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Benchmark Question 1:
Napoleon’s advances in Germany
in the early 1800s had the effect
of
a) disintegrating German
unity
b) sparking German
nationalism
c) tightening laws against
Jews
d) making trade more
difficult
Benchmark Ques #2:
• At the end of the 1800’s, colonies were
generally seen as a
• A. place
to banish criminals
• B. sign of a country’s relative
power
• C. location to train military
forces
• D. method for suppressing
nationalism
Aggressive Pride
Denmark
Schleswig
Prussian Chancellor
Otto von
Bismarck
Holstein
Prussia
Berlin
Prussia
Independent
German
States
Austria-Hungary
German Empire
France
1. 1864: Bismarck
Makes Alliance
with
Austria-Hungary
Denmark
Schleswig
Prussian Chancellor
Otto von
Bismarck
Holstein
Prussia
Berlin
Prussia
Independent
German
States
Austria-Hungary
German Empire
France
2. 1864:
Bismarck
declares war
on Denmark
1. 1864: Bismarck
Makes Alliance
with
Austria-Hungary
Denmark
Schleswig
Prussian Chancellor
Otto von
Bismarck
Holstein
Prussia
Berlin
Prussia
Independent
German
States
Austria-Hungary
German Empire
France
2. 1864:
Bismarck
declares war
on Denmark
1. 1864: Bismarck
Makes Alliance
with
Austria-Hungary
Denmark
Schleswig
Prussian Chancellor
Otto von
Bismarck
Holstein
Prussia
Berlin
Prussia
3. 1866:
Bismarck declares
War On
Austria-Hungary
Independent
German
States
Austria-Hungary
German Empire
France
2. 1864:
Bismarck
declares war
on Denmark
1. 1864: Bismarck
Makes Alliance
with
Austria-Hungary
Denmark
Schleswig
Prussian Chancellor
Holstein
Prussia
Berlin
Prussia
Otto von
Bismarck
3. 1866:
Bismarck declares
War On
Austria-Hungary
Independent
German
States
Austria-Hungary
France
4. 1870:
4. 1870:forces
Bismarck
Bismarck
forces
France
to declare
France to declare
War
War
German Empire
German Empire
1871
Vocabulary
• Nationalism
– Aggressive pride in one’s country
• Liberalism
– Belief in making social change to improve the lives of
people.
• The ideas of Nationalism and Liberalism caused
people to rebel against the old order
• Realpolitik,
– Realistic politics based on the needs of the state.
• Annex
– To take or add territory
• Kaiser
– Emperor = dictator
• Reich
– Empire
1
Building a German Nation
1. What early changes promoted German
unity?
2. How did Bismarck unify Germany?
3. What was the basic political organization
of the new German empire?
1
Steps Toward German Unity
• Between 1807 and 1812, Napoleon conquered Germanspeaking lands.
– Problem
• Divided German speaking people
– Caused
– Germans nationalism (strong and aggressive pride in
nationality)
• Germans began to demand a unified German state.
• In 1848 Germans offered their throne to Frederick
William IV of Prussia, but he refused it.
No united Germany at this point
2
How did Bismarck unify Germany?
In 1862, Otto von Bismarck was made chancellor
of Prussia.
Bismarck
• Bismarck was a master of Realpolitik.
• Bismarck strengthened the army.
– Why strengthen the army?
Bismarck
2
How did Bismarck unify Germany?
•
•
•
In 1864, Bismarck made an alliance with Austria.
• War with Denmark
• Took Schleswig and Holstein from Denmark.
In 1866, Bismarck turns on Austria
– He annexed, or took several northern German
states.
In 1870, Bismarck went to war with France.
• Took back German land from France
(Napoleon)
3
Unification of Germany, 1865–1871
6. In the 1830s, Prussia created an economic union
among German states called the
a)
b)
c)
d)
North German Confederation
Zollverein
Wolfenburg
Reichstag
7. German nationalist celebrated the birth of the
____________ in January of 1871.
8.
a) Second Reich
b) Realpolitik
c) Bundesrat
d) kaiser
Bismarck was the master of ____________ when evaluating the needs of
the state.
a) Universe
b) Realpolitic
c) Zollerein
d) German Confederation
3
Unification of Germany, 1865–1871
6. In the 1830s, Prussia created an economic union
among German states called the
a)
b)
c)
d)
North German Confederation
Zollverein
Wolfenburg
Reichstag
7. German nationalist celebrated the birth of the
____________ in January of 1871.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Second Reich (2nd Empire)
Realpolitik
Bundesrat
kaiser
8. Bismarck was the master of ____________ when evaluating the
needs of the state.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Universe
Realpolitic
Zollerein
German Confederation
Ch 5 Sec 2 Strengthening
Germany
• Who was the Iron Chancellor?
