M-C Review Chapter 05 European Expansion and Religious Wars Download

Transcript
AP European History
Mr. Blackmon
Multiple Choice Questions Organized by Freller
Chapter 05
Economic Expansion, Social Change, and Religious Wars 1550-1650
Opening of the Atlantic
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2
3
4
The Iberian peninsula has enjoyed a unique history due to the
A
Pyrenees Mountains
B
mountainous terrain of Andalusia
C
Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts
D
frigid climate
E
proximity to France
Which of the following explorers, sailing under the flag of Portugal, reached the west
coast of India in 1498 after rounding the Cape of Good Hope and crossing the Indian
Ocean?
A.
John Cabot
B.
Vasco da Gama
C.
Bartolomeo Dias
D.
Amerigo Vespucci
E.
Ferdinand Magellan
The Portuguese explorers were the fIrst Europeans to reach all of the following places
EXCEPT
A
the Congo
B
the Philippines
C
Cape of Good Hope
D
Angola
E
India
“Religion supplies the pretext and gold the motive.”
This statement was a contemporary characterization of
5
F.
The launching of the Spanish Armada
G.
The execution of Charles I
H.
The posting of the Ninety-five Theses
I.
New religious orders such as the Ursulines and Jesuits
J.
Spanish and Portuguese expansion in the New World
Ferdinand and Isabella supported the expulsion or conversion of Muslims and Jews in
Spain because
A.
Ferdinand and Isabella were hostile to religious faiths other than Christianity
B.
Ferdinand and Isabella feared that if they did nothing many Christians would leave
Spain
C.
Spanish Muslims and Jews were believed to hinder the economic development of
Spain
D.
6
Spanish Muslims and Jews outnumbered Christians in most large cities in the
kingdom.
E.
Spanish Muslims and Jews were protected by foreign powers hostile to Spain.
"Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians and Princes who love the Holy Christian faith,
and the propogation of it, and who are enemies to the sect of Mohammed and to all
idolitries and heresies, resolved to send me to India to see the rulers there, and the cities
and lands, and their disposition, with a view that they might be converted to our holy faith;
and ordered that I should not go by land to the eastward, as had been customary, but that
I should go by way of the west, whither up to this day we do not know for certain that
anyone has gone."
The explorer describing himself in the above passage is
A
Marco Polo
B
John Cabot
C
Henry Hudson
D
Christopher Columbus
E
Vasco da Gama
7.
The great central and south American native civilizations collapsed after the arrival of
Europeans for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A
epidemics such as small pox
B
internal divisions
C
European use of horses
D
Spanish and Portuguese naval warfare
E
belief that the conquistadors were gods
Meeting of Two Worlds: Effects
8
“It was an important confederation of commercial towns in northern Germany with its
own laws, diplomats, and flags. Its membership of merchants earned large profits shipping
fish, timber, and other resources to areas to the west and to the south. Prosperity
declined, however, when trade routes shifted from the Baltic to the Atlantic after 1500.”
The description above refers to the
9
F.
Confederation of the Rhine
G.
Hanseatic League
H.
Merchants of he Staple
I.
Holy Roman Empire
J.
Schmalkaldic League
The free flow of plants and animals as well as trade goods, between Europe and the
Americas is referred to by historians as
A
transcontinental adoption
B
food migration
C
international assimilation
D
Columbian interaction
E
Columbian exchange
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12.
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Which of the following was the most important factor behind the Price Revolution of the
sixteenth century?
A.
Steady population growth and rising food costs
B.
The massive migration of Europeans to the New World
C.
The militarization of society and massive war taxes
D.
Governmental control of the economy
E.
The rapid growth of manufacturing and the depopulation of the countryside
All of the following are results of the opening of the Atlantic to commerce with Europe
during the 16th and 17th centuries EXCEPT
A
tons of precious metals from the New World came to Spain
B
the money supply expanded but productivity remained stable
C
runaway inflation occurred
D
inflation encouraged productivity
E
the nobility increased its wealth
Prices in Spain rose during the sixteenth century by about what amount?
A
10%
B
100%
C
400%
D
2000%
E
stayed the same
In the period from Columbus’ discovery of the Americas to the American Revolution all of
the following goods were imported from the New World to Europe in large quantities
EXCEPT
F.
Sugar
G.
Gold
H.
Iron ore
I.
Furs
J.
