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112 Chapter 6 were mentions of musicians on the boundaries of jazz and Free Jazz (Charles Mingus, Eric Dolphy, Jimmy Guiffre, John Coltrane, Cecil Taylor). After these musicians, jazz-related influences were generally only from the Free Jazz and Improvised Music world, and the vagueness of the term was a source of frustration for several musicians, 28-year-old drummer Christian Lillinger describing how: That âjazzâ is from Peter BroÌtzmann to Till BroÌnner, thatâs not possible... thereâs no definition any more.5 2. Free Improvisation, Free Improvised music, Abstract Improvised Music, European Improvised Music These terms referred to Improvised Music intended to be âfreeâ of associations with other musical genres (and jazz in particular) but, nonetheless, which drew on the materials and aesthetics of Neue Musik - including microtonal and atonal melodic language, extended techniques, sound- and noise-based materials, and beginning at the point where Improvised Music moved away from the shadow of American jazz and Free Jazz. Typified by first generation European improvisers such as AMM, MIC and Derek Bailey, backgrounds were mainly in jazz and classical music, and such music was performed using acoustic instruments and, occasionally, electronics. The results could be quiet and textural, as well as loud and contrapuntal, and traditional instrumental roles were forgotten - with all musicians free to contribute, equally, in whatever way they saw fit. String instruments were included, and percussionists made use of found and invented âobjectsâ and âclassicalâ percussion set-ups rather than conventional âtrapâ kits. Tristan Honsinger, a classically-trained cellist who had worked extensively with Bailey (the most famous protagonist of ânon-idiomaticâ improvisation),6 was one of Berlinâs best examples of an âabstractâ European improviser, and, as he put it: [Thereâs a] quality of unpreparedness about it... And itâs like starting there [gesticulates, brings down arm] and youâre in it. And it doesnât have to do with territorial things... like when a dog comes into the territory of another dog [and] thereâs this âwahwahwahwahâ [barking], which is something a little bit like Free Jazz was. [...] [European Improvised Music] was more about freedom [...] and extending different techniques somehow - when you listen to Bailey, the English school 5 The often complex relationships between improvising musicians and jazz will be explored in more depth in Chapter 7. 6 Baileyâs notion of ânon-idiomaticâ improvisation is especially problematic, supposedly representing a music entirely free of associations to other genres, despite the guitaristâs own jazz career and study of European classical music [Dalton, 1978, Bailey, 1993].