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Rochester Institute of Technology
RIT Scholar Works
Theses
Thesis/Dissertation Collections
9-14-2004
Perception of meaning and usage motivations of
emoticons among Americans and Chinese users
Yujiao Wang
Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarworks.rit.edu/theses
Recommended Citation
Wang, Yujiao, "Perception of meaning and usage motivations of emoticons among Americans and Chinese users" (2004). Thesis.
Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from
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Emoticons Usage
and
Meaning
1
EMOTICONS USAGE AND MEANING
Perception
of
Meaning and Usage Motivations of Emoticons
Among Americans
and
Chinese Users
By
Yujiao
Wang
Paper Presented in Partial Fulfillment
of
the Master
of
Science Degree in
Communication & Media Technologies
September 14, 2004
Emoticons Usage and Meaning
2
The following members of the thesis committee approve the thesis of
Yujiao Wang presented on September 14,2004.
Dr. Susan B. Barnes
Department ofCommunication
Thesis Advisor
Dr. Evelyn Rozanski
B. Thomas Golisano College of
Computing and Information Sciences
Thesis Advisor
Dr. Bruce Austin
Department ofCommunication Chairman
Emoticons Usage and Meaning
3
Thesis Author Permission Statement
Title of thesis or dissertation: Perception of Meaning and Usage Motivations of
Emoticons Among Americans and Chinese Users
Name of author: Yujiao Wang
Degree:
Master of Science
Program: Communication Media and Technologies
College:
College of Liberal Arts
I understand that I must submit a print copy of my thesis or dissertation to the RIT
Archives, per current RIT guidelines for the completion of my degree. I hereby grant to
the Rochester Institute of Technology and its agents the non-exclusive license to archive
and make accessible my thesis or dissertation in whole or in part in al forms of media in
perpetuity. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis or dissertation.
I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this
thesis or dissertation.
Print Reproduction Permission Granted:
I,
Yujiao Wang
, hereby grant permission to the Rochester
Institute of Technology to reproduce my print thesis or dissertation in whole or in part.
Any reproduction will not b.e for commercial use or profit.
Signature of Author:
Date:
r:(/14/,) <~ q
(
I hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached written permission
statements from the owners of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my
thesis or dissertation. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by
my committee.
Signature of Author:
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Date:
Emoticons Usage
Meaning
and
4
Abstract
Do
study
people of
cultures agree on the
addresses this question
emoticons
in the American
communities.
The
use emoticons
Americans
and
different
the
and
an
inter-cultural
Chinese
to use emoticons
participants are more
participants.
two countries in
The
likely
and social
and
study.
(CMC)
participants
motivations
motivations than
to use emoticons for
social
but the
the Chinese
interactions than
to the cultural differences between the
individualism/collectivism dimensions.
the results also show that the Americans and the
in the
Chinese
and
This
the use of
communication
interaction
for information
results correspond
low-/ high-context
most emoticons used
perspective and explores
Chinese Computer-mediated
for entertaining, informational
likely
and use of emoticons?
indicates that both the Americans
research
are more
the Americans
from
meaning
Chinese disagree
on
Moreover,
the meaning
of
Emoticons Usage
Meaning
and
5
Introduction
Computer-mediated
is facilitated through the
Rapp, 1996,
p.
2). With
of
interpersonal
use of computer network or
conferencing
communication
languages
opportunities
people of
and
be
to
different
characteristics of
rapid
(CMC)
cultural
communication
communication
has become
a significant world medium.
origins
flourish
foreign
cultures on
backgrounds
attract users
users'
the
to
exposed
in
a
on
the Internet
much more
very
and can
also
has its
easily than
ever
and nonverbal cues
face
be transferred in
most
of
the
limitations
communication.
developed
information
compensate
relay
chats
and
have
greatly
have been widely
used
users'
in
rich
face-to-
relational and emotional
to make up the
in CMC,
Electronic
channels
believed that
the capacity of CMC
cues available
on
expands
that are
Many people
created ways
enriched
for the limited
unique
limitations in
for
people
social
have
paralanguages such as
in email, bulletin boards
and
instant
(Danet, 2001).