Tobacco
The technological advances made in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were greatly
stimulated by
A
large scale mining
B
astronomy
C
medical research
D
physics
E
caravan travel to China
Which of the following best characterizes the Western European economy, as a whole, in
the sixteenth-century?
A.
Widespread unemployment
B.
Declining trade and commerce
C.
Technological breakthroughs in production
D.
Unrestricted trade among nations
E.
Spiraling inflation.
Which nation dominated overseas colonization in the 16th century?
A
England
B
Spain
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C
France
D
Austria
E
Holland
Which of the following contributed to the economic decline of Spain in the seventeenth
century?
I
II
III
IV
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19
The overexpansion of Spanish manufactures
The loss of a colonial empire
The debasement of the coinage
The expulsion of the Moriscos
A.
I and II only
B.
II and III only
C.
III and IV only
D.
I, II, and III only
E.
I, II, III, and IV
All of the following are associated with the commercial revolution in early modern Europe
EXCEPT
A.
An increase in the number of entrepreneurial capitalists
B.
The appearance of state-run trading companies
C.
A large influx of precious metals into Europe
D.
An expansion of the guild system
E.
A “golden age” for the Netherlands.
An immediate result of the commercial revolution that occurred with the increased
productivity stimulated by the precious metals coming from the Americas was
A
the formation of an urban working class
B
a dramatic shift of population from the countryside to the cities
C
a drastic increase in the manorial fees due from the peasants
D
the rise of capitalism
Et
he abolition of the bourse
20
According to the graph above, which class in sixteenth-century England benefitted most
from the trends shown?
A.
Landowners
B.
Landless laborers
C.
Household servants
D.
Merchants
E.
Small-scale artisans
Changing Social Structures (Demograhpic, Agriculture, Towns, Family, Witchraft Craze)
21
The above graph shows the proportion of children born to noble families (peers) and to
the inhabitants of a rural village (Colyton) in England who died before the age of fifteen.
The figures suggest that
A
the families of nobles and agricultural laborers had similar rates of child mortality
throughout the period
B
laboring families had a lower rate of child mortality most of the time
C
nobles had a better life expectancy than laborers
D
child mortality declined rapidly for all people after the industrial revolution
E
noble child mortality declined sharply after 1570
The following two questions are based on the table below
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25
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1650
5,000,000
1700
5,750,000
1750
6,000,000
1800
9,000,000
1850
18,000,000
1900
33,000,000
1950
44,000,000
The table above shows that the period when the population expanded at the fastest RATE
was
A
1650-1700
B
1750-1800
C
1800-1850
D
1850-1900
E
1900-1950
The table above shows that the period with the greatest ABSOLUTE gain was
A
1700-1750
B
1750-1800
C
1800-1850
D
1850-1900
E
1900-1950
All of the following were factors in the spread of literacy during the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries EXCEPT
F.
The invention of printing.
G.
The Protestant Reformation.
H.
The rise of state bureaucracies
I.
An increase in compulsory state education
J.
A decline in the use of Latin.
Apprentices were boys who were
A
sold as slaves
B
sent to the colonies
C
supervised by journeymen
D
worked on farms
E
learned a craft
Capitalism may be defined as the
A
control of economic growth by the government
B
exchange of imports and exports
C
exploitation of colonial wealth by landowning elites
D
accumulation of precious metals
E
growth through entreprenurial investment
Serfdom was consolidated during the 1500s and 1600s in which of the following
countries?
A
England and France
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B
Russia and France
C
Prussia and the Netherlands
D
Austria and Spain
E
Russia and Prussia
Shakespeare*s history plays
A
advocated restoration of Plantagenet rule
B
questioned the existing social structure
C
were profoundly unpatriotic
D
supported the legitimacy of the Tudor dynasty
E
expressed nostalgia for the Roman Catholic faith
“Before she is tortured, however, she is led aside by the executioner, and lest she may by
magical means have fortified herself against the pain, she is searched, her whole body
being shaved, although in no previous case has anything of this sort been found, Then she
is tortured with the torture of the first degree. Whatever she says, afterwards she is
executed without scruple.”
The author of the above passage
A
agrees with the persecution of witches
B
disagrees with the persecution of witches
C
feels that the government is being too soft on witches
D
believes that witchcraft is confined to old women
E
supports religious exorcisms of witches
What accounted for the fact that women were the most likely victims of accusations of
witchcraft in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?
