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172 Chapter 8 And whilst each musician had an individual repertoire of techniques and sounds, a certain number of shared materials were nonetheless evident - these commonalities most visible in the work of drummers and percussionists using zithers (bowed, hit, prepared, plucked), chime bars (often bowed to produce high, pure, sine-like tones), Tibetan âsingingâ bowls (also bowed) and marbles (rolled across the surfaces of drums, sometimes rotating the drums themselves). As well as being hit, drumheads would be massaged or scraped with a variety of materials including polystyrene, sponges and steel wool, and placing cymbals on top of a drum (and using the drum as an resonator) was common to many musicians, as was the use of chopsticks, rubber beaters, twigs and straw (as beaters). Some used megaphones or âcontactâ microphones to amplify drumheads and cymbals, and most came armed with a barrage of small percussion items - ranging from tambourines, woodblocks and bells, to squeaky toys and even a (creaking) door hinge from a local hardware store.35 Electronic Musicians As shown on page 160, electronic music had a considerable influence on the development of instrumentalistsâ sound- and noise-based materials and, before looking at musiciansâ use of recording in practise sessions, this section looks at how electronic musicians developed, practised and selected their materials - this functioning somewhat differently to their instrumental colleagues. Just like instrumentalists, electronic musicians chose their materials based on taste, and identified the need for new materials whilst performing. However, the materials in this case (with the exception of âno-inputâ/feedback mixing desk-performances, and when source-sounds were taken from live instrumental performance) were drawn from a variety of pre-recorded sources, both self-made, and commercially available.36 JD Zazie told me: I use a lot pre-recorded material like field recordings... [and] I work with layered memory. I play something myself, then I record it, then I play it myself again, and I record it. This process could go on with no end. I stop when I feel happy with the rough open structure (kind-of dirty, with no beginning, no end)...[and itâs] ready to be written on a CD, in order to be manipulated in real-time during the live set. 35 There were also three main setups of percussion instruments - a more-or-less conventional drum kit (often plus a bag of self-chosen âtoysâ), a set-up inspired by Neue Musik (concert bass drum turned on its side, and prepared with everything from marbles to cymbals, hit and scraped across the surface) and table-top setups consisting of âtoysâ and âobjectsâ alone. 36 Sadly, an investigation into âno-inputâ/feedback mixing desk-performances was beyond the scope of this study. See p. 162 for more on JD Zazieâs setup. It is also important to note that âLive-Samplingâ was relatively rare, with most electronic musicians acting independently of their instrumental co-performers and not processing their sounds. Performances of instrumentalists who processed their sounds electronically took place mainly in electronic/noise/drone venues such as Loophole and Madame Claude.