Emoticons
widely
users
new cues such as online paralanguages.
acronyms and emoticons
CMC.
channels, CMC was unfit for social,
However, CMC
nonverbal cues or
interactions. To
of
with
before. The
limitations. Communication
limited in CMC
communication cannot
sites of
time and have significant effects
short
own
Web
interact
behaviors (Danet, 2001). The Internet greatly
capability but it
computer-
the Internet. Users have many
such as visual and audio are
because
(Jettmar &
technological advancements around the globe,
country
CMC
communication which
systems"
mediated communication
various
is "a type
used
are
basically
in BBS, email,
graphic accents
chat
that
programs, etc.
look like faces
Programs
with emotions.
such as
They
Microsoft Instant
are
Emoticons Usage
Messenger
an
and
important
part of
among Internet
attention
Yahoo! Messenger
offer a
the paralinguistic cues in CMC and an emergent
communities of various
research on emoticons
people across cultures share
is
the same
consensus agreement on the
But this idea
in English
needs
on
to
in
other
and cultural
users
diverse
speak
languages
used
are
in
backgrounds
languages
on emoticon use
cultural
knowledge among
interpretation
have been but there
primarily
Reports
users.
As
popular practice
attracted
scholarly
of emoticons
mostly
and
neglected
other
than
a
few
(Herring
reports on
background
unknown and emoticon use
intercultural
perspective.
Chinese Internet
users and
looked into
compare with
among
This
Most
research
literature
online
& Danet, 2003).
diverse
the world and the
as those of the
the emoticon uses
by people
1996) indicated
those
among
of other cultures
different
people of a single
cultures
in
has
from
an
How
emoticon use
not
research will compare emoticon use
question
that
their use of emoticons. But these
emoticons use across cultures.
people of
look into this
the users
English (Danet, 2001, Katsuno & Yano, 2002).
of emoticon users affected
and seldom
that the
(Walther & Tidwell, 1995).
online communications around
only
presumed
developments in
of emoticons users are as
are
Scholars
cultural contexts.
in English
to be answered is: do
in Japan (Katsuno & Yano, 2002; Pollack,
backgrounds
background
of one cultural
an
for their
emoticon users and
researchers always confined their studies of emoticons use
cultural
have
question
of emoticons?
meaning
on practices
Emoticons have been widely
who
emoticons
limited. A basic
be further investigated in
CMC focused
communication
Internet
languages,
still
meanings of emoticons were common
language
selection of emoticons
(Asteroff,, 1987; Rezabek & Cochenour, 1998; Walther, 2001; Katsuno & Yano,
2002). But
had
large
6
Meaning
and
been
people
is
studied
by American
intercultural
perspective.
from
and
Emoticons Usage
Meaning
and
7
Literature Review
With
widespread advancements
become important in many
revealed
in their
has become
63%
of
Among
They
those
friends
ages of
users and
many American
(age 18
12 to
17,
and
more
and
Rainie
each
at remote
day,
read news
distance
with
from
Instant
(2003)
their online activities, the Internet
people's
life. In the fall
over) had Internet
of
2003,
connections.
than three quarters were Internet users.
Internet for working, studying, shopping, entertaining
They check email
with
everyday life. As Madden
American Internet
part of
Internet technologies, CMC has
computer and
adult population
between the
the
people's
indispensable
an
American
the
used
report on
in
news web
and even socializing.
sites, shop at online stores, chat
Messaging
programs, participate in chat
room
conversations, play online games and download digital music. These Internet users
depended
research
with
too.
use
upon
for
the Internet to seek
school or
families
and
have implemented
bulletin board systems,
systems
for inter-organizational
partners
(Walther & Burgoon, 1992).
The Internet has
medium
for
also
broadcasting
or stocks and
for
an
to
keep in
business
to
in their
conferencing
operations
work places and
with clients and
"The Internet is
at once a
for information dissemination,
interaction between individuals
touch
and other related
to communicate
world medium.
mechanism
location"
geographic
computer
important
capability, a
vital
computer networks
communication and
become
collaboration and
without regard
financial information, to do
friends (Madden & Rainie, 2003). CMC is
computer
world-wide
religious and
work, to manage their bank accounts
Many organizations
email,
health,
and a
and their computers
(Leiner & al., 2003). The traditional
physical
Emoticons Usage
boundaries between
and
Meaning
8
countries that restrict most mass communication media such as
newspaper, radio and television from reaching foreign audience have little influence on
Internet. Internet
the users of the
inside
2003 there
were
used
940
Americans, 49. 1%
throughout the
hundred
of
the
world.
percent
Internet. 35.8%
used
Internet
Oceanians
users
and
(Rice & Love, 1987).
users
in
and
33%
web sites can
the
30.4%
of
interactions
online population grows
in Latin America Africa
be different
most
Asia
and
widely
and users who
can understand
languages
such as
Relay Chatting (IRC),
and cultural
of
by
in email,
chat rooms,
instant messaging
paralinguistic cues and a popular
an
intercultural
way
the meaning
used
the North
rapidly
as an
two
grew about
language
not
on
the
languages
of emoticons.