A
women were growing more powerful and independent, which provoked men to
violence
B
older and widowed women were least able to defend themselves
C
rulers did not want women to be given the vote
D
traditions of magic and Satanism were associated exclusively with women
E
women were the principal wealth holders in society
during the great witchcraft persecutions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries , those
most often tried as witches were
A.
Young girls
B.
Young boys
C.
Older women
D.
Members of the clergy
E.
Members of the aristocracy
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35
The Great European Witch Hunt, typified by the engraving above, was a result of all of the
following EXCEPT
A
the religious struggles of Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries
B
the increased social and religious conformity of the 16th and 17th centuries
C
a general misogynistic movement in society
D
a rise in the belief of the evil power of witches
E
the decline of most superstitions in common European society at the time
In early modern Europe, women were accused of practicing witchcraft more often than
were men because of the belief that women
A.
Lived longer
B.
Had too much political power
C.
Had more money
D.
Were more prone to violence
E.
Were more vulnerable to temptation.
What percentage of those accused of witchcraft executed in the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries were women?
A
10%
B
30%
C
50%
D
80%
E
100%
The persecution of witches came to an end in the seventeenth century because of all of the
following EXCEPT
A
the scientific revolution
B
improved medical knowledge and insurance companies reduced vulnerability to
natural calamities
C
the violence of witch hunts became excessive and frightened everyone
D
women were elevated to a more respected status
E
rulers saw the persecution of witches as threatening to the legal system
Religious Wars (Phillip II, France, Spain, Thirty Years’ War)
36
The Papacy lost its monopoly over Western Christianity in which century?
A
sixteenth
B
seventeenth
C
eighteenth
D
nineteenth
E
twentieth
37
In the sixteenth century, all of the following had religious civil wars or political insurrections
EXCEPT
A.
Muscovite Russia
B.
England
C.
The Low Countries
D.
France
E.
The German states
38
Which of the following was NOT a part of Charles V's empire in the sixteenth century?
A
Spain
B
Austria
C
Poland
D
Naples
E
the Low Countries
39
Philip II of Spain (1556-1598)
A
championed religious toleration\Qf~uanish Jews and Moslems
B
granted independence to the Spanish Netherlands
C
abolished the Alcabala, a 10 percent tax on all sales that inhibited commerce
D
dedicated his reign to establishing Catholic orthodoxy
E
was defeated by the Turks at Lepanto
40
Spain under Philip II possessed all of the following EXCEPT
A
the resources of the Holy Roman Empire
B
a devout and dedicated monarch
C
an efficient national bureaucracy
D
a subjugated peasantry
E
the vast wealth of the New World
41
King Philip II lived for much of his life in which of the following?
A
a palace in Madrid
B
a military tent on his campaigns
C
a naval vessel
D
a small house in Amsterdam
E
a monastery
42.
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The defeat of the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto in 1541
A
swept the Ottoman Empire from control of the Balkans
B
left the control of the Mediterranean divided
C
reunited the empire of Ferdinand and Isabella
D
opened Africa to European exploration
E
made the Mediterranean a Spanish lake
The term “cockpit of Europe” refers to which area?
A
the area around the mouth of the Rhine river
B
the South Swedish coast
C
Burgundy
D
Switzerland
E
Trieste and the north Dalmatian coast
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The Pieter Brueghel painting (circa 1569) shown above depicts the massacre of villagers in
A.
The Netherlands by Spanish troops
B.
Russia by Ottoman troops
C.
Spain by English troops
D.
France by Swedish troops
E.
Hungary by Austrian troops
The leadership of the Dutch revolts (1566-1648) sought all of the following EXCEPT
A.
An alliance with the English Catholics
B.
The end of the Inquisition
C.
The end of excessive taxation
D.
The elimination of the rule of foreign officials
E.
An alliance with French Protestants
The single most important fact in English history is the
A
lack of natural resources
B
island status
C
mountains that cut it off from Scotland
D
arid climate
E
infertile soil
Queen Mary I of England married which of the following?
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49.
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52
53.
