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Biology
Evolution
2012 – 2013
#1
I.
History of the theory of evolution
A. Lucretious (44BC) = animals had to change in order to survive
B. E. Darqin / Lamarck = organisms could consciously change and
pass those traits to offspring
1. giraffes decide to grow longer necks to reach leaves in trees
C. Charles Darwin ( late 1800’s) = changes in animals were random
and could not be controlled
1. variation exists in all populations
2. there is an overproduction of offspring
3. there is a struggle for existence (Malthus)
-
resources are limited
4. some individuals are better suited to survive than others
-
natural selection = nature selects who has the better traits
D. Hardy / Weinberg (middle 1900’s) = frequency of alleles does not
change unless acted upon by
natural selection
1. natural selection acts on phenotypes (not genotypes)
- alleles of heterozygotes will persist in a population