use emoticons
bulletin boards
important
the
know the languages
Multi-User Dungeons
programs and
Many
in their
(MUDs), Internet
systems
(BBS)
component of
of emotional expression on
perspective.
the end of
Reach, 2004). Although
do
backgrounds
(Katsuno & Yano, 2002, Utz, 2000). Emoticons,
from
statistics,
the Europeans have access to the
Asian languages (Global
use
texts, they
users of various
studied
According to
(Global Reach, 2004). 68.8%
Statistics, 2004). The
Internet
physically located
the web surfers are English speakers, 37.9% use European
of
cannot understand
Internet
around the world.
from 2000 to 2004. English is the
excluding the English
languages
by people
million
Internet (Internet World
be
that are
other countries at a speed of seconds and at minimum cost
The Internet is
online
users can access websites
the
Internet,
needs
to
Emoticons Usage
Theories in
socioemotional content
At the early
stage of
networks
for
were
cold, unemotional and
cues
Internet development, the capacity
lacking in
to know some
Williams &
used
Theory and Social
in the study
to mediate messages
of computer-mediated
work
because
of
uncertainty in the
to
media
of
be
Information
proposes
Processing Theory that have been
in CMC.
that communication media have different capacities
for solving ambiguity, modifying information
lean
CMC,
depending
on
the communication
medium
processing:
with
language
its text-only
CMC
the
and
is the
availability
the engagement of
richest and
content
was regard as
capacity
the
and
and
of
facilitating
to overcome the
better for
richness required
to transfer multiple cues such as
communication
medium.
want
communication process and some media work
application of natural
and
of rich nonverbal
Theory (Short,
applied to evaluate the richness of the media and the
the
Face-to-face
the absence
Social Presence
such as
of emotional expression
facilitate the information
capacity
message
settings,
in CMC environments, it is
understanding (Draft, Lengel& Trevino, 1987). Participants
criteria can
communication
(Danet, 2001).
important theories
Media Richness theory
than other
9
Christie, 1976), Media Richness Theory (Draft, Lengel & Trevino, 1987),
Cues-Filtered-Out
widely
social presence
understand the role of social-emotional content
essential
Meaning
thought to be serious and work-oriented. CMC was perceived as
in face-to-face interactions
To
debate. In
social communication was under
in CMC
exchanges
in computer-mediated
and
by
certain
tasks
the tasks. Several
capacity
of
the media
instant interactions, the
body movements
personal
focus
of
and
the
voices, the
medium.
most natural communication medium
lack
task-oriented and
of nonverbal
unfit
cues, is deemed
for communicating
as a
emotions.
Emoticons Usage
Empirical
researches also proved
content than
those
that messages in
appearing in face-to-face
CMC
10
task-oriented in
were more
communication
Meaning
and
(Hiltz, Johnson, & Turoff,
1986).
Social
presence
is "the degree
consequent salience of an
Social
interpersonal
in
an
interaction
and
relationship"
(Walther & Burgoon, 1992,
by
assumes that the amount of attention paid
theory
presence
of salience of another person
p.
the
52).
the user to the other
participants'
social
presence
communication channels
the channels, the
CMC lacked
less the
during
the communication
that are available
social presence would
social presence
in the CMC
the new medium was considered as
The Cues-Filtered-Out theory
and the
that exist in
nonverbal cues
Nonverbal information
the
as
impersonal,
As
concluded
as
and
the
face-to-face
very
much
by Rice
and
to
part
are
confined, the natural
is filtered
in interpersonal
out
businesslike,
or
less 'social
less friendly,
task oriented.
If the
researchers
richness of
in CMC.
communication and when
in CMC, it is inevitable that CMC
media allow
as
and
that because the channels in CMC are limited
Love (1987), early
be described
limited
natural richness of
would
unemotional, task-oriented and unfit for socially oriented
bandwidth narrows,
likely
transmitting
communication
important
nonverbal cues are screened out
of
be transmitted
face-to-face
plays an
in television
communication.
proposes
types of information that can
The fewer
be (Walther & Burgoon, 1992). Since
communication was
incapable
interpersonal interactions in face-to-face
to the
within a communication medium.
audio and video channels as existed
communication,
process corresponds
be
regarded
communication.