• Bismarck
• Which 2 groups did the Bismarck target
as a threat to German Unity?
• Catholic Church, and Socialists
• Why did Bismarck distrust the Catholic
Church?
• They gave their loyalty to the Pope.
Ch 5 Sec 2 Strengthening
Germany
• What was Bismarck’s goal for the
Catholics?
• For them to put Germany’s loyalty
ahead of the Church.
• Who became the new Kaiser/emperor in
1888?
• William II (Reich=Empire)
• What did William II want Bismarck to do
in 1890?
• To quit or resign
Ch 5 Sec 2 Strengthening
Germany
• What did William II believe in?
• Divine right of kings
• Hated democracy
• What policies did William II introduce?
• Cheap transportation
• Excellent educational system
• Social welfare
2
The Iron Chancellor
Called the Iron Chancellor, Bismarck applied ruthless
methods to achieve his goals.
Foreign policy goals:
• Bismarck wanted to keep France weak while building
strong links with Austria.
• Bismarck competed with Britain for colonies to
expand Germany’s overseas empire.
Domestic goals:
• Bismarck sought to erase local loyalties and crush
all opposition to the imperial state. He targeted the
Catholic Church and the socialists, both of which he
saw as a threat to the new German state.
2
Kaiser William II
When William II came to power, he wanted to put his own
stamp on Germany. During his reign, he
• asked Bismarck to resign
– Because of divine right of kings
• believed that his right to rule came from
God.
• resisted efforts to introduce democratic reforms.
• provided services, such as programs for social
welfare, cheap transportation, and electricity.
• spent heavily on the German military machine.
• launched an ambitious campaign to expand the
German navy and win an overseas empire.
Neuschwantstein (built under Ludwig II)
2
Section 2 Assessment
Which groups did Bismarck view as a threat to the new German state?
a) peasants and merchants
b) industrialists and Catholics
c) Catholics and socialists
d) the army and nobles
Kaiser William II did which of the following?
a) put more power in the hands of Bismarck
b) reduced military spending
c) introduced democratic reforms
d) launched a campaign to win an overseas empire
2
Section 2 Assessment
Which groups did Bismarck view as a threat to the new German state?
a) peasants and merchants
b) industrialists and Catholics
c) Catholics and socialists
d) the army and nobles
Kaiser William II did which of the following?
a) put more power in the hands of Bismarck
b) reduced military spending
c) introduced democratic reforms
d) launched a campaign to win an overseas empire
3
Unifying Italy
• What were the key obstacles to Italian
unity?
• What roles did Count Camillo Cavour and
Giuseppe Garibaldi play in the struggle
for Italy?
• What challenges faced the new nation of
Italy?
Word of the Day: Tuesday, November 29, 2005
•
•
Belittle
– Some people belittle others in order to feel better about themselves.
• To make someone seem less important.
Word of the Day: Wednesday, November 30, 2005
– Tranquil
• Quiet or calm
• WOD: Thursday, December 1, 2005
– Zealous
• My class was very zealous about
learning the history of Italy.
–Enthusiastic, or excited
Lombardy
Papal
State
Sardinia
Rome
Naples
Kingdom
Of two
Sicilies
1858: Sardinia
1860 added to Sardinia
1866: added to Italy
1870: added to Italy
2. 1859: Cavour
gains Lombardy
from Austria
3. Italians
overthrow
Austrian backed
rulers in N. Italy
Lombardy
5. 1870:
Italians
conquer
Rome and
unify Italy
Papal
State
Sardinia
Rome
Naples
1.1849:
Revolutionary
republic is set up
in Rome, but it
was destroyed
Kingdom
Of two
Sicilies
1858: Sardinia
1860 added to Sardinia
1866: added to Italy
1870: added to Italy
4: 1860,
Garibaldi
invades Sicily
and Naples
Unification
Of
Germany
Unification
Of
Italy
Mediterranean Sea
France
Kingdom
Of
Sardinia
Austria
Lombardy
Papal
State
Corsica
(France)
Rome
Kingdom
of the two
Sicilies
France
Kingdom
Of
Sardinia
Kingdom
Of two
Sicilies
3
Obstacles to Italian Unity
• 1. What were the key obstacles to Italian
unity?
