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Presentation Plus! Glencoe World History
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio 45202
Send all inquiries to:
GLENCOE DIVISION
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, Ohio 43240
Chapter Introduction
Section 1 Development of the Cold
War
Section 2 The Soviet Union and
Eastern Europe
Section 3 Western Europe and North
America
Chapter Summary
Chapter Assessment
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
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listen to the audio again.
Key Events
As you read this chapter, look for the key
events of the Cold War. 
• At the end of World War II, the United
States and the Soviet Union competed
for political domination of the world. 
• The United States fought in Korea and
Vietnam to prevent the spread of
communism. 
• The Soviet Union used armies to maintain
Soviet regimes in Eastern Europe.
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Key Events
As you read this chapter, look for the key
events of the Cold War.
• The creation of NATO and the European
Economic Community helped Western
Europe move toward political and
economic unity during the Cold War.
The Impact Today
The events that occurred during this time
period still impact our lives today. 
• NATO continues to flourish.
Representatives of its 19 member nations
form the North Atlantic Council, which is
headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. 
• Nuclear weapons remain a threat to the
peace and stability of the world. 
• The civil rights struggle brought greater
equality to African Americans and altered
American attitudes toward race,
discrimination, and poverty.
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Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be
able to: 
• describe the development of the Cold
War, the Cuban missile crisis, and the
Vietnam War. 
• identify Stalin and Khrushchev and
describe the spread of Soviet power. 
• explain developments in postwar
Western societies.
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Development of the Cold War
Main Ideas
• A period of conflict called the Cold War developed
between the United States and the Soviet Union
after 1945. 
• As the Cold War developed, European nations
were forced to support one of the two major
powers. 
Key Terms
• satellite state 
• arms race 
• policy of containment 
• domino theory
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Development of the Cold War
People to Identify
• Dean Acheson 
• Nikita Khrushchev 
Places to Locate
• Berlin 
• Federal Republic
of Germany 
• German Democratic
Republic
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Development of the Cold War
Preview Questions
• What were the major turning points in the
development of the Cold War? 
• What was the Cuban missile crisis?
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Development of the Cold War
Preview of Events
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A newspaper columnist, Walter Lippmann
argued that the policy of containment
could not work because he did not think
the U.S. could contain the Soviet Union
everywhere. He published his columns
about containment in a book he titled,
The Cold War. Lippmann came up with
the term Cold War to describe a kind of
war that did not include bloodshed.
Confrontation of the
Superpowers
• The division between Western Europe and
Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe
was the beginning of the Cold War. 
• The Soviet Union feared the capitalist
West. 
• The United States feared communism.
(pages 849–851)
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Confrontation of the
Superpowers (cont.)
• After World War II, the United States
and Great Britain wanted the Eastern
European nations to determine their
own governments. 
• Stalin feared that the Eastern European
nations would be anti-Soviet if they were
allowed free elections.
(pages 849–851)
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Confrontation of the
Superpowers (cont.)
• In early 1947, President Harry S Truman
issued the Truman Doctrine, which
stated that the United States would give
money to countries threatened by
Communist expansion. 
• As stated by Dean Acheson, the U.S.
secretary of state, the United States was
concerned that communism would spread
throughout the free world if left
unchecked.
(pages 849–851)
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Confrontation of the
Superpowers (cont.)
• In June 1947, the European Recovery
Program, better known as the Marshall
Plan, began. 
• This program was set up to rebuild wartorn Europe. 
• The Soviet Union and its economically
and politically dependent Eastern
European satellite states refused to
participate in the Marshall Plan.
(pages 849–851)
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Confrontation of the
Superpowers (cont.)
• In 1949, the Soviet Union set up
the Council for Mutual Economic
Assistance (COMECON) as a response
to the Marshall Plan. 
• COMECON was established to help the
economies of Eastern European states.
(pages 849–851)
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Confrontation of the
Superpowers (cont.)
• In 1947, the United States adopted
the policy of containment to keep
communism within its existing
boundaries and prevent further
Soviet aggressive moves.
(pages 849–851)
Confrontation of the
Superpowers (cont.)
• By 1948, Great Britain, the United States,
and France worked to unify the three
western sections of Germany and Berlin
and create a West German government. 
• The Soviets opposed the creation of a
West German state, so they tried to
prevent it by setting up a blockade of
West Berlin. 
• The United States and Great Britain set
up the Berlin Air Lift to fly in supplies to
West Berlin.
(pages 849–851)
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Confrontation of the
Superpowers (cont.)
• The Soviets ended the blockade of West
Berlin in May 1949.
(pages 849–851)
Confrontation of the
Superpowers (cont.)
• The Federal Republic of Germany, or
West Germany, was formally created in
September 1949. 
• A month later, the German Democratic
Republic was set up by the Soviets. 
• Berlin was divided into two parts.
(pages 849–851)
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Confrontation of the
Superpowers (cont.)
What were several causes of the Cold War?
The Soviet Union feared the capitalist West. The
United States feared communism. After World War II,
the United States and Great Britain wanted the
Eastern European nations to determine their own
governments. Stalin feared that the Eastern European
nations would be anti-Soviet if they were allowed free
elections. In early 1947, President Harry S Truman
issued the Truman Doctrine, which stated that the
United States would give money to countries
threatened by Communist expansion. In June 1947,
the Marshall Plan was set up to rebuild war-torn
Europe. The Soviets saw the Marshall Plan as an
attempt to buy the support of countries.