found that
presence',
communication
emotional or personal and more
social presence concept
is
serious,
is accepted, CMC,
Emoticons Usage
because
its lack
of
lacking sociability
some scholars
impersonal. Messages
such as online
1996,
226)
in
flaming
physical
equally
found that CMC
"hostile
will
impersonal
and
be less
completely
(SE)
verbal
messages,
unemotional and
content can
behavior in
flaming
be developed
CMC"
happens
and
(Thompson,
quite often
Love
(1987)
provide"
of social control
(p. 89). Rice
and
limitations in
communication
out nonverbal
information in
(p.
that nonverbal cues
and
and with more extreme affect on
marks, intentional
there
(Thompson, 1996; Fehlman, 2002). Rice
happened easily among CMC
paralinguistic cues
so
socioemotion
Flaming is
appearance, authority, status,
interactions"
perceived as
11
88)
was not
and as undesirable socioemotional
believed that "lack
be
will
(p.
content exchange,
flaming.
online communication
why
cues,
reinforcement,
highly charged with
in CMC
p.
and normative
(SE)
socioemotional
However,
of audio or video
Meaning
and
Love
users and
(1987)
allows users
systems than
reported
the reason
to participate more
in many face-to-face
that to compensate
for the
filteredchannels, CMC users created ways to express the
written
include "the
forms
such as online paralinguistic
use of capital and
(Jacobson, 1999,
errors, and
paralinguistic cues enrich people's
social, emotional and relational
CMC
features. These
lowercase letters, ellipsis,
emoticons"
typing
was
the "lack of nonverbal cues about
turn-taking
CMC
89)
experience and
para.
have been
exclamation
18). The
proved
to
uses of
enhance
communication via computer-mediated networks
(Asteroff, 1987; Utz, 2000).
Social Information
Processing Theory (SIP)
although the exchange of
information
exists
in
information is
task-oriented
slow
proposes
(Walther & Tidwell,
in CMC environments,
interactions in the
1995)
that
social and relational
language-only environment
of
CMC.
Emoticons Usage
Participants'
motivations
Face-to-face
participants
when
time
they
for
communication
in CMC to build up interpersonal
research
communication channels would
communications as well as
limitation
do
not exist
those in the
Walther
be
over
CMC
build up
and
off-hours
in
(1995) found that
and a
affectionate.
Asteroff
their professor and
it intruded
business
delayed reply to
users
video media or
find
in
email could
a social message
(1987)
be
found that
with
due to
nonverbal
telephone
to
mostly
express
relational and social
domination
read as a sign of
over
between
implication
perception of
a
business
email
the receiver's
of the receiver.
friendly
indicated the relationship
only ASCII characters, the
the
Sending
leisure life
examined email exchanges
emotional
the CMC.
email exchanges.
and commanded
Although
alternative ways
inferred
an attempt of control and
temporal activities because
a
other ways.
by
build up
to
social presence
emails and these nonverbal cues could affect
implied
immediate reply to
the lack of
face-to-face communication,
users
users were able
transmit relational and
for in many
compensated
social relational communication expressed
during
users could
(1994) found out
social presence caused
CMC
time and
take more
will
in face-to-face
relationships than
relationships with other users through
Tidwell
chronemic cues
in the future. It
differences in
other media and
in the CMC environment, CMC
emotions and
from
in many
of channels could
cues such as
diminish
during their interactions.
relationships
that the
in
motivation,
the multiple parallel cue systems exist. Walther
college students
among
and
12
impressions, especially
communication and make social
interacting over a long period of time
anticipate
participants
affiliation
Meaning
CMC
communicators via
among
(Walther, 1992). Driven by
develop relational
communication where
in his
to affiliate are similar
and
work
An
relationship
was casual and
college students and
participants were able
to
Emoticons Usage
use paralinguistic
features
such as
intentionally misspelling,
emoticons to scream and to express
in face-to-face
emoticons
Information
Use
can
the
social
also confirms
a convenient
development
emoticons
appear
with a palm
other than
6
program.
conversations
images
from
theory
in
crying
Social
that emoticon use
friendships
one
develops.
and emotions online and
interactions. The
instant messaging
programs
social and relational
from the ASCII
and animated cartoons are provided
sarcastic
are
69
emoticons
emotions, actions
(-'), thinking ( V),
in the
and words
pizza
C")
to
versions, many of the icons are animated
and winking.
Emoticons
English. The New York Times
million users
various
They describe
new updated
by themselves.
most popular
in
For example, there
programs.