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A
Philip II of Spain
B
Charles V of Austria
C
Philip of Hesse
D
Louis XII of France
E
James V of Scotland
Elizabeth I of England was reluctant to execute Mary Queen of Scots because
A
of personal friendship
B
of sympathy for her religion
C
of fear it would remove her son from the line of succession
D
it would require her to overrule her ministers
E
it would set a dangerous example
Queen Elizabeth I of England
A
radicalized the Protestant Reformation
B
restored the monasteries
C
organized the defeat of the Spanish Armada
D
gave more power to Parliament
E
encouraged the clergy to marry
Which of the following resulted from the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588?
A.
Spanish domination of the Mediterranean was ended
B.
The invasion of England was prevented
C.
Dutch sympathies for the Spanish cause increased
D.
War broke out between England and France
E.
A series of uprisings occurred in the Spanish colonies of Central and South America.
Elizabeth I of England and her contemporary Henry IV of France, have been called
politiques because they believed that
A.
Doctrinal unity was necessary to political unity.
B.
Religious questions were as important as political questions.
C.
Religion was the most important part of politics.
D.
Political leaders should not be involved in religious questions.
E.
Theological controversy should be subordinate to political unity.
A “regent” is a
A
prince of the Roman Catholic Church
B
pead of a province
C
socially mobile gentleman
D
chancellor's wife
E
ruler substituting for a king
The St. Bartholomew*s Day massacre in 1572
A
was greeted by Pope Gregory XIII with delight
B
created relief among the Protestant community in Europe
C
succeeded in establishing the Guise family in control of France
D
was organized by Henry of Navarre
E
eliminated all the Huguenots in France
The Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day in 1572
A
marked the renewal of religious civil war in France
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56
57.
58
59
60.
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B
resulted in the slaughter of Catholic leaders
C
marked the end of Protestantism in France
D
restored religious toleration in France
E
was perpetrated by Huguenot mobs
Which pair would have been the most awkward companions as dinner guests?
A
Elizabeth I of England and Thomas Cranmer
B
Catherine de Medicis and Henry IV of France
C
Philip II of Spain and Charles V of Austria
D
Mary Queen of Scots and Francis I of France
E
John Knox and John Calvin
When Henry IV remarked, "Paris is well worth a Mass," he was referring to
A
his prayers for the fall of the city during his siege of it
B
his expected visit during the Easter season
C
his conversion to Catholicism to gain popular favor
D
his conversion to Calvinism to gain support of the Huguenots
E
his visit with thePope to gain absolution
“Paris is well worth a mass,” was reputedly said by
A
the Pope to justify the St. Bartholomew*s Day massacre
B
Elizabeth Ito express her contempt for the French
C
Henry IV to explain his religious conversion
D
Philip II to justify his invasion of France
E
Catherine de Medicis to explain her loyalty to the church
Which of the following groups was instrumental in ending the Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
in France?
A.
A group of Catholics and Protestants called the politiques
B.
The French Calvinist nobility
C.
Catholic priests led by the papal nuncio
D.
A coalition between lower-class Calvinists and Catholics
E.
The Huguenots
Which of the following is NOT true of the Edict of Nantes (1598)?
F.
It was issued by Henry IV of France.
G.
It allowed the practice of Protestantism in France.
H.
It was responsible for the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre.
I.
It was revoked by Louis XIV
J.
It was accepted by the French Huguenots.
Which of the following terms best describes the Edict of Nantes issued by Henry IV of
France in 1598?
A
devious trick
B
religious truce
C
final settlement
D
meaningless gesture
E
generous acceptance
The Edict of Nantes in 1598 did which of the following:
A.
Ensured Anglo-French cooperation throughout the seventeenth century.
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63
B.
Created a French church separated from papal authority.
C.
Ended the War of the Spanish Succession
D.
Proclaimed the toleration of Calvinism
E.
Precipitated the French Wars of Religion.
The Edict of Nantes, issued by Henry N in 1598, was one of the most significant acts of his
reign because of all the following reasons EXCEPT
A
it was one of the first governmental guarantees of religious freedom in Europe
B
it granted Huguenots civil and political equality with Catholics
C
it continued the bitter civil war between Catholic and Protestant
D
it brought peace to France
E
it granted Huguenots political control of many towns in France
During the 16th century, which dynasty ruled a dominion that stretched from the Atlantic to
Eastern Europe, from the Baltic to the Mediterranean?
A
Valois
B
Hohenzollern
C
Bourbon
D
Tudor
E
Hapsburg
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65
The shaded portions on the map above represent the areas
A.
Controlled by Protestant rulers
B.
Where the Renaissance first occurred
C.