(pages 849–851)
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The Spread of the Cold War
• Chinese Communists took control of the
government of China in 1949. 
• As a result of the fall of China to
communism and the Soviet Union’s
explosion of its first atomic bomb in
1949, the Soviet Union and the United
States began an arms race, in which
both countries built up their armies
and weapons.
(pages 851–853)
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The Spread of the Cold War (cont.)
• In April 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO) was formed. 
• This military alliance, which included
Great Britain, France, other Western
European nations, and the United States
and Canada, agreed to provide mutual
help if any one of them was attacked. 
• In 1955, the Soviet Union and Albania,
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
Hungary, Poland, and Romania formed
the military alliance called the Warsaw
Pact.
(pages 851–853)
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The Spread of the Cold War (cont.)
• The Korean War began in 1950 when the
Communist government of North Korea,
allied with the Soviet Union, tried to take
over South Korea. 
• As a result, the United States extended its
military alliances around the world. 
• By the mid-1950s, the United States was
in military alliances with 42 nations.
(pages 851–853)
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The Spread of the Cold War (cont.)
• The United States, Great Britain, France,
Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines,
Australia, and New Zealand formed the
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
(SEATO) to stop the Soviet expansion
in the East. 
• Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Great Britain,
and the United States formed the Central
Treaty Organization (CENTO) to stop
Soviet expansion to the south.
(pages 851–853)
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The Spread of the Cold War (cont.)
• In 1957, the Soviets sent Sputnik I, the
first man-made space satellite, to orbit
the earth. 
• Americans feared there was a missile gap
between the Soviet Union and the United
States.
(pages 851–853)
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The Spread of the Cold War (cont.)
• In August 1961, on the order of Soviet
leader Nikita Khrushchev, the East
German government began to build a
wall between West Berlin and East Berlin
in order to stop the flow of East Germans
escaping into West Berlin.
(pages 851–853)
The Spread of the Cold War (cont.)
What military alliances formed as a result of the Cold
War?
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was
formed. This military alliance, which included Great
Britain, France, other Western European nations,
the United States, and Canada, agreed to provide mutual
help if any one of them was attacked. The Soviet Union,
Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany,
Hungary, Poland, and Romania formed the military
alliance called the Warsaw Pact. By the mid-1950s, the
United States was in military alliances with 42 nations.
The United States, Great Britain, France, Pakistan,
Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand
formed the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
to stop Soviet expansion in the East.
(pages 851–853)
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The Cuban Missile Crisis
• In 1959, President Kennedy approved a
secret plan for Cuban exiles to invade
Cuba at the Bay of Pigs and revolt against
the Soviet-supported Cuban dictator, Fidel
Castro. 
• The invasion failed.
(page 853)
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The Cuban Missile Crisis (cont.)
• The Soviet Union sent arms and military
advisers to Cuba. 
• In 1962 Khrushchev began to place
nuclear missiles in Cuba to counteract
U.S. nuclear weapons placed in Turkey,
close to the Soviet Union. 
• In October 1962, President Kennedy
found out that Soviet ships carrying
nuclear missiles were headed to Cuba.

• So he ordered a blockade of Cuba to
stop the ships from reaching Cuba.
(page 853)
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The Cuban Missile Crisis (cont.)
• Khrushchev agreed to send the ships
back and remove nuclear missiles in
Cuba if Kennedy agreed not to invade
Cuba. 
• Kennedy agreed. 
• The Cuban missile crisis brought
the world close to nuclear war.
(page 853)
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The Cuban Missile Crisis (cont.)
What caused the Cuban missile crisis, and how
was it resolved?
President Kennedy had approved the Bay
of Pigs invasion of Cuba. The invasion was a
disaster, but afterward Soviet leader Khrushchev
sent arms and military advisers to Cuba. In 1962,
Khrushchev sent nuclear missiles to Cuba to
counteract U.S. nuclear missiles in Turkey. The
United States did not want nuclear weapons so
close to the mainland, so Kennedy ordered a
blockade of Cuba. Khrushchev agreed to turn
back the ships carrying missiles if Kennedy
promised not to invade Cuba. Kennedy agreed.
(page 853)
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Vietnam and the Domino Theory
• The Vietnam War had an important impact
on the Cold War. 
• Its purpose was to keep the Communist
government of North Vietnam from
gaining control of South Vietnam. 
• U.S. policy makers applied the domino
theory to the Vietnam War. 
• According to this theory, if South Vietnam
fell to communism, then other countries
in Asia would fall like dominoes to
communism.
(pages 853–854)
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Vietnam and the Domino Theory (cont.)
• An antiwar movement escalated in the
United States as a result of the growing
number of American troops sent to
Vietnam and the mounting destruction of
the war, which was brought into American
homes by television.
(pages 853–854)
Vietnam and the Domino Theory (cont.)
• President Johnson decided not to run
for reelection because of public opinion
against his handling of the war. 
• Former Republican vice president Richard
M. Nixon won the election with the
promise to end the war and reunite the
American people. 
• In 1973, Nixon reached an agreement
with North Vietnam allowing the United
States to withdraw its troops. 
• Within two years, Vietnam was forcibly
reunited by Communist armies from the
(pages 853–854)
North.
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Vietnam and the Domino Theory (cont.)
