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174 Chapter 8 turntables, bowing a Chinese violin across the arm of the record player. And, finally, Joke Lanz cut more rapidly between different sound sources - juxtaposing rather than layering, and working with âscratchingâ, using recordings of baby sounds and speech as his materials. The final set was a collaboration between all three musicians, and, during this performance, each used samples of speech, rhythmically and timbrally distorted beats (from rock bands to speeded-up African music), and each had a selection of LPs marked with pieces of electrical tape - giving them direct access to âknownâ, usable sections, and interesting samples. When working with sample-based materials, yet more distinctions existed - for Zazie it was important that the sounds remained recognisable to her listeners:40 If it sounds like feedback then itâs because itâs a recorded feedback... But no, I donât produce feedback and I donât use any filters when I play, apart from equalisation and whatâs in the mixer... For me itâs important not to use effects because I use so many sound sources. If you hear just one or two minutes of a piece, of field recordings... itâs already so rich itself... why should I add more? Of course, thatâs my opinion. I think that some people would disagree with me - if you use filters, you can create patterns more easily and background atmospheres as well... But, if you decide to use them, you should really be careful that they donât become too dominant in your piece (of course this makes sense just if itâs not your intention to focus on effects in your composition). Iâm not against them, but Iâm not interested in that. And the more I work with field recordings I realise that itâs really important that some sound stays recognisable to the audience, that a relation to their identity is still kept - identity relating to sounds, sound sources and everyday life.41 However, others adopted a different approach, using studio production techniques, effects and sound processing to alter their materials prior to performance. Valerio Tricoli, talking about an old project where he used CD players, instead of the Revox tape machine with which he currently performed, described how: My set back then was... CD players with a lot of sounds I was composing. I had a computer at that point, so I was making sounds to use live... I really never performed live with the computer, but I was... sound-designing stuff, and I had two or three CD players, and I was mixing. It was mostly field recordings, heavily processed. 40 41 See p. 230 for a more complete discussion of conceptions of sound in Improvised Music-making. A recording of a doorbell was one of Zazieâs trademarks.