In the
feelings
perspective of
an extension and upgrade
still
processes such as
emoticons
(Pollack, 1996). The
than
in
tree (&).
to resemble the action
more
from the
users
of emoticons
As
including
Microsoft Instant Messenger 6.1
languages
and
that MUD players used
computer-mediated
of emoticons
environments.
instant messaging
that
express
information processing in
in CMC
emoticons, graphic
to create
way to
the importance and success
communication
and phrases
among MUD
theory. The results supported the SIP
is
extensive use and rapid
users
reported
time and the more emoticons one uses, the more
of emoticons
facilitate
island
capitalization, repeating,
13
and other emotions as would appear
Similarly, Utz (2000)
friendship building
Processing
with
by various
Meaning
to express feelings and build up relationships. She examined the uses of
emoticons and
increases
communication.
joy, frustration,
and
are
The
widely
program also allows
used
in
web sites of
reported usage of emoticons
in Japan
Chinese instant chatting program, Tencent QQ, boasts
logging onto
the
program at
http://www.tencent.com/index.shtml). Tencent
QQ
the
offers
same
95
time
in March 2004 (See
still and animated emoticons
Emoticons Usage
with some
that express similar
messenger such as
emoticons
describe
with a mask
in
public
smiling (
C-.J)
during
actions and words that appear
appeared
in the MSN
in
2003, mimicking
outbreak
and
users such as
smiley
the faces when people had to wear masks
in China in the
by MSN Messenger
Chinese Internet
spring.
Comparing some
Tencent QQ, it is
of
the
obvious that emoticons used
in different languages
and cultural environments share similarities and also represent
unique experiences of
the users from the cultures.
cultural contexts will offer more
intercultural
communication
14
^), thumb up/down (^/V) and telephone (&). Some
experiences that are unique to
SARS
emoticons offered
feelings,
Meaning
and
Comparing emoticon
insights to the knowledge
in the
new
information
of
CMC
and
usage
the
in different
its relationship to
age.
The definition Issue
Generally
speaking, emoticons are "icons for the expression
Ruedenberg- Wright
smiley :-), the
& Rosenbaum-Tamari, 1997,
original
emoticon,
was
1982, by Scott E. Fahlman (2002),
Science Department
would
boards
easily
of
hindered the
Fahlman
He
then
in
of nonverbal cues caused
using :-)
as
joke
markers
bulletin board discussion
at
for
the
Concerned
posts
the
a reader
online
bulletin
conversations.
wars
with
Computer
found that
in the text-base
flame
the electronic
September 19th,
a graduate student at
another person's post
online communication process.
proposed
wrote on a
who was
use of
a post written on
the nonverbal elements that were usually present in
Misunderstandings due to lack
and
traced back to
(Danet,
5). The first
the Carnegie Mellon University. Fahlman
miss a satire or joke
without
para.
emotion"
of
from time to time
the flame wars,
that should not
University, "[rjead it
be taken
sideways.
seriously.
Actually, it
Emoticons Usage
is probably
and
Meaning
15
to mark things that are NOT jokes, given current trends. For
more economical
:-("
this,
(Fahlman, 2002,
use
para.
1). Although the frown
was
intended
as a
"non joke
marker", it rapidly developed into a marker of angry and sadness. The electronic
smiley
and
frown
original
were soon spread all over
CMC
users
as
An
Emoticons
state.
There
are
dictionary may have
expressions
used
mostly
types
are several
smileys and created
of emoticons.
many
be
by typing the
different
interesting TV figures
indicate the
other emoticons
recognize
from the
dictionaries
characters and can
in this
used
ASCII smiley
images
emoticon
or
(:-))
:-) is
conversations.
emoticons
in
original
online and
are
together on
characters will
the
features to ASCII
Messenger) is
program converts
able
them
style
to
into
the ASCII emoticons are typed. For example, the
converted
to
MSN Messenger
conversation
and
research.
emoticons and
when
put
ASCII
software program adds graphic
ASCII
faces
be
made of
For instance, Microsoft Instant Messenger (MSN
colorful graphic
insert
development is
many widely
inserted in
ASCII
ASCII keys. Emoticons
emoticons
such
user's emotional
original emoticons are smileys
well circulated versions of emoticon
component
to as ASCII
more recent
emoticons.
can
of
(Marshall, 2003; Jansen, 2004; Hiroe, 2002; Sanderson, 1993). Emoticons
referred
A
The
derived many
made of punctuations marks and other
screen
inspired
2003).
to express emotions and
creative users
thousands
from wining (;-)) to
(******:.)) (Marshall,
frowns (:-)). Later on,
offline
emoticon
describing facial
Marge Simpson
communities around the globe and
to create more and more emoticons to express almost
every emotion
and even personalities.
emoticons,
CMC
by
^ automatically
provides
clicking
dozens
symbols
when
the ASCII
smiley is
of graphic emoticons.
in the
emoticon menu.