How did the Vietnam War disprove the
domino theory?
Even though the United States was unable
to stop communism in Vietnam, a split
between Communist China and the Soviet
Union put an end to the idea that there
was a single form of communism directed
by Moscow. Under President Nixon, U.S.
relations with China were resumed. Other
nations in Southeast Asia were able to
avoid Communist governments.
(pages 853–854)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match each definition in the left column with the
appropriate term in the right column.
__
A 1. a country that is economically
and politically dependent
on another country
A. satellite state
__
C 2. building up armies and stores
of weapons to keep up with
an enemy
C. arms race
B. policy of
containment
D. domino theory
__
D 3. idea that, if one country falls to communism,
neighboring countries will also fall
__
B 4. a plan to keep something, such as communism,
within its existing geographical boundaries and
prevent further aggressive moves
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Checking for Understanding
Explain why the Berlin Wall was built.
What did the wall symbolize?
The Berlin Wall was built to stop the
flow of refugees. The wall symbolized
a division between superpowers.
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Checking for Understanding
List the four powers that divided and
occupied Germany.
The four powers that divided and
occupied Germany were the United
States, Britain, France, and the Soviet
Union.
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Critical Thinking
Evaluate In your opinion, why did
the United States assume global
responsibility for containing
communism?
Analyzing Visuals
Examine the photo of a campus sit-in
shown on page 854 of your textbook.
Students often used sit-ins to protest
government policy in the 1960s and
1970s. What methods of protest do
people use today?
People use marches, advertising,
and speaking before political
bodies as methods of protest today.
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Close
List the American presidents who held
office during the Cold War. What major
Cold War events took place during
each administration?
The Soviet Union and Eastern
Europe
Main Ideas
• As Soviet leader, Khrushchev initiated
policies of de-Stalinization. 
• The Soviet Union faced revolts and protests
in its attempt to gain and maintain control
over Eastern Europe. 
Key Terms
• heavy industry 
• de-Stalinization
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The Soviet Union and Eastern
Europe
People to Identify
• Alexander Solzhenitsyn 
• Tito 
• Alexander
Dubček 
• Imre Nagy 
Places to Locate
• Soviet Union 
• Poland 
• Albania 
• Hungary 
• Yugoslavia 
• Czechoslovakia
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The Soviet Union and Eastern
Europe
Preview Questions
• What were Khrushchev’s policies of deStalinization? 
• How did the Soviet Union exert its power
over Eastern Europe?
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The Soviet Union and Eastern
Europe
Preview of Events
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listen to the audio again.
During Nikita Khrushchev’s de-Stalinization
program, the government destroyed
pictures and statues of Stalin. Many places
named after Stalin, such as Stalingrad and
Stalin Peak, were renamed during this
program to dishonor Stalin.
The Reign of Stalin
• The economy of the Soviet Union was
devastated by World War II. 
• To create a new industrial base, goods
were produced almost exclusively for
export. 
• The money from export goods was used
to buy machinery and Western
technology.
(pages 855–856)
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The Reign of Stalin (cont.)
• By 1950, the Soviet Union had built new
power plants, canals, and giant factories. 
• Heavy industry, the manufacture of
machines and equipment for factories
and mines, increased. 
• The testing of the hydrogen bomb in 1953
and the launch of the first space satellite,
Sputnik I, in 1957 made the Soviet Union
a world power.
(pages 855–856)
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The Reign of Stalin (cont.)
• In 1946, the Soviet government said
that all literary and scientific work must
conform to the political needs of the
state. 
• Stalin died in 1953.
(pages 855–856)
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The Reign of Stalin (cont.)
What were the effects of the Soviet
government’s economic methods
enacted after World War II?
By 1950, Russian industrial production
surpassed prewar levels by 40 percent.
The Soviet people, however, had a
shortage of consumer goods and a
severe shortage of housing.
(pages 855–856)
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The Khrushchev Era
• After Stalin’s death, Nikita Khrushchev
became the chief policy maker in the
Soviet Union. 
• Under his leadership, de-Stalinization,
or the process of eliminating some of
Stalin’s ruthless policies, was put in
place. 
• Khrushchev loosened government
controls on literature. 
• For example, he allowed the publication
of a work by Alexander Solzhenitsyn
that depicted life in a Siberian forcedlabor camp.
(pages 856–857)
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The Khrushchev Era (cont.)
• He tried to increase the production of
consumer goods and agricultural output. 
• Khrushchev’s attempts to increase
agricultural output failed, and the
industrial growth rate also declined. 
• In 1964, he was forced into retirement.
(pages 856–857)
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The Khrushchev Era (cont.)
Why did Soviet leaders force Khrushchev
into retirement?
Khrushchev failed to increase agricultural
output. The industrial growth rate
dramatically declined. Also, his foreign
policy in Cuba failed.
(pages 856–857)
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Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron
Curtain
• After World War II, Soviet-controlled
Communist governments took control
of Eastern European countries. 
• However, in Albania, the Communist
government grew increasingly
independent of the Soviet Union. 
• After World War II, Yugoslavia, led by
Josip Broz, or Tito, was an independent
Communist state until Tito’s death in
1980.
(pages 857–858)
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Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron
Curtain (cont.)
• Between 1948 and 1953, Eastern
European satellite states instituted Soviettype five-year plans with emphasis on
heavy industry. 
