Chapter 3 - Pearland ISD Download

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Chapter 3
Textbook
Membranes and the
Integumentary System
Chapter-Opening Question
Whether we have straight, wavy, or curly hair is determined
by our genes.
Lesson 3.1 Body Membranes
Before You Read
Do all membranes secrete some type of fluid?
Yes. Mucous membranes secrete mucus, serous
membranes secrete serous fluid, and synovial membranes
secrete synovial fluid.
What is the common name for the integumentary system?
the skin
Check Your Understanding, page 84
1. the lining of internal and external surfaces
mucous—mouth, nose, lungs, digestive tract, bladder
serous—enclosing the lungs, surrounding the heart,
lining the abdominal cavity
2. 15%
3. Mucous membranes line the body cavities that open
to the external world; serous membranes line body
cavities that are closed to the outside environment.
4. epithelial cells and an underlying layer of connective
tissue
Lesson 3.2 The Integumentary System
Before You Read
What causes differences in skin color, and what causes
tanning?
Melanin, a pigment located in the epidermis, ranges
in color from reddish yellow to brown and black and is
primarily responsible for human skin color. When the skin is
exposed to sunlight, melanocytes produce more melanin;
the result is tanning.
What causes people to have straight, wavy, or curly hair?
Hair texture is genetically determined by the shape of
the hair follicle. A round hair follicle produces straight hair,
an oval follicle causes hair to be wavy, and a flat-shaped
follicle produces curly hair.
Check Your Understanding, page 86
1. Because it includes a cutaneous membrane, sweat
and oil glands, and nails and hair.
2. The sweat glands secrete an acidic fluid (sweat),
which helps protect the body against bacterial
infections.
Check Your Understanding, page 89
1. the epidermis and the dermis
2. the hypodermis
3. The innermost layer, the stratum basale, absorbs
nutrients from the adjacent, underlying dermis.
4. Melanocytes produce the pigment melanin, which is
responsible for human skin color.
Caption Questions
Caption Questions
Figure 3.2: to provide cushioning, and to reduce friction and
wear
Figure 3.5: the stratum corneum
Know and Understand
1. epithelial membranes and connective tissue
membranes
2. mucous membranes and serous membranes
3. a keratinizing, stratified squamous epithelium over
dense, fibrous connective tissue
4. connective tissue
5. the pleura, the pericardium, and the peritoneum
6. the mouth, nose, lungs, digestive tract, and bladder
Analyze and Apply
7. This fluid serves as a lubricant between the parietal
and visceral membranes to minimize friction and
“wear and tear” on organs that move within the
linings.
8. Synovial fluid acts as a cushion to reduce friction and
wear on moving structures such as joints, and the
tendons and ligaments that connect to them. Without
synovial fluid, the joints would experience rapid wear,
compromising their function.
In the Lab
9. Answers will vary.
Figure 3.6: because the epidermis consists of dead skin cells
and the dermis is alive, continually generating new cells
Figure 3.7: The eccrine glands cover most of the body; the
apocrine glands are located in the genital and armpit areas.
The eccrine glands secrete sweat, and the apocrine glands
secrete a milky fluid consisting of sweat, fatty acids, and
proteins. The eccrine glands open directly onto the skin,
whereas the apocrine glands empty into hair follicles.
Figure 3.8: As living hair cells are generated, the dead cells
are pushed up toward the scalp, become filled with keratin,
and die. Most of a shaft of hair is nonliving material.
Know and Understand
1. Epidermal dendritic cells respond to the presence of
foreign bacteria or viruses by initiating an immune
system response; Merkel cells function as touch
receptors, working with sensory nerve endings to
relay information about touch to the brain.
2. Collagen fibers provide toughness and bind with
water molecules to keep the inner skin moist.
3. Elastic fibers keep the skin looking young, without
wrinkles or sagging. They are located in the dermis.
1
4. Keratin in the skin helps protect the skin from harmful
chemicals, and the naturally occurring oils in the skin
assist in serving as a water barrier.
5. sudoriferous glands
6. The two types of sweat glands are the eccrine and
apocrine glands. The eccrine glands cover most of
the body, and the apocrine glands are located in the
genital and armpit areas. The eccrine glands secrete
sweat, and the apocrine glands secrete a milky fluid
consisting of sweat, fatty acids, and proteins. The
eccrine glands open directly onto the skin, and the
apocrine glands empty into hair follicles.