• Battleground for foreigners.
• Italians were divided
• The Congress of Vienna divided Italy up among
• Austrian rulers
• Hapsburg monarchs
• French Bourbon king.
3
The Struggle for Italy
• 2. What roles did Cavour and Garibaldi
play in the struggle for Italy?
CAVOUR
• Prime minister
• Wanted to end Austrian power in
Italy and annex Lombardy and
Venetia.
GARIBALDI
• Nationalist leader from the
South.
• Captured the two Sicilies and
turned them over to Victor
Emmanuel II.
Cavour
Garibaldi
3
3. What Challenges Faced the New Nation of Italy?
1. No tradition of unity.
2. Enormous economic gap between the north, and the
south.
3. Problems between Italy and the Roman Catholic
Church.
4. Italy unified by 1870
3
Unification of Italy, 1858–1870
3
Section 3 Assessment
Unified Italy in 1870 included all of the following except
a) Sardinia.
b) Tuscany.
c) Corsica.
d) Venetia.
Which of the following challenges did the new Italian nation face?
a) a gap between the richer north and the poorer south
b) inflation
c) social problems caused by rapid industrialization
d) a gap between the poorer north and the richer south
3
Section 3 Assessment
Unified Italy in 1870 included all of the following except
a) Sardinia.
b) Tuscany.
c) Corsica.
d) Venetia.
Which of the following challenges did the new Italian nation face?
a) a gap between the richer north and the poorer south
b) inflation
c) social problems caused by rapid industrialization
d) a gap between the poorer north and the richer south
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4
Nationalism Threatens Old Empires
• How did nationalism contribute to the
decline of the Austrian empire?
• What were the main characteristics of the
Dual Monarchy?
• How did the growth of nationalism affect
the Balkans?
4
Decline of the Austrian Empire
Austrian rulers upheld conservative goals against liberal
forces. Austria, however, could not hold back the
changes that were engulfing the rest of Europe.
The Hapsburgs presided over a multinational empire, yet
continued to ignore the urgent demands of nationalists.
After Austria was defeated by France and Sardinia in
1859, Emperor Francis Joseph made some limited
reforms. The reforms failed to satisfy the many
nationalist groups that wanted self-government.
4
Dual Monarchy
Austria’s defeat in the 1866 war with Prussia brought renewed
pressure for change from Hungarians within the empire. This
pressure led to the creation of a new political power known as
the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
Under the Dual Monarchy:
•
Austria and Hungary were separate states.
•
Francis Joseph ruled both, as emperor of
Austria and king of Hungary.
•
The two states shared ministries of finance,
defense, and foreign affairs, but were
independent of each other in all other areas.
4
Balkan Nationalism
A complex web of competing interests contributed to a
series of crises and wars in the Balkans.
Serbia and Greece had won independence in the early
1800s. However, there were still many Serbs and Greeks
living in the Balkans under Ottoman rule.
The Ottoman empire was home to other national groups,
such as Bulgarians and Romanians.
During the 1800s, various subject people staged revolts
against the Ottomans, hoping to set up their own
independent states.
European powers stepped in to divide up Ottoman lands,
ignoring the nationalist goals of various Balkan peoples.
4
The Balkans, 1878
4
Section 4 Assessment
The Dual Monarchy governed
a) Bulgaria and Romania.
b) Austria and Prussia.
c) Prussia and Russia.
d) Austria and Hungary.
The people of the Balkans lived under the rule of
a) the Hapsburg empire.
b) the Ottoman empire.
c) the Second Reich.
d) the Holy Roman Empire.
4
Section 4 Assessment
The Dual Monarchy governed
a) Bulgaria and Romania.
b) Austria and Prussia.
c) Prussia and Russia.
d) Austria and Hungary.
The people of the Balkans lived under the rule of
a) the Hapsburg empire.
b) the Ottoman empire.
c) the Second Reich.
d) the Holy Roman Empire.
Russia: Reform and Reaction
The Empire of the Czars
5
• How did conditions in Russia affect
progress?