• They began to collectivize agriculture. 
• They set up secret police and military
forces.
(pages 857–858)
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Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron
Curtain (cont.)
• After Stalin’s death many Eastern
European states tried to make reforms. 
• The Soviet Union, however, made it
clear–especially in Poland, Hungary,
and Czechoslovakia–that it would not
allow its Eastern European satellites to
become independent.
(pages 857–858)
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Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron
Curtain (cont.)
• In 1956 revolts against communism
erupted in Poland, and a series of reforms
were adopted. 
• Fearful of a Soviet armed response,
however, the Poles pledged to remain
loyal to the Warsaw Pact.
(pages 857–858)
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Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron
Curtain (cont.)
• In 1956, after calls for revolt from Soviet
control, Hungarian leader Imre Nagy
declared Hungary a free nation. 
• Three days later, Soviet troops attacked
Budapest and reestablished control of the
country.
(pages 857–858)
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Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron
Curtain (cont.)
• In January 1968, Alexander Dubček was
elected first secretary of the Communist
party in Czechoslovakia. 
• He introduced reforms to the country,
including freedom of speech and press. 
• By August 1968, the Soviet Army invaded
Czechoslovakia, crushed the reform
movement, and reestablished Soviet
control.
(pages 857–858)
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Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron
Curtain (cont.)
What was the result of revolts against
communism in Poland, Hungary, and
Czechoslovakia?
(pages 857–858)
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Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron
Curtain (cont.)
In Poland a series of reforms were adopted.
Fearful of a Soviet armed response, however,
the Poles pledged to remain loyal to the Warsaw
Pact. Hungarian leader Imre Nagy declared
Hungary a free nation. Three days later, Soviet
troops attacked Budapest and reestablished
control of the country. In January 1968, Alexander
Dubček was elected secretary of the Communist
party in Czechoslovakia. He introduced reforms
to the country. By August 1968, the Soviet Army
invaded Czechoslovakia, crushed the reform
movement, and reestablished Soviet control.
(pages 857–858)
Checking for Understanding
Define Match each definition in the left column with the
appropriate term in the right column.
__
A 1. the manufacture of machines A. heavy industry
and equipment for factories B. de-Stalinization
and mines
__
B 2. the process of eliminating
Stalin’s more ruthless policies
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Checking for Understanding
Explain Khrushchev’s relationship to
Stalinism.
Khrushchev set about eliminating
Stalin’s more ruthless policies.
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Checking for Understanding
List two countries in Eastern Europe
that resisted Soviet dominance.
Albania and Yugoslavia resisted Soviet
dominance.
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Critical Thinking
Explain Why did Yugoslavia and
Albania not come under the direct
control of the Soviet Union?
Because Yugoslavia and Albania had
strong Communist governments
already, they were able to resist
Stalin’s demands.
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Analyzing Visuals
Compare the photograph on page
856 with the one on page 858 of your
textbook. How does each photograph
symbolize a different aspect of the
Cold War?
The photo on page 856 of the textbook
symbolizes the space race between
the United States and the Soviet
Union. The photo on page 858 of the
textbook symbolizes the repressive
use of the military by the Soviet Union
to keep the nations of Eastern Europe
under its control.
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Close
Discuss the doubtful nature of unity
within the Soviet block.
Western Europe and North America
Main Ideas
• Postwar Western societies rebuilt their
economies and communities. 
• Shifting social structures in the West led
to upheaval and change. 
Key Terms
• welfare state 
• real wages
• bloc 
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Western Europe and North America
People to Identify
• Charles de Gaulle 
• Martin Luther King, Jr. 
• John F. Kennedy 
• Simone de Beauvoir 
Places to Locate
• France 
• West Germany
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Western Europe and North America
Preview Questions
• How did the EEC benefit the member nations? 
• What were the major social changes in Western
society after 1945?
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Western Europe and North America
Preview of Events
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listen to the audio again.
West Germany produced the richest
economy in Western Europe by the mid1950s. The West German economy was
based on free enterprise and provided
state insurance for all workers.
Western Europe: Recovery
• The Marshall Plan helped the countries of
Western Europe recover relatively rapidly
from the devastation of World War II. 
• The 1950s and 1960s were periods of
dramatic economic growth and prosperity
in Western Europe.
(pages 860–862)
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Western Europe: Recovery (cont.)
• For almost 25 years after World War II,
France was mostly led by Charles de
Gaulle. 
• He established the Fourth Republic, which
featured a strong parliament and a weak
presidency. 
• But the government was largely
ineffective, and de Gaulle withdrew from
politics. 
• He returned in 1958 and established the
Fifth Republic, which featured a strong
presidency.
(pages 860–862)
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Western Europe: Recovery (cont.)
• De Gaulle became the first president of
the Fifth Republic. 
• France became a major industrial
producer and exporter. 
• Government deficits and a rise in the cost
of living led to unrest. 
• De Gaulle resigned from office in 1969.
(pages 860–862)
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Western Europe: Recovery (cont.)
• From 1949 to 1963, Konrad Adenauer,
leader of the Christian Democratic
Union, served as chancellor of West
Germany. 
• Under Adenauer’s leadership and that
of the minister of finance, Ludwig Erhard,
West Germany’s economy was revived. 
• The unemployment rate fell greatly. 
• Erhard became chancellor from 1963
to 1969. 