7. the matrix, or growth zone
Analyze and Apply
8. The outer layer of skin, the stratum corneum, consists
of dead cells that are continuously shedding. The
innermost layer of skin, the stratum basale, absorbs
nutrients from the dermis. The cells in the stratum
basale constantly produce new cells that are pushed
toward the skin’s surface, away from the nutrients.
Thus, the cells absorb the nutrients, and then push
their way toward the stratum corneum, where they
are shed.
9. The eccrine glands help keep the body cool by
secreting sweat, which evaporates and aids in
dissipating (reducing) body heat.
10. Vitamin D; exposure to UVB rays from sunlight
causes the conversion of modified cholesterol
molecules in the skin (called provitamin D3) into
vitamin D.
In the Lab
11. Answers will vary.
Lesson 3.3 Injuries and Disorders of
the Skin
Before You Read
Why are the worst skin burns not painful?
because the nerve endings in the skin have been
destroyed
Which common viral infection never completely goes away?
herpes
Check Your Understanding, page 93
1. an area of localized pressure that restricts blood
supply to one or more areas of the body
2. bony prominences of the body, such as the lower
back, coccyx, hips, elbows, and ankles
3. Debridement is surgical and chemical removal
of dead tissue. Vacuum-assisted closure draws
moisture from the bedsore-damaged tissue,
shortening the healing process.
Check Your Understanding, page 95
1. damage to the epidermal layer of skin that involves
reddening of the skin and mild pain
2. the epidermis and upper portion of the underlying
dermis
3. because the nerve endings in the skin are destroyed
4. a viral infection that produces small, painful, blisterlike sores
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
5. herpes simplex virus type 1
Check Your Understanding, page 97
1.
2.
3.
4.
human papillomavirus (HPV)
the hands or fingers
genital warts caused by HPV infections
Yes; athlete’s foot can spread easily on locker room
and shower floors.
5. a highly contagious staphylococcus infection
Check Your Understanding, page 99
1. increased blood flow to the affected area
2. inflammation of the pleura, the membrane that lines
the thoracic cavity and lungs
3. psoriasis
Caption Questions
Figure 3.10: The rule of nines helps doctors estimate the
extent of burned tissue on a person’s body, thus helping
them determine the best method for treating those burns.
Figure 3.13: As HPV-infected cells multiply, they can
develop mutations that further promote cell growth, which
can lead to tumor development.
Figure 3.15: Through his stethoscope, the doctor will hear
the “friction rub” of the pleurae rubbing against each other.
Figure 3.17: They are surgically removed before they can
spread and become dangerous.
Figure 3.18: asymmetry, border irregularity, color, and
diameter
Taking It Further
1. Project results will vary. Students will need to do
Internet and/or library research before writing and
designing their brochures. Good places to start are
the websites of the Centers for Disease Control
(CDC), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and
the National Cancer Institute (NCI).
Know and Understand
1. Every 25 to 45 days, new epithelial cells reach the
surface of the skin.
2. Interventions that can help reduce a patient’s risk
for developing bedsores include turning the patient
at regular intervals and ensuring proper nutrient
intake. Bedridden patients need sufficient amounts
of dietary protein and vitamins that contribute to skin
health (vitamins A, B, C, and E) and the minerals
magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc.
3. First-degree burns affect only the epidermal layer
of skin, involve reddening of the skin and mild pain,
and heal in less than a week. Second-degree burns
involve damage to the epidermis and the upper
portion of the underlying dermis, are characterized by
fluid-filled blisters, are painful, and take longer to heal
than first-degree burns. Third-degree burns destroy
the entire thickness of the skin, appear as grayishwhite or blackened skin, and require treatment that
involves skin grafting.
4. ringworm and impetigo
5. surgery, cryotherapy, and topical medications
6. athlete’s foot (tinea pedis)—the most common;
characterized by cracked, flaky skin between the toes
or on the side of the foot
Chapter 3 Answer Key
2
jock itch (tinea cruris)—affects males around the
groin and scrotum
ringworm (tinea corporis)—common in children;
characterized by a red, ring-shaped rash with a
pale center
nail fungus (tinea unguium)—causes discoloration
and thickening of the infected nail
Analyze and Apply
7. Third-degree burns are not painful because the
nerve endings in the skin have been destroyed. They
cannot heal on their own because the stratum basale,
which generates new skin cells, has been destroyed.