Ruled by the Hapsburg family
D.
Ruled by the Bourbon family
E.
Affected most by urbanization and the commercial revolution
Which of the following was the primary cause of the Hapsburg - Valois feud, which
dominated European international politics in the sixteenth century?
A.
The differences in the religious positions taken by the two families during the
protestant Reformation
B.
The refusal of Charles of Hapsburg to marry a Valois princess.
C.
Competition for colonies overseas
D.
The conflicting political ambitions of the two families.
E.
Clashing territorial interests in southern Germany.
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67
68
The shaded areas on the map above represent which of the following?
A.
Dynastic lands of the Hapsburgs in the sixteenth century
B.
Participants in the Thirty Years’ War in the seventeenth century
C.
Protestant regions in the eighteenth century
D.
Members of the Holy Alliance in the nineteenth century
E.
Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the twentieth century.
In the first half of the seventeenth century, the Austrian Hapsburgs subdued revolt and
centralized control in their territories by doing which of the following?
A.
Emancipating the peasantry and encouraging agricultural development
B.
Allying with the urban middle classes and encouraging commercial development
C.
Establishing a national church headed by the Hapsburg emperor and redistributing
former church properties.
D.
Creating a customs union to promote trade and acquiring new territories to supply
merchants with raw materials.
E.
Waging warfare against rebel groups and supporting the Catholic Reformation.
Probably the most important step Cardinal Richelieu took to strengthen centralized
government and an absolutist monarchy in France was
A
to involve France in the Thirty Years' War
B
to institute the intendant system to oversee the provinces
C
to levy taxes on the clergy and nobility
D
to suppress the musketeers
E
to ban private duels within the realm
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All of the following are accurate depictions of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) EXCEPT
A
it was fought mostly in Germany
B
it involved the major states of Europe
C
it was a religious struggle between Protestants and Catholics
D
it was a political struggle between the German princes and the Holy Roman Empire
E
it allied the French with the Austrian Hapsburgs
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71
72
The event depicted here marked the start of which armed conflict?
A
The Thirty Years' War
B
The War of the Roses
C
The War of the Three Henrys
D
The Hapsburg-Valois Wars
E
The War of Spanish Succession
Which of the following is NOT a French river?
A
Seine
B
Danube
C
Marne
D
Rhone
E
Loire
The primary goal of France in entering the Thirty Years’ War was to
A.
Defend Catholicism against German Protestants.
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74.
75
76
77
78
79.
B.
Reduce the power of the Hapsburgs.
C.
Punish the Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus.
D.
Conquer Brandenburg-Prussia
E.
Place a Bourbon on the Spanish throne.
Most of the Thirty Years War was fought in
A
France
B
Germany
C
Italy
D
Spain
E
England
The Lutheran King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden was supported financially in his military
campaigns by
A
Emperor Ferdinand of Austria
B
Cardinal Richelieu of France
C
Pope Julius II
D
King Philip III of Spain
E
King Charles I of England
Which of the following was a major result of the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)?
A.
The long-term strengthening of the Holy Roman Emperor’s authority.
B.
The banning of Calvinism in the German states
C.
The establishment of strong Russian influence in the northern German states.
D.
The loss of as much as one-third of the German-speaking population through
war, plague, and starvation.
E.
The encouragement of rapid economic development in many German-speaking
cities.
Which was a result of the Thirty Years' War?
A
Germany replaced Austria as the predominant power in Central Europe.
B
The Hapsburg reign ended Austria.
C
Germany was economically devastated and its population decimated.
D
The French lost all influence over German affairs.
E
Sweden was victorious in all phases of the conflict.
The long-term effect of the Thirty Years’ War on the German states was to
A.
Restrict Lutheranism to southern German states
B.
Initiate a long era of peace and rapid economic recovery
C.
Encourage unification
D.
Devastate the German states’ economies
E.
Increase the power of the Holy Roman Emperor
The greatest beneficiary in the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
A.
France
B.
Spain
C.
Russia
D.
Sweden
E.
The Holy Roman Empire
All of the following were part of or reflected in the Treaty of Westphalia EXCEPT
A
B
C
D
E
the ruler of each state could establish his or her own religion as dominant
the independence of the United Provinces was guaranteed
Brandenburg-Prussia emerged as the most powerful north German state
France became Europe*s dominant power
Russia acquired half of Poland