• The Social Democratic Party, led by Willy
Brandt, became West Germany’s leading
political party in 1969.
(pages 860–862)
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Western Europe: Recovery (cont.)
• At the end of World War II, Great Britain
had large economic problems. 
• The Labour Party, which promised farreaching reforms, defeated Churchill’s
Conservative Party. 
• Prime Minister Clement Attlee and the
Labour Party created a modern welfare
state–a state in which the government
takes responsibility for providing citizens
with services and a minimal standard of
living. 
• The British welfare state became the norm
for most European states after the war.
(pages 860–862)
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Western Europe: Recovery (cont.)
• The cost of building a welfare state
caused Great Britain to dismantle
the British Empire. 
• Many British colonies gained their
independence.
(pages 860–862)
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Western Europe: Recovery (cont.)
How did Western Europe recover after
World War II?
The Marshall Plan helped the countries
of Western Europe recover relatively
rapidly from the devastation of World
War II. The 1950s and 1960s were
periods of dramatic economic growth
and prosperity in Western Europe.
(pages 860–862)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Western Europe: The Move
toward Unity
• After World War II, many Europeans
wanted European unity. 
• Nationalism, however, was too strong for
European nations to give up their
sovereignty. 
• Instead the countries focused on
economic unity.
(pages 862–863)
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Western Europe: The Move
toward Unity (cont.)
• In 1957, France, West Germany, the
Benelux countries, and Italy created the
European Economic Community (EEC),
also known as the Common Market. 
• The six member nations would impose no
tariffs on each other’s goods. 
• By the 1960s, the EEC was an important
trading bloc–a group of nations with a
common purpose.
(pages 862–863)
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Western Europe: The Move
toward Unity (cont.)
How did Western Europe unify after
World War II?
Many of the countries formed the EEC–
a free-trade area in which member
nations imposed no tariffs on each
other’s goods. All the member nations
benefited economically.
(pages 862–863)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
The United States in the 1950s
• Between 1945 and 1970, the ideals
of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal
determined the patterns of American
domestic politics. 
• Prosperity at home and Cold War
struggles abroad characterized the
1950s in the United States. 
• Between 1945 and 1973 real wages–
the actual purchasing power of
income–grew an average of 3 percent
a year.
(pages 863–864)
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The United States in the 1950s (cont.)
• The Cold War led to widespread fear that
Communists had infiltrated the United
States. 
• Senator Joseph R. McCarthy charged that
hundreds of Communists were in high
government positions. 
• This created a massive “Red Scare.”
(pages 863–864)
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The United States in the 1950s (cont.)
Why did the United States experience an
economic boom following World War II?
A shortage of economic goods during
the war left Americans with extra income
and the desire to buy goods. The growth
of labor unions brought higher wages
and gave more workers the ability to buy
consumer goods. Between 1945 and
1973 real wages grew an average of 3
percent a year.
(pages 863–864)
Click the mouse button or press the
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The United States in the 1960s
• President John F. Kennedy, the youngest
elected president of the United States,
was assassinated in 1963. 
• Vice President Lyndon Johnson became
president and was elected in a landslide
victory to another term in 1964. 
• President Johnson’s Great Society
programs included health care for
the elderly, measures to fight poverty,
and aid to education.
(pages 864–865)
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The United States in the 1960s (cont.)
• The U.S. civil rights movement began in
1954 with the Supreme Court ruling that
made racial segregation in public schools
illegal. 
• In 1963 the Reverend Martin Luther
King, Jr., a leader of the civil rights
movement, led a march on Washington,
D.C., for equality. 
• He advocated the use of passive
disobedience in gaining racial equality.
(pages 864–865)
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The United States in the 1960s (cont.)
• President Johnson worked for civil rights. 
• In 1964 the Civil Rights Act helped end
segregation and discrimination in the
workplace and in public places. 
• The Voting Rights Act of 1965 made it
easier for African Americans to vote in
southern states.
(pages 864–865)
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The United States in the 1960s (cont.)
• In 1965, race riots began in the Watts
district of Los Angeles. 
• In 1968, after the assassination of Martin
Luther King, Jr., race riots broke out in
over a hundred cities in the United
States. 
• The race riots caused a “white backlash,”
and racial division in the United States
continued. 
• As the Vietnam War continued through
the second half of the 1960s, antiwar
protests throughout the United States
grew.
(pages 864–865)
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The United States in the 1960s (cont.)
• Republican Richard M. Nixon was elected
president based on his ”law and order”
campaign in 1968.
(pages 864–865)
The United States in the 1960s (cont.)
What did President Johnson hope to
accomplish during his presidency?
Johnson hoped to increase the welfare
state through his programs, including
health care for the elderly, measures to
fight poverty, and aid to education. He
also hoped to gain equal rights for
African Americans.
(pages 864–865)
Click the mouse button or press the
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The Development of Canada
• After World War II, Canada increased its
industrial development. 
• Much of the Canadian growth was
financed by people from the United
States, leading to U.S. ownership of
many Canadian businesses. 
• Some Canadians feared American
economic domination of Canada. 
• Canada was a founding member of the
UN in 1945 and joined NATO in 1949.
(page 866)
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The Development of Canada (cont.)
• The Liberal government of Canada
created a welfare state by enacting a
national social security system and a
national health insurance program.
(page 866)
The Development of Canada (cont.)