8. Once a person has been infected with herpes
varicella (chickenpox), the virus lies dormant and can
recur in an adult as herpes zoster (shingles).
9. The patient, despite sleeping fewer hours each night
than most people she knows, has been sleeping in
the same position every night; the bedsores in the
coccyx area of her body attest to this. The patient
should change positions, or have someone help her
change positions, regularly during the night to relieve
the pressure from her back.
In the Lab
10. Report content will vary. Students may work in pairs
or small groups to prepare and present their findings
to the class.
11. a—13.5%
b—37.0%
c—18.0%
d—91%
Chapter Assessments
Lesson 3.1 Body Membranes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
D
epithelial membranes
mucous membranes
D
False
synovial membrane
serous membranes
True
False
False
True
A mucous membrane lines a cavity that opens to
the outside world; a serous membrane lines a cavity
that is closed to the outside world. The bladder, for
example, is a cavity that opens to the outside world
and is lined by a mucous membrane. The pleura is a
serous membrane that encloses the lungs.
13. The skin has its own category of membrane, the
cutaneous membrane, and it is composed of stratified
squamous epithelium.
Lesson 3.2 The Integumentary System
14. keratin
15. cutaneous sensory receptors
16. B
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
17.
18.
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21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
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29.
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31.
32.
D
dermis
False
True
True
E
C
H
J
B
G
A
F
I
D
When the body is overheated, capillaries in the skin
dilate, enabling body heat to dissipate. The sweat
glands in the skin become active, producing sweat
that evaporates and cools the skin. When the body is
cold, arrector pili muscles are stimulated to contract
and pull the hair on the skin upright. This stiffening of
skin hairs causes a layer of air to be trapped close to
the skin, insulating and helping to warm the body.
33. Melanocytes in the hair follicle produce the pigment
that gives hair its color. The shape of the hair follicle,
which gives hair its texture (straight, wavy, or curly),
is genetically determined. A round hair follicle
produces straight hair, an oval follicle causes hair to
be wavy, and a flat follicle produces curly hair.
34. “Keratinizing” means that skin contains keratin, a
tough protein that adds structural strength and protects
the skin against damage from harmful chemicals. This
connects to the skin’s function as the outer covering of
the body, giving it structure and guarding the internal
organs against damage from chemicals. A “stratified
squamous epithelium” is a layered, almost flat type of
tissue that aids in protecting the body by serving as a
physical and chemical barrier.
Lesson 3.3 Injuries and Disorders of the Skin
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
third-degree burns
B
False
Impetigo
Psoriasis
C
True
False
low-risk HPVs—can cause warts on the skin around
the genital area and anus, but are not known to cause
cancer; high-risk HPVs—cause nearly all cervical
cancers
44. malignant melanoma; it is typically dark colored and
irregular in shape
45. Decubitus ulcers are pressure ulcers that restrict
blood flow to one or more areas of the body. Without
the normal blood supply to deliver oxygen and
nutrients to the affected area(s), the skin cells die. The
prolonged pressure and lack of blood flow result in
dead skin that must be removed for healing to occur.
Chapter 3 Answer Key
3
Building Skills and Connecting
Concepts
Analyzing and Evaluating Data
46. 18.0%
47. 18.0%
48. 31.5%
Communicating about Anatomy and
Physiology
49. Project results will vary. Encourage students to work
in pairs or small groups, dividing the responsibilities
for research, outlining, writing, and oral presentation.
Students might choose to share their plans in a brief
(10-minute) PowerPoint ® presentation.
50. Responses will vary.
Lab Investigations
51. Experiment results will vary.
Workbook
Lesson 3.1: Learning the Key Terms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
H
F
B
I
C
D
K
G
E
J
A
Lesson 3.1: Study Questions
1. Body membranes surround and help protect the
body’s internal and external surfaces.
2. epithelial membranes and connective tissue
membranes
3. Epithelial membranes line, or cover the internal and
external surfaces of the body.
4. three—mucous membranes, serous membranes,
and cutaneous membranes
5. Mucous membranes line the body cavities that open
to the outside world, while serous membranes line
body cavities that are closed to the outside world.
6. Answers may vary. mouth, nose, lungs, digestive
tract, and bladder
7. pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum
8. Skin is a keratinizing, stratified squamous epithelium
over dense, fibrous connective tissue.