Users
In the
Emoticons Usage
recent versions of
brief process
MSN
the
Messenger,
behaviors
of emotional
comprehensive and up-to-date
selected symbols
from
greatly
original emoticons
expanded
and objects
knowledge
the three types
all
animated graphic emoticons
Most
illustrate
in
appear
are
widely
English. Emoticons
Internet
are
used
very
"rose"
messages.
in their
In
a
most emoticons made of
to the words with the
direction
of
study
a
will
include
graphic emoticons and
emoticons
daily life
(
>
designed to
offline such as
in MSN Messenger
represent experiences
"thumbs
up"
((Y)
emoticons and
communities
in languages
in Japan, especially among young
survey
of
Japanese
in their
college students
large
@
or K<^
}->--
Japanese
culture and
other
people.
in 2001, 32.2
53.5
users created emoticons
language heritage
than
Besides
amount of emoticons
messages sent via computer and
mobile phone email.
representing "bow thanks
(A_A)
To have
faces but later developments have
mobile phone users also use a
their experience and their unique
such as
ASCII emoticons,
among CMC
popular
users used emoticons
emoticons
of
many
or
among Internet users,
in their text
eyes.
a
Smiley List).
Emoticons
heavy use
rolling
about emoticon use, this
emotional
people's
in MSN Messenger emoticons)
in Canonical
or
crying
illustrate
16
in the test.
the realm. There are
that often
some emoticons are animated and
such as
Meaning
and
such as
percent of
percent used
to represent
"m(._.)m",
(Katsuno & Yano, 2002; Hiroe, 2002). Different from
politely"
ASCII
reader's
are always read
the reader's head.
characters which
have to be
head tilted to the left
in line
such as
with words and
read at perpendicular angels
:-), the Japanese emoticons
there is no need to
change
the
Emoticons Usage
The
various
types of symbols,
it difficult for
of new emoticons make
definition for these
However, many
emoticons.
of
symbols.
opinion
marks and are viewed
scholars
define
in terms
emoticons
(Wolf, 2000),
emoticons
"consist
their form.
of
tilting
page sideways or
(:D)
that is made
one's
Rezabek
of a colon and a capitalized
symbols
that
left"
letter
such as
and appeared
emoticons as
(p.
in the
"visual
when read sideways represent
emotions"
(Rezabek & Cochenour, 1998,
head to the
English letters
(1998) defined
Cochenour
and
formed from ordinary typographical
or
of various punctuation
excludes some popular emoticons made of
newsgroups she examined.
feelings
expanding tendency
scholars to make a comprehensive and accurate
Most CMC
by turning the
828). Wolf's definition
cues
and origins and the ever
17
Meaning
them differ in some degree on what should be categorized as
In Wolf's
open mouth smile
functions
and
p.201).
They
gave
the example
of
the smiley face:
.
.
.the
combination of symbols
sentiments
emoticons
Some
symbols
animals
(^)
person
messenger emoticons
are not categorized as emoticons
of emoticons
emoticons as
had the
"manipulations
research on
As
emoticons
the use of
became
using that
that are
keyboards
used
particular
to
ordinary
characters you can
find
201)
(%)
faces"
to
and
and
researchers
create
(p.
205)
in
emoticons.
in his book
definition
and stated that
keyboard"
sequent of
(p.
represent roses
because the two
symbols
the Japanese
the term
and conveys the
a similar state of mind.
a popular style of communication, their
used
face
according to their definition. Katsuno
"smiley"
For instance, Sanderson
in
same problem
of
typical smiley
message and
agreeable or
"kaomoji,"
their
represents a
sending the
is pleased, happy,
in the MSN
Yano's definition
defined
that the
:-)
on your computer
expanded.
"a smiley is
(Sanderson,
a
Emoticons Usage
1993,
1). But this broad definition includes too many types
p.
definition
accurate
In contrast, the
dominate
that
definitions
and reports on
A
definitions
older
instant chatting
made,
foreign
emoticons
particular,
they
by
.
.
an
emoticon collections.
When
seen
rarely
for
widely
used
in English.
by Randall (2002)
function, "[w]hile they
their
most
on
the online paralanguage
are not abbreviations
expressions of
for any
words
in
mood, tone of voice, or
reader"
(p. 27). The
usage and
report used
function
smiley, the
original
emoticon, to
of emoticons.