What industries were the bases of
Canada’s economy after World War II?
Canada had a strong export economy
based on its abundant natural resources.
It also developed electronic, aircraft,
nuclear, and chemical engineering
industries.
(page 866)
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The Emergence of a New Society
• Postwar Western society had a changing
social structure. 
• Managers and technicians joined the
middle-class groups. 
• The number of people in farming declined
dramatically. 
• The number of industrial workers declined
as white-collar workers increased. 
• A consumer society developed as real
wages increased.
(pages 866–868)
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The Emergence of a New Society
• Buying on credit became widespread
in the 1950s. 
(cont.)
• The automobile was a sign of
consumerism.
(pages 866–868)
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The Emergence of a New Society
(cont.)
• Women in many Western countries
had gained the right to vote after World
War I. 
• Women in France and Italy gained voting
rights in the 1940s. 
• Women who had worked during World
War II returned to traditional roles. 
• Birthrates rose, creating a “baby boom”
in the late 1940s and the 1950s.
(pages 866–868)
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The Emergence of a New Society
• By the end of the 1950s, birthrates
declined. 
(cont.)
• Married women entered the workforce. 
• Women earned much less than men did
for equal work. 
• Many women worked and raised families
at the same time.
(pages 866–868)
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The Emergence of a New Society
(cont.)
• By the late 1960s, women renewed
their interest in the women’s liberation
movement. 
• The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir
influenced both the American and
European women’s movements.
(pages 866–868)
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The Emergence of a New Society
(cont.)
• Growing discontent in European and
U.S. universities led students to revolt in
the late 1960s. 
• In the 1970s and 1980s, student rebels
became middle-class professionals.
(pages 866–868)
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The Emergence of a New Society
(cont.)
How did the social structure in Western society
change after World War II?
Traditional middle-class groups were made up of
businesspeople, lawyers, doctors, and teachers.
A new group of managers and technicians joined
the middle class. The shift of people from rural to
urban areas continued. The number of people in
farming declined greatly. The number of
industrial workers also declined, whereas the
number of white-collar workers increased. A
consumer society developed as people became
preoccupied with buying goods.
(pages 866–868)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Checking for Understanding
Define Match each definition in the left column with the
appropriate term in the right column.
__
C 1. the actual purchasing
power of income
A. welfare state
__
A 2. a state in which the
government takes
responsibility for providing
citizens with services such
as health care
C. real wages
__
B 3. a group of nations with
a common purpose
Click the mouse button or press the
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B. bloc
Checking for Understanding
Explain why many British colonies
gained their independence after
World War II.
Many British colonies gained their
independence because Britain was
forced to reduce expenses abroad,
and the colonies demanded their
independence.
Click the mouse button or press the
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Checking for Understanding
List the original members of the
Common Market.
France, West Germany, Belgium,
Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Italy
were the original members of the
Common Market.
Click the mouse button or press the
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Critical Thinking
Analyze Do you think the student
revolts of this period contributed
positively or negatively to society?
Why?
Analyzing Visuals
Compare the Kent State photo on page
866 with the photo on page 868 of your
textbook. What do these two scenes
have in common? In your opinion, were
the costs of these protests justified?
What causes today could motivate this
type of passion and sacrifice?
Possible answer: They were violent
results of student revolt.
Click the mouse button or press the
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Close
Discuss the historical importance of
student leadership in achieving social
change.
Chapter Summary
Following World War II, two new
superpowers, the United States and the
Soviet Union, engaged in a Cold War that
was fought around the globe.
Chapter Summary
Using Key Terms
Insert the key term that best completes each of the following
sentences.
1. The actual purchasing power of income is called
_______________.
real wages
2. A nation that is preoccupied with the desire to
provide its people with material goods may be said
to be a _______________.
consumer society
3. Nations with governments that intervene in the
economy to assure a minimal standard of living
for all people are said to be _______________.
welfare states
women’s liberation movement is a force that
4. The __________________________
is working for greater equality and rights for women.
5. A country that was economically and politically
dependent on the Soviet Union was called a
satellite state
_______________.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answers.
Reviewing Key Facts
Economics What was COMECON,
and why was it formed?
COMECON was the Soviet response
to the Marshall Plan. It was supposed
to provide for the economic cooperation
of the Eastern European states, but
failed because of the inability of the
Soviet Union to provide large amounts
of financial aid.
Click the mouse button or press the
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Reviewing Key Facts
Economics What changes were
made in the British government’s role
in its economic system after World
War II?
The British government created a
welfare state.
Click the mouse button or press the
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Reviewing Key Facts
History Describe what happened
when satellite states tried to become
independent of the Soviet Union.
The Soviets responded by sending in
their military to crush movements for
reforms or independence.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts
Culture What book influenced the
women’s movement in America and
Europe? What was its significance
to the movement?
It was Simone de Beauvoir’s
The Second Sex. The book argued
that, in male-dominated societies,
women had been defined by their
differences from men, and
consequently received secondclass status.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Reviewing Key Facts
History What happened during the
Cuban missile crisis in 1962?
The United States discovered that
Soviet ships carrying missiles were
headed to Cuba. The United States
blockaded Cuba to prevent the
Soviet fleet from reaching its
destination. The Soviets agreed to
turn back the fleet and to remove
Soviet missiles from Cuba if the
United States promised not to invade
Cuba.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Critical Thinking
Analyzing How did de-Stalinization
help Khrushchev gain control of the
Soviet government?