9. Serous fluid lubricates the space between the
parietal and visceral membranes to minimize friction
and “wear and tear” on organs that move within the
linings.
10. Synovial membranes secrete synovial fluid which
provides cushioning and reduces friction and wear on
moving structures.
11. Answers may vary. knee, shoulder
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
12. Bursae are small, connective tissue sacs that serve
as cushions for tendons and ligaments surrounding
the joints.
Lesson 3.2: Learning the Key Terms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
melanocytes
stratum lucidum
dermis
sebaceous glands
stratum basale
hypodermis
sudoriferous glands
keratin
stratum granulosum
integumentary system
reticular layer
stratum spinosum
sebum
melanin
epidermal dendritic cells
stratum corneum
keratinocytes
papillary layer
Merkel cells
epidermis
Lesson 3.2: Study Questions
1. Answers may vary. protection, water barrier,
temperature regulation, Vitamin D production, waste
elimination, and sensory perception
2. Capillaries in the skin dilate to dissipate heat and
constrict to conserve heat. Sweat evaporation also
provides a cooling effect.
3. five
4. stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum
granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale
5. cutaneous sensory receptors; part of the nervous
system
6. The lowest layer, the stratum basale, continuously
produces new skin cells. They come up to the outer
layer of epidermis, which is made of dead cells that
fill up with keratin and thus continually shed.
7. melanin
8. Exposure to sunlight causes melanocytes to produce
more melanin. The excess melanin granules push out
into neighboring skin cells, darkening their pigment.
9. an immune system response that fights off the
bacteria and viruses
10. the hypodermis stores fat, which pads and insulates
the interior of the body
11. their numbers decrease
12. four; sudoriferous (sweat) glands, sebaceous (oil)
glands, hair, and nails
13. Sweat itself does not have odor, but when left on the
skin, bacteria chemically change sweat to produce an
unpleasant odor.
14. Sebum helps to keep the skin and hair soft and also
contains chemicals that kill bacteria.
15. Melanocytes produce the color of hair produce less
pigment as a person ages, thus resulting in gray, or
white hair.
Chapter 3 Answer Key
4
16. round hair follicles produce straight hair; oval hair
follicles produce wavy hair; flat-shaped follicles
produce curly hair
17. Goose bumps are part of the involuntary contraction
of tiny muscles called arrector pili. The arrector
pili connect the hair follicle to the epidermis, and
when stimulated pull the hair upright, causing the
appearance of goose bumps on the skin. The erect
hairs trap an insulating layer of air close to the skin,
which helps warm the body.
18. because the capillaries found beneath the stratum
basale are red in color
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
Lesson 3.2: Parts of the Skin
Lesson 3.3: Study Questions
1.
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3.
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6.
7.
8.
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17.
18.
O
E
Q
H
B
J
K
D
N
R
I
A
G
L
P
F
M
C
Lesson 3.2: Layers of the Epidermis
1.
2.
3.
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6.
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9.
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F
K
R
O
N
Q
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G
M
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E
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L
H
P
B
J
Lesson 3.3: Learning the Key Terms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
D
A
P
Q
H
F
J
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
M
B
E
I
N
C
G
K
R
O
S
L
1. every 25 to 45 days
2. Bedsores result from localized pressure that hampers
blood flow to areas of the body that press against
the bed. Without the normal blood supply to provide
nutrients and oxygen, the skin cells die. A bedridden
patient must be turned frequently, or sustained
pressure over an area can result in a bedsore.
3. Answers may vary. Vitamins A, B, C, and E and the
minerals magnesium, manganese, selenium, and
zinc all aid healthy skin. Eating enough protein is also
important.
4. First-degree burns affect only the epidermal layer of
skin. Second-degree burns involve damage to both
the epidermis and the upper portion of the underlying
dermis. (First- and second-degree burns are called
partial-thickness burns.) Third-degree burns destroy
the entire thickness of the skin; they are also called
full-thickness burns.
5. The rule of nines is a rule used to estimate the
extent of burned tissue. The percentage of total body
surface area covered by burns is approximated as
follows: 9% for both the anterior (front) and posterior
(back) of the head and neck; 18% for the anterior
and 18% for the posterior of the torso; 9% for both
the anterior and posterior of each arm; 18% for both
the anterior and posterior of each leg; and 1% for the
genital region.
