Download wk 8 ATTRIBUTION THEORY notes 3

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
WK 8
ATTRIBUTION THEORY
Attribution looks at the common responses given by coaches and players to account for their
successes and failures in sport. There is a strong link between attribution and achievement
motivation.
Athletes will attribute their success to a number of different factors that can be external or internal.
Some athletes will blamed others for their loses whilst others will blame themselves, this is known
as learned helplessness.
Learned Helplessness is a feeling that failure is bound to happen and is uncontrollable (associated
with a loss of confidence and withdrawal of commitment).
A performer with learned helplessness may give up as they are afraid if continued failure. The
opposite of learned helplessness is ‘mastery orientation’/ self serving bias.
An athlete with confidence a history of success may feel in control; they assume that success will be
repeated and that failure can be improved upon. Whereas a performer with mastery orientation will
continue to try. One way to control learned helplessness is to promote a change in the attribution
process. This is known as attributional retraining.
WEINER’S ATTRIBUTION MODEL
LOCUS OF
CAUSALITY
STABLE
INTERNAL
EXTERNAL
ABILITY
TASK
DIFFICULTY
EFFORT
LUCK
STABILITY
UNSTABLE
Weiner places different factors on one of two elements, stability and locus of causality. The locus of
causality indicates whether factors are internal or external. In this instance effort and ability are seen
as internal (they are controlled by the performer) and task difficulty and luck are seen as external
(these are affected by factors that are out of the control of the performer ).
Stability indicates whether a factor is changeable or predictable.
Use the space below to explain why each of the factors shown in the model have been
categoriesed as such.
ABILITY
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
LUCK
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
TASK DIFFICULTY
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
EFFORT
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
A coach could use attribution retraining prevent learned helplessness and change personality
characteristics of NAF (Need to Avoid Failure) to NACH (Need to Achieve). The coach could look
to attribute defeat to external attributions (such as the competition or the decisions of the
referee) in order to maintain self-esteem, sustain motivation and restore pride and confidence.
Such factors take away the responsibility of the loss from the players.
In contrast a coach could attribute internal factors for success which could then endorse
confidence in successful performers.
NAF Personalities
People who are low achievers tend to attribute a lack of success to internal factors. This would
take away confidence and reduce expectation of future success. Learned helplessness would
develop and avoidance behaviour would result. The same people tend to attribute success to
external factors. Confidence and expectation of attainment in the future would be reduced.
NACH Personalities
High achievers would attribute their success to internal factors and therefore seek more difficult
challenges. Failures are put down to external variables. The high achiever is more persistent in
the face of failure and will maintain high levels of motivation, is less likely to give up and more
likely to master skills ( mastery orientation -the strong motive to succeed found in the high
achiever).
Self-serving bias (Attribution Bias)
Self-serving bias is the tendency of performers to attribute success to themselves (giving internal
reasons). Similarly, reasons for failure might be attributed to external and changeable reasons,
for example: ‘It was the referee’s fault we lost’. This is likely to be due to a tendency to protect
self-esteem.
Attribution Retraining
A coach would ideally have an athlete who is a NACH performer, who would attribute success to
internal factors and attribute failure to external factors (have self serving bias). This would
ensure persistence.




low achievers need to learn to attribute success and failure to the same reasons as high
achievers
success to stable factors
failure to unstable factors
this would raise the self-efficacy of the performer for his / her sport
Similar
Attribution Theory
Attribution Theory
Self – serving bias
Self – serving bias
Ch2 Lecture outline File
Ch2 Lecture outline File