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190 Chapter 9 from the inside, or from the outside in. Authenticity, Honesty and the âStrongâ Individual Having examined the multilayered awareness that constituted being âin the momentâ, the âsubconsciousâ decision-making that generated improvisation, and the importance of the âFieldâ, the final characteristics central to many musiciansâ appreciation of ârealâ improvisation were those of âhonestyâ, âstrengthâ and authenticity - direct references to the expressive function of contemporary Improvised Music. For many musicians interested in ârealâ improvising, the values asserted by Knauer and Heffley still held true, with the maximum possible âhonestyâ and emotional ânownessâ being sought, and such honesty and presence appeared to be of equal importance in (Post-)Reductionist, Free Jazz-related and electronic musics.17 Accordingly, I argue that personal expression formed an essential part of most Improvised Music-making - if not explicitly manifested in âscreamingâ,18 at the very least, being expressed on the level of musiciansâ choice of materials (and their relation to them) as well as in the form of underlying social/political structures.19 One listener described this relationship, in the best case, as âstrongâ, âpotentâ and âable to live on its ownâ, and Biliana Voutchkova summarised that, ideally: The person that is behind the music has this authentic relationship to his [sic] inside voice. [There are] no artificially added elements - acting in some way, trying to be good, or showing something. [...] The language and the outcome can be very different, but if I sense this behind it, then itâs done for me, thatâs the good. The same was true for those with several voices, large or disparate repertoires of (seemingly-unrelated) musical materials, and those who switched between improvisational sub-styles, and, in this sense, Steve Heatherâs genuine love of stadium rock meant that 17 See pp. 34 and 36 for Heffley and Knauerâs assertions. Whilst extravagant shows of emotion (or âscreamingâ) still remained in some Free Jazz-related areas, on the whole, todayâs music was far less angry and outwardly passionate. Honsingerâs quote about exploding (p. 179) also applied to this emotional aspect. 18 The term âscreamingâ is used in the sense of the explicitly emotional high-energy playing of first generation Free Jazz musicians (see p. 29). 19 See p. 238 for more on social/political stances. Very few exceptions to this proposition existed, Tristan Honsinger instead describing his music as a vehicle for acting, whereby, âItâs like poor theatre... a parade in the village in which everyone takes part. And they have to do it. Whether theyâre embarrassed or not, because they have to belong to the village. [...] You donât know how to dance, or you have no theatre background, but... someone says to you, âYou! Become a policeman.â [...] But in the fact that everybodyâs on the same level (maybe another person is a duck)... no-one knows what to do. [...] Itâs a kind of beginning of total amateurism.â Additionally, Hannes Lingens and JD Zazie were opposed to the development of a ârecognisableâ voice out of a fear of having to repeat themselves too much in front of audiences who âexpectedâ certain things from them (cf. David Diazâs expectations, p. 187), however, I would also argue that, in a way, this decision also represented something of an expression of identity in itself.