Possible answer: De-Stalinization
distanced Khrushchev from his
repressive predecessor.
Click the mouse button or press the
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Critical Thinking
Explaining Is containment an
important or pressing issue in
American foreign policy today?
Explain your reasoning.
No; the Cold War is over, and the
threat of Communist expansion
appears to have ended.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Maps and Charts
Study the map below and answer the questions on the
following slides.
Analyzing Maps and Charts
How many miles
did the blockade
zone of Cuba
extend from west
to east?
The blockade
zone extended
approximately
300 miles (500
km) from west
to east.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Maps and Charts
Why was the
United States
so concerned
that the
Soviets were
placing
missiles in
Cuba? What
other islands
fall within the
blockade
zone?
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Analyzing Maps and Charts
The United
States was
concerned
because Cuba
is very close
to the United
States. The
Bahamas, Haiti,
Dominican
Republic, Puerto
Rico, and
Jamaica are
within the
blockade zone.
Standardized Test Practice
Directions: Use the quote below and your knowledge of
world history to answer the question on the next slide.
And even today woman is heavily handicapped, though
her situation is beginning to change. Almost nowhere is
her legal status the same as man’s, and frequently it is
much to her disadvantage. Even when her rights are
legally recognized in the abstract, long-standing custom
prevents their full expression. . . .”
–The Second Sex, Simone de Beauvoir
Standardized Test Practice
Directions: Choose the best answer to the following
question.
Simone de Beauvoir’s book, The Second Sex, was
published in 1949. Her book was influential because it
A helped women gain the right to vote.
B contributed to a women’s movement in the 1950s and
1960s.
C greatly increased the number of married women in the
labor force.
D influenced and shaped the student protest movement.
Test-Taking Tip A date can be an important clue. When
a question contains a date, think about major events that
occurred during or around that time. Then eliminate
answer choices that do not reflect that history.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Why did the successful Soviet invasion
of Hungary in 1956 make it more
difficult for the Soviet Union to influence
nations in other parts of the world?
The Soviet Union demonstrated that it
would not tolerate any alternative forms
of leadership and control in the nations
it dominated.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Explore online information about the topics
introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to
the Glencoe World History Web site. At this site, you will find
interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites
correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When
you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this
presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web
site, manually launch your Web browser and go to
http://wh.glencoe.com
Economics–Socialist Parties
Economics–Welfare State
Science
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Economics Discuss ways in which the economic
situation in Europe after World War II contributed to
the political success of Socialist parties, particularly
in Germany and Great Britain. Why would the
United States have been so concerned about
socialist successes?
Economics Explain why the United States was in a
better position to create a welfare state after World
War II than most European nations. Why did the
United States choose not to move as far along this
path as some other nations?
Science A great scientific breakthrough of the Cold
War period was the conquest of polio, a disease
that had crippled and killed children and adults
worldwide for centuries. (Franklin D. Roosevelt was
one of its most prominent victims.) An inoculation,
pioneered by Jonas Salk, was pronounced safe in
1955. An oral vaccine, developed by Albert Sabin,
was approved in 1961. Today polio has been almost
eliminated throughout the world. Research and
report on the work of Salk and Sabin.
Truman Harry S Truman, a little-known senator
from Missouri before he became Franklin
Roosevelt’s vice president, had relatively little
experience in foreign affairs. When he succeeded
to the presidency on Roosevelt’s death, he had
been vice president only 82 days and had met
with the President only twice.
Eleanor Roosevelt
DEW line
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
Eleanor Roosevelt Eleanor Roosevelt provided
a voice of moderation during the postwar period.
Roosevelt, who continued her public career after
her husband died in 1945, was a member of the
UN Commission on Human Rights. She tried to
meet the Russians halfway. “All of us are going to
die together or we are going to learn to live
together,” she said, “and if we are to live together
we have to talk.”
DEW line By the 1980s, the United States and the
Soviet Union each had more than 12,000 nuclear
warheads aimed at each other. The Distant Early
Warning Line (DEW line) was a radar system built
in 1957 to detect incoming missiles. The DEW line
radars were placed in northern Canada because
the most direct path of the missiles from the
U.S.S.R. would be over the North Pole.
How did the Cold War differ from past world
conflicts?
Understanding World
Time Zones
Why Learn This Skill?
Imagine that you work in Boston and call a client in London
at 2:00 P.M. No one answers because, when it is 2:00 P.M. in
Boston, it is already 7:00 P.M. in London.
This feature can be found on page 859 of your textbook.
Understanding World
Time Zones
Learning the Skill
In 1884, an international conference divided the world into
24 time zones. 
The Prime Meridian (0° longitude), which runs through
Greenwich, England, became the reference point. Traveling
east from Greenwich, the time is one hour later in each time
zone. Traveling west from Greenwich, the time is one hour
earlier per zone. 
The International Date Line is at 180° longitude. When
crossing this line from west to east, you lose one day;
when crossing in the opposite direction, you gain a day.
This feature can be found on page 859 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Understanding World
Time Zones
Learning the Skill
Using the map on page 859 of your textbook: 
• Locate Los Angeles and note its time. 
• Locate Mumbai, India. 
• Determine whether Mumbai lies east or west of Los
Angeles. 
