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Prejob/Pretask Planning and
Accident Investigation and
Reconstruction
OSHE 382, Spring 2016
Dr. Lu Yuan, CSP
985-549-2189
Lu.Yuan@selu.edu
Summary: Substance-Abuse
Programs & Safety Incentives
• Substance abuse
– Different opinions about drug testing
– Components of drug-testing programs
– Drug testing should be part of a comprehensive drugprevention program
• Safety incentive
–
–
–
–
Definitions of Incentive & performance objective
Three types of safety incentives in construction
Concerns about safety incentives
Safety incentive should be part of an overall
comprehensive SH&E program
Overall Goal of Planning
• To create a culture that actively follows
safety standards and procedures, and
pursues safe practices
• To emphasize individual as well as team
responsibility for creating an injury-free
workplace
General Precautions
• A crisis management handbook:
Addresses emergency procedures
• An emergency card that every crew
member can carry: Emergency
communication
• Training in and practice of emergency
procedures: Obtain knowledge
Construction Planning (Macro)
• Safety through design
– Safety should be considered and built in at
the earliest stage of the design.
– Get rid of potentially risky situations as early
as possible rather than having to deal with
them later.
– It allows evaluation of the construction
methods to be used and can eliminate
hazards before they are created.
Key Elements of
Safety Through Design
•
•
•
•
Define a broader meaning of the term hazard
Establish a standard for safe design
Categorize the hazards into different groups
Use the safe design hierarchy to physically
control hazards
• Control the hazard by matching it to appropriate
design improvements or appliances
MacCollum, D.V. (2006) Inherently safer design: Five principles for
improving construction safety. Professional Safety. 51:5, 26-33.
Safe Design Hierarchy
1. Eliminate the hazard
2. Guard to prevent the hazard from causing
harm
3. Include safety factors to minimize the
hazard
4. Use redundancy for a group of parallel
safeguards
MacCollum, D.V. (2006) Inherently safer design: Five principles for
improving construction safety. Professional Safety. 51:5, 26-33.
MacCollum, D.V.
(2006) Inherently safer
design: Five principles
for improving
construction safety.
Professional Safety.
51:5, 26-33.
Construction Planning (Macro)
• The coordination of multidisciplinary teams
(Figure 9.1 on p. 141) should ensure that
in all cases, worker safety and health be
consistent with building quality, budget
and schedule goals, and design intent.
– Insurance coverage
– Substance abuse control
– Site security
– Construction process requirements
Responsibility of Safety Manager
• The safety manager does not supervise the
contractor employees, but
• He/she must assure that the contractor
supervision enforces safety rules among their
employees.
• The safety manager should be given absolute
authority to stop work that is deemed hazardous.
On the other hand,
• He/she should commend and promote
extraordinary safety performance.
Project Hiring and Managing
• Prebid qualifications: Emphasize safety
record (performance and results)
• Prebid conference: Discuss safety issues
specific to the project
• Postbid conference: Reemphasize safety
requirements with each prospective
project participant
Project Hiring and Managing
• Preconstruction meeting: The Contractor
assigns a safety representative to
interface with the owner.
• Construction phase: General and specific
safety requirements such as orientation,
job progress meeting, and toolbox talks,
etc.
• Project completion: Safety performance
recorded for future project consideration
Prejob/Pretask Planning (Micro)
• Job hazard analysis
– Examines a work process
– Identifies potential hazards
– Proposes preventive measures
• Task safety assignment plans (Figure 3 on
Pages 151 and 152 of the textbook)
– A subset of job hazard analysis, focusing a
specific type of work
– Everyone who will be performing such work
must know how to complete it safely
Accident Investigation
and Reconstruction
• Purposes:
– To inform the reader about the process of
inquiry that typically follows an accident that is
serious enough to warrant litigation or the
threat of litigation,
– To suggest the construction managers a list of
actions that can be taken to eliminate or
reduce the risk of liability resulting from
accidents, and more importantly,
– To determine corrective controls that can be
implemented to eliminate hazards based on
accident causation analysis.
Construction Accident Factors
•
•
•
•
•
Design
Schedule
Overtime work
Job-site safety culture
Owner influence
Accident Causation Theories
• Many different theories but unfortunately
there is no one single theory that is
universally accepted
– The domino theory
– Multiple causation model
– Human error theories
– Accident proneness theory
– Etc.
Construction Accident Root Causes
• Accident Root Cause Tracing Model
(ARCTM)
– Failing to identify an unsafe condition that
existed before an activity was started or that
developed after an activity was started
– Deciding to proceed with a work activity after
the worker identifies an existing unsafe
condition
– Deciding to act unsafely regardless of initial
conditions of the work environment
Abdelhamid, T.S. and Everett, J.G. (2000) Identifying root causes of construction
accidents. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 126:1, 52-60.
Causes of Unsafe Conditions
•
•
•
•
Management actions/inactions
Worker or coworker unsafe acts
Nonhuman related events
An unsafe condition that is a natural part
of the initial construction site
considerations
Abdelhamid, T.S. and Everett, J.G. (2000) Identifying root causes of construction
accidents. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 126:1, 52-60.
Abdelhamid, T.S. and Everett, J.G. (2000) Identifying root causes of construction
accidents. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 126:1, 52-60.
Accident Reconstruction
•
•
•
•
•
•
Collect information
Interview the witnesses
Preserve the evidence
Root-cause analysis
Insurance representative involvement
Attorney and experts inquiry
Actions to be Taken
• Build and reiterate safety as a core
corporate value
• Create and promote positive safety culture
in the workplace
• Hold officers and managers accountable
for safety performance
• State and reinforce consistent safe
behavior
• Improve supervision and training
effectiveness
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