According to Randall,
be taken
Typed
the
designed to convey
.a
looks like
become, in
,
a
effect, a
smiling face if
and most recent versions of
also use
meaning in their
(p.
your
for the
as
:-), this
head 90% to the left,
online age.
instant messaging
refer
important way in
otherwise
tilt
seriously.
Today
and
it has
it is typed
as
:-), :)
programs offer cartoon
27)
different terms to
regarded emoticons as an
you
punctuation mark
versions of emoticons.
Scholars
to
sense that an expression was not
notation
or
be
to
newer graphic emoticons
programs'
emoticons were
illustrate the appearance,
was
fail to include the
cartoon emoticons and animated emoticons were not
act as abbreviations
instructions to the
smiley
above
more recent report carried out
defined
of online symbols
of emoticons.
various
were
18
Meaning
and
impersonal
to these
visual symbols.
which email users could
messages.
Emoticons
Walther
invest
were referred
(2001)
social
to as
messages"
"graphical
expressions
that many email
users embed
faces"
325)
and
they
typographic
were also
symbols
"smiley
that
and
in their
"relational
appear sideways as
icons",
resembling facial
(Walther, 2001,
"...created
with
(p. 325).
p.
Emoticons Usage
Witrmer
Katzman
and
(1997)
devices"
emotional, artistic, and directional
in
"graphic
used
and
Meaning
19
accents"
(GAs)
(p.
3) in
to refer
"generically to
their research on gender
differences
emoticon usage.
Asteroff
the "spatial
(1987)
adopted
"smiley
arrays."
A
array is "the
spatial
to create a graphic or an
identifiable
spatial arrays could provide more
communication.
Smiley faces
and numbers create several
image"
an
her
effectively to
express
students.
in
(p. 125). Asteroff believed that
defined
as
of
"various
faces
some
type of
words and were more effective
combinations of
symbols,
in
letters,
which when viewed sideways create
the email exchanges between a university
She found that the teacher
their various
email she
image"
examined
on online paralanguages as one of
systematic spatial arrangements of characters
information than
were
communicated via these simple
arrays used
in her thesis
different kinds
(p. 126). Asteroff
professor and
face"
feelings
icons. She
and
the
and
the
students used emoticons
emotional messages were well
concluded that
like
observed, smiley faces could also
other
types
of spatial
"directly express
a
variety
of
(p. 126). These face
anger"
emotions
including humor, irony,
symbols were
placed at
usually
the end
used
to ".
.
sadness,
.support
of a sentence or
unhappiness and
or
message,
modify the
or
they
can
written
be the
language
when
they
are
entire communication
alone"
(p. 126).
"emoticons"
In this study, the term
characters, graphic
instant messaging
online programs
ASCII
refers
to
nonverbal cues made
symbols and animated graphic symbols
programs, emails, Bulletin Board
to
represent
that are
both
used
Systems, discussion
of
in
be
tested
in this
research.
popular
groups and other
phrases.
emotions, actions, objects, words and
and graphic emoticons will
ASCII
Selected
Emoticons Usage
The meaning
In the
seldom
what
Meaning
20
of emoticons
emoticons, the
academic research on
meanings associated with emoticons are
the subject of study. It is presumed that people who use emoticons understand
they
mean.
emoticons
may
As Lane
This
be
not
(2003)
as simple as
pointed
among
members of a speech
metacommunicative
from their
and
carry
had "become
to facial
research on
college
emoticons
anxious,
or
to
:()
noted
nonverbal
and
meaning
used with
of
for different
basic
the wink
the
or ;)).
angry, secretive,
honest,
communication.
as a
But
test in the
emotional
in FtF
as
facial
the
result, the
Friesen, 1975).
interpretation among
the
examined whether students agreed on
Participants
following
perform
people across cultures and
(Ekman &
the
accomplish
of emoticons comes
correctly interpreted,
emoticons under
(;-)
to
paralinguistic
behaviors typically
of emoticons on message
(2001)
regularity
recognizable
that certain
in face-to-face
complicated
students, Walther
associate with
joking,
be
the impact
connotations of the three
(:-(
intentional,
commonly-shared codes
expressions are not always
meanings of emoticons can also
American
as
(1995)
expressions
multiple meanings
facial
of
to for many people.
