy) Unsaturated Fat Makes up cell membrane Protect/support internal organs Insulates our body Unhealthy Fats Saturated Fat Trans Fat Cholesterol Vitamins ● Can sometimes be made by our body ● Helps in chemical reactions, like blood clotting ● All vitamin helps your body based on its letter (Vitamin C is food for your skin) Minerals ● ● ● ● ● Do not provide energy Keep our body healthy (calcium provides strong bones, etc.) Not made by living things We get them by eating them Absorbed by plants through roots Proteins ● ● ● ● Meat, cheese, eggs, and dairy product Used for tissue growth and repair Chains of amino acid makes a big protein Skin diseases results from lack of protein Water ● ● ● ● Also known as H20 Allows organisms to function properly Soften downs food and makes it easier to digest Helps in blood circulation because its a good solvent Let’s have some Brain-pop! Digestion ● Food is converted into energy (ATP) first through digestion and then cellular respiration ● Mechanical Digestion: food is broken down physically ● Chemical Digestion: chemicals break down food Organs involved ● Mouth, salivary gland, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus The mouth and the esophagus ● Saliva is an enzyme that helps in both mechanical and chemical in mouth ● Food flows into the stomach through the esophagus ● Esophagus: tube containing mucus helps in flowing of food from the mouth to the stomach (peristalsis) The stomach ● Stomach stores food and more mechanical processes takes place ● Acids such as digestive juice/pepsin, hydrochloric acid, help in chemical reactions ● The liver produces bile, which helps in breaking fat particles Absorption ● Nutrients are absorbed from the food ● Villis in the small intestine, help in absorptions and circulation of nutrients Ending of Digestion ● Water is absorbed in the large intestine ● The waste goes out of your anus and gets released Pick a Corner! Instructions ● There are 4 corners, A, B, C, and D. ● Listen to the question carefully. ● If you think you heard the right answer, go to the corner with the letter that represents your answer. ● DO NOT FOLLOW ANYONE!!! Question 1 What nutrients cannot be made by us but is essential to carry out different processes? A) Vitamins B) Fats C) Minerals D) Proteins Question 2 What is a tube that connects the mouth to the stomach? A) Esophagus B) Villi C) Small intestine D) Rectum Question 3 Name a type of digestion A) Bile digestion B) Endoplasmic digestion C) Villi digestion D) Chemical digestion Question 4 What does the liver produce? A) Bile B) Saliva C) Fat D) None of the above Question 5 What does the small intestine do? A) Helps absorb water B) Place where most mechanical digestion takes place C) Place where most chemical digestion takes place D) Place where wastes are released Question 6 What does the large intestine do? A) Where the remaining material is released B) Where the food gets broken down C) A water storage D) Where the food is made into ATP Question 7 What is the most important nutrient? A) Vitamins B) Proteins C) Fats D) Water Question 8 What is the largest organ in the digestive system? (Remember from the Visual Aid? ;-) A) Liver B) Large Intestine C) Stomach D) Small Intestine Question 9 What are proteins needed for? A) Producing saliva B) Tissue growth and repair C) Creating enzymes D) Creating brain cells Question 10 What is bile? A) A chemical acid liquid B) One of the organs in the body C) The brain cell D) None of the above Question 11 How do we get minerals? A) eating plants B) mining rocks C) our body produces it D) absorbing carbon and oxygen Question 12 Name some of the carbohydrates? A) Bread B) Apple C) Tree D) The Sun Question 13 What process moves food in digestion? A) peristalsis B) digestion C) epiglottis D) liver Question 14 What does the esophagus do? A) Releases the useless stuff B) Grind your food C) All of the above D) Connects the mouth to the stomach Question 15 Where does mechanical and chemical digestion start? A) Stomach B) Mouth C) Small intestine D) Large intestine Question 16 What happens when food reaches the stomach? A. Nothing. No digestion occurs in the stomach. B. The food moves quickly into the small intestine. C. Juices mix with the food and stomach muscles squeeze it. D. The food is completely digested and is absorbed by tiny blood vessels in the walls of the stomach. Question 17 What does the digestive system do? A) Breaks down and handles food B) Pumps blood throughout the body C) Helps you breathe D) Helps your arms and legs move Question 18 What is removed from the undigested food when it is in the Large Intestine? a) water b) nutrients c) energy d) sugar Question 19 Tiny fingerlike projections in the small intestine? A.villi B.anus C.rectum Question 20 All of the following are organs of the digestive system except the A) appendix B) liver C) tongue D) esophagus Arranging Processes of Digestion Instructions ● ● ● ● The steps of digestion given below are WRONG. Re-arrange them in order that we eat food in. Raise your hand high once you are done! The first one to get the correct answer will get a lovely prize and will also have to perform a surprise act with it! Here we GO! ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Water is absorbed in the large intestine. The food flows into the stomach through the esophagus. Waste products are released from †he ånus. Both mechanical and chemical takes place in the mouth. Nutrients are absorbed in the small intestine. Food enters your mouth. Acids such as digestive juice/pepsin, hydrochloric acid, help in chemical reactions in the stomach.