• Count the number of time zones between the two cities.
Each time zone is an hour difference. 
• Add or subtract the number of hours difference between
Mumbai and Los Angeles.
This feature can be found on page 859 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Understanding World
Time Zones
Learning the Skill
Using the map on page 859 of your textbook:
• Is the International Date Line between the two points?
If so, add or subtract a day. 
• Check the time above Mumbai to see if you are correct.
This feature can be found on page 859 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Understanding World
Time Zones
Practicing the Skill
Use the map on the
right to calculate the
times on the
following slides.
This feature can be found on page 859 of your textbook.
Understanding World
Time Zones
Practicing the Skill
If it is 3:00 P.M. in Greenwich, what time is it in
Moscow?
In Moscow, Russia, the time would be 6:00 P.M.
This feature can be found on page 859 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Understanding World
Time Zones
Practicing the Skill
If it is 9:00 A.M. in Cape Town, what time is it in
Washington, D.C.?
In Washington, D.C., the time would be
3:00 A.M.
This feature can be found on page 859 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Understanding World
Time Zones
Practicing the Skill
It is 5:00 P.M. on Tuesday in Beijing. What day
and time is it in Honolulu?
In Honolulu, Hawaii, the time would be
11:00 P.M. Monday.
This feature can be found on page 859 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Cleaning up after the London Blitz
Read A Sober Victory on page 848 of your textbook.
Then answer the questions on the following slides.
This feature can be found on page 848 of your textbook.
Why was the loss of 50 million people in World
War II made even worse by the fact that many
of them were young?
Possible answer: The loss was made worse
because it was a of the work force and the
loss of people who might have started families.
This feature can be found on page 848 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
What would you say was the most pressing
problem facing Europe after the war? Why
do you think so?
This feature can be found on page 848 of your textbook.
How would you explain the title “A Sober
Victory”?
The war was over, but Europe was
devastated.
This feature can be found on page 848 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Click the image on the
right to listen to an
excerpt from page 869
of your textbook. Read
the information on
page 869 of your
textbook. Then answer
the questions on the
following slides.
This feature can be found on page 869 of your textbook.
Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.
Why do you think this speech has become so
famous? Has King’s dream been realized?
Why or why not?
Possible answer: The speech is powerful,
poetic, and moving, full of vivid images and
deeply felt emotion. Great care was devoted
to using language, especially repetition, in
highly effective ways. Martin Luther King, Jr.,
was a highly skilled, gifted orator who clearly,
and in simple words, spoke to the needs of
our people.
This feature can be found on page 869 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Describe King’s dream in your own words.
Possible answer: King’s dream calls for basic
rights, equality, and justice for all citizens
of the United States.
This feature can be found on page 869 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Based on your earlier reading, how do you
think Adolf Hitler would have reacted to King’s
speech? Explain.
Possible answer: Hitler had an idea of a
supreme race and inflicted horrors.
This feature can be found on page 869 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Youth Protest in the 1960s
The decade of the 1960s
witnessed a dramatic change in
traditional manners and morals.
The new standards were evident
in the breakdown of the traditional
family as divorce rates increased
dramatically. Movies, plays, and
books broke new ground in the
treatment of once-hidden
subjects.
Read the excerpt on pages 864–
865 of your textbook and answer
the questions on the following
slides.
This feature can be found on pages 864–865 of your textbook.
Identifying What does Bob Dylan say is the
consequence of not changing?
If you don’t “swim” (that is, change), you “sink
like a stone.”
This feature can be found on pages 864–865 of your textbook.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
Comparing Are there songs or artists today
who have the same cultural outlook as Bob
Dylan?
This feature can be found on pages 864–865 of your textbook.
Writing about History What social or political
issues are being expressed in music, literature,
television, or movies today? Write a brief essay
highlighting one or two cultural examples,
including lyrics or other relevant materials.
This feature can be found on pages 864–865 of your textbook.
The Berlin Airlift
Objectives
After viewing “The Berlin Airlift,” you should: 
• Realize that the Soviet Union controlled Berlin and East
Germany following World War II. 
• Understand that the Soviets cut off all supplies to Berlin in
an attempt to keep the United
States from helping the city
recover from the war. 
• Recognize that the Berlin Airlift
saved the people of Berlin and
gave them hope for future
freedom.
Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.
Click in the window above to view a preview of the World History video.
The Berlin Airlift
Why did President Truman want Germany to be
reunified and help with its recovery from the
ravages of World War II?
President Truman and others wanted Europe
to return to stability. They also feared the
spread of communism into Western Europe.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
The Berlin Airlift
What was the Berlin Airlift?
The Berlin Airlift was a joint effort by the United
States and England to deliver food and coal by
air to Berlin after Stalin imposed a blockade on
deliveries by land in 1948.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Maps
Divided Germany and the Berlin Airlift
Balance of Power after World War II
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.
the United States and
the Soviet Union
War might break out
between the United States
and the Soviet Union.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answers.
to deter war
East Germany,
Bulgaria, Romania,
Poland, Hungary,
Czechoslovakia
the tremendous size
and strength of the
Soviet Union
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answers.
It symbolized the
West’s fear of the
Soviet Union’s desire
to expand its empire.
Belgium, France,
Italy, Luxembourg,
the Netherlands,
West Germany
1957
to promote
economic prosperity
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Space Bar to display the answers.
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