8. viral infections, fungal infections, and bacterial
infections
6. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), sometimes
associated with the common cold, generates cold
sores or fever blisters around the mouth. Herpes
simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the genital form of
herpes.
7. Both types of HPVs cause warts, but high-risk HPVs
cause nearly all cervical cancers, as well as vaginal,
vulvar, and penile cancers.
10. viral
11. because it does not enter the bloodstream
12. athlete’s foot, jock itch, ringworm, and toenail fungus;
they usually develop in moist areas of the body
13. increased blood flow
14. Pleurisy: Chest pain that sharpens with inhalation
or coughing. The pain may radiate to one or both
shoulders; also can cause an accumulation of fluid in
the thoracic cavity.
Chapter 3 Answer Key
5
Peritonitis: abdominal pain and tenderness that may
worsen with movement or touch. The abdomen
may also be swollen. Other symptoms may
include fever and chills, nausea and vomiting,
fatigue, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, and
decreased urine and stool output.
Psoriasis: This condition is characterized by areas of
thick, red skin with flaky, silver-white patches called
scales that itch, burn, crack, and sometimes bleed.
6. Benign cancers have tumors that do not metastasize,
or spread, to remote regions of the body. A
malignant, or cancerous, tumor tends to metastasize
to other body parts.
15. Basal: least malignant; cell overproduction is in the
stratum basale; slow growth
Squamous cell carcinoma: cell overproduction is in
the stratum spinosum; rapid growth
Malignant melanoma: attacks the melanocytes;
changes shape, color, size, and elevation more
than other types
16. asymmetry (shape of mole is irregular); border
irregularity (outside borders are not smooth); color
(more than one color is present); diameter (the mole
size is larger than about one-quarter of an inch in
diameter, or about the diameter of a pencil
Lesson 3.3: Contagious or
Non-Contagious?
Contagious
athlete’s foot
common warts (HPV)
genital warts
herpes simplex I
herpes simplex II
herpes varicella
impetigo
jock itch
ringworm
Non-Contagious
basal cell carcinoma
malignant melanoma
peritonitis
plantar warts
pleurisy
psoriasis
shingles
squamous cell carcinoma
Chapter 3: Researching Careers
Answers may vary.
Chapter 3 Lab Investigation:
Membranes and Skin
Membranes
1. cutaneous
2. mucous
3. serous
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
4. Students should point to the skin in both illustrations
as examples of cutaneous membranes, to the
mucous membranes in the illustration on the left, and
to the serous membranes in the illustration on the
right.
Skin Thickness Variability
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
in between
in between
same as posterior of neck
same as eyelid
in between
same as posterior of neck
in between
in between
in between
in between
in between
in between
Conclusions
Membranes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
serous
mucous
serous
serous
mucous
mucous
Skin Thickness Variability
1. The thick areas are the posterior of the neck, the
palms of the hands, and the soles of the feet.
2. The thin areas are the eyelids and the medial surface
of the upper arm.
3. Yes, the thickness will vary from one individual to the
next.
Chapter 3 Practice Test
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2.
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6.
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9.
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integumentary system
sebum
membranes
chicken pox
malignant
T
T
T
F
T
A
B
D
B
D
E
H
J
I
A
D
B
C
G
Chapter 3 Answer Key
6
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
F
E
J
A
C
G
H
I
D
B
F
ABCD is a procedure or checklist for detecting
melanoma. The letters ABCD stand for steps in the
detection process. A stands for asymetry (shape of
mole is irregular); B is for border irregularity (outside
borders are not smooth); C is for color: more than
one color is present; D is for diameter, of which the
mole size is larger than about one-quarter of an inch
in diameter
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
37. Answers may vary. Protection: Tough keratin protects
against mechanical injury and chemical damage.
Melanocytes produce melanin, which protects again
UV ray damage. Acidic sweat kills bacteria on the
skin.
Water barrier: Keratin and oils in the skin reduce
water loss through evaporation and form a barrier
against water infusion.
Temperature regulation: Capillaries in the skin dialate
to dissipate heat and constrict to conserve heat.
Sweat evaporation cools the body.
Vitamin D production: Sunlight converts modified
cholesterol molecules to vitamin D, which is
essential for bone health.
Waste elimination: Urea and uric acid are expelled in
sweat.
Sensory perception: Receptor cells transmit
information about touch, pressure, vibration, pain,
and temperature to the central nervous system.
Chapter 3 Answer Key
7