• Why did czars follow a cycle of
absolutism, reform, and reaction?
• How did the problems of industrialization
contribute to the growing crisis and
outbreak of revolution?
5
How Did Conditions in Russia Affect Progress?
By the 1800s, czars saw the need to modernize but resisted
reforms that would undermine their absolute rule. While czars
tried to maintain control, Russia fell further behind Western
Europe in economic and social developments.
The rigid social structure was an obstacle to progress:
•
Landowning nobles dominated society and rejected any
change that would threaten their privileges.
•
The majority of Russians were serfs.
•Alexander I was in control (defeated Napoleon) – still
maintained autocracy
Serfdom was inefficient and caused Russia’s economy to
remain backward.
Alexander II tried to make reforms & emancipated the serfs
This made the wealthy landowners angry and there were only a
few reforms for the serfs.
• Alexander III succeeded his father wanted
to keep the old order
• Introduced Russification
• Also initiated pogroms
– Persecution among the Jews and other
minorities
5
Problems of Industrialization
Toward the end of the nineteenth century, Russia
finally entered the industrial age under Nicholas II
• The drive to industrialization increased
political and social problems. Nobles
and peasants opposed economic
growth, fearing the changes brought by
the new ways.
• Industrialization created social ills as
peasants flocked to the cities to work
in factories.
• Radicals (Bolsheviks) preached
revolutionary ideas among the new
industrial workers. Lenin became their
leader
5
Crisis and Revolution
War broke out between Russia and Japan.
The Russians suffered repeated military defeats.
News of the military disasters unleashed pent-up discontent
created by years of oppression.
The czar’s troops fired on unarmed protesters at the Palace
in St. Petersburg
Became known as “Bloody Sunday,” destroying the
people’s trust and faith in the czar.
Discontent and revolution spread throughout Russia.
Czar Nicholas II was forced to announce sweeping reforms.
In the October Manifesto, he agreed to summon a Duma, or
elected national legislature.
5
Results of the Revolution
•
•
•
The October Manifesto won over moderates, leaving
socialists isolated.
By 1905, the first Soviets, or workers councils met to
discuss reform
In 1906, the first Duma met, but the czar dissolved it when
leaders criticized the government.
•
Czar Nicholas II appointed a conservative prime minister,
Peter Stolypin, who instituted arrests, pogroms, and
executions.
•
Stolypin later instituted limited reforms which did not
meet the broad needs of most Russians. Nicholas II could
not maintain reform.
•
By 1914, Russia was still an autocracy, simmering with
unrest & ready for revolution.
Alexander II
Alexander III
Nicholas II
5
Section 5 Assessment
Why did Russian czars resist reform?
a) They thought that industrialization would hurt the peasants.
b) They didn’t want to undermine their absolute power.
c) They felt there were other ways to create a democratic society.
They wanted to keep Russia economically backward.
What groups in Russia opposed economic growth?
a) nobles and peasants
b) socialists and radicals
c) nobles and socialists
d) peasants and businessmen
d)
5
Section 5 Assessment
Why did Russian czars resist reform?
a) They thought that industrialization would hurt the peasants.
b) They didn’t want to undermine their absolute power.
c) They felt there were other ways to create a democratic society.
They wanted to keep Russia economically backward.
What groups in Russia opposed economic growth?
a) nobles and peasants
b) socialists and radicals
c) nobles and socialists
d) peasants and businessmen
d)
French Revolution Homework
1. what type of govt. did France have before the French
Revolution?
• Absolute Monarchy
2. Describe the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Estate?
• Clergy, Nobles, Everyone
3. List at least three causes of the French Revolution
• Economic Depression, National Debt,
Enlightenment Ideas
4. Explain the events of the Tennis Court Oath
• Wanted a fair vote. Met and promised to never
separate and create a Constitution.
5. What happened to King Louis and Marie Antoinette?
1. Both were guillotined
6. Describe the major points in the Constitution of 1791 and 1795?
1. 1791: limited the monarchy
2. 1795: set up a republic
7. What was the Reign of Terror?
1. 17000 people killed by guillotine because they were
though to be enemies of the revolution
8. What was the Napoleonic Code of Law?
1. Gave equality to all citizens
9. Which 2 European countries was Napoleon unable to conquer?
1. Great Britain
2. Russia
10. Name the 2 island that Napoleon was exiled to?
1. Elba
2. St Helena