(p. 357). It's underlying knowledge that the meaning
meanings of
In his
Tidwell
business in CMC that
resemblance
expressions
might seem
to test. But issue
put
community, and have consensually
(p. 6). Walther
such as emoticons
interaction"
it
been
"with intent, typically interpreted
interpretations"
features
seldom
out, paralinguistic cues used in CMC such as emoticons
be
used
has
argument
should
frown
and
study:
were asked
the smiley
to
(:-)
select one of
or
:)), the
three
labels: sad, happy, seductive,
sarcastic, surprise, disguise and afraid.
There
Emoticons Usage
was consensus on
the
basic meaning for the smiley
of the participants agreed
that the
was associated with sadness.
emoticons, but data on the meanings
and
the
frown
showed
33.1
than
half believed the
Since
had the
in
interpretation
research
connotation of
percent selected the
frown
that
express
in
meanings.
part
into
which much
each
kaomoji
open
to
may be
meanings,
at
one could
face
.
read.
.
.,
More
and
can
Yano
with verbal
be important to the
(2002)
pointed out
in their
value
those texts for their
within a particular social context of
say that kaomoji
very little
written on
In addition,
we argue
for its
interpretation, adding
contextual and
As Katsuno
from their juxtaposition
particular a mask with
with specific
wink.
(emoticons)
interchange. In many ways,
does, in
and
connotation of
for the
in juxtaposition
emoticons'
kaomoji
being anxious, joking
and the rest opted
interchanges
the context of the
of
frown
the joking mark and the rest chose the smiley.
wink was
interactions,
the
Participants'
believed that the smiley had the
most emoticons are used as nonverbal cues
expressions
and
that the consensus was not completely convincing.
anxious,"
38.4
happiness
the wink and the other meanings of the smiley
of
percent of the participants
"being
21
claimed consensus on the meanings of most
opinions were split on which emoticon
surprised.
Meaning
the frown. More than 98 percent
was associated with
smiley
Walther
and
and
that
users
own meaning.
The
218)
they
much
its face,
themselves
do
necessarily take
In stead, kaomoji
kaomoji
a mask
identify kaomoji
not
embellish, which
meanings of
like
and therefore one
dictionaries
stereotypical meaning.
to the texts
interpretative, (p.
although
"speak"
...
remain
drawing upon
are
highly
Emoticons Usage
In
in
an earlier research
interpretation is
contextual"
highly
huge
to interpret.
Cochenour
Many
and
Cochenour
Uses
could
only
is
Users'
preference and
contextual"
The
among
(Rezabek &
assumption
users
creativity
affected
emotions.
and
Cochenour, 1998,
has
not
been tested in
cultures and cultures create
culturalised
This study
Chinese
This study
variety
p.
of new
interpreted..
.
emoticons,
.
in
use and
will
that emoticon interpretation
214).
empirical studies.
Emoticon
cultures
meanings are
the code that makes emoticons intelligible to
interpretation
test to see
[Ujsers
caricatures of
as
if emoticons
it is in the
emotion, emoticons may
use and
are understood
interpretation
differently in
of
American
of culture
attempts
people's motivations
to
to
explore
the impact of
use emoticons.
culture and characteristics of
to the
choose a small
cultures.
Dimensions
related
Although
highly frequently
"the development
number of emoticons and
(Danet, 2001; Katsuno & Yano, 2002). As
highly
used.
that the meanings of emoticons are shared knowledge across
emoticon users
deeply rooted in
be
limited
understand and use a
highly
"emoticon
the creative emoticons had multiple meanings and were difficult
of
the use of emoticons, and the context within which emoticons are
both
22
argued that a
highly
available, only those
likely to be best understood.
Meaning
also suggested that
unlikely to be
users was
amount of creative emoticons
used emoticons were
of emoticons.
and
(p. 214). Rezabek
meaning among its
symbol without shared
there were a
1998, Rezabek
and
the
This
culture on
chapter will explain some
American, Chinese
question under study.
the meaning of emoticons and
and
Japanese
dimensions
cultures
that are
of
Emoticons Usage
Edward T. Hall
closely
in intercultural
was a pioneer
from different
with people
cultures and
communication, Hall proposed the
which
Hall
has been
theory
of
communication.
doing research
high
proved accurate and resourceful
practice and
high-context (HC)
information is
communication or message
in the
either
low
working
context culture,
research.
According to
(LC)
communication
vested
American
in the
is
culture
cultures are typical
carried out
Instead,
cultures
low-context
meaning.
Subtle
culture and
other aspects of
dimensions
show
communication
not
Chinese
and
cultures, meaning
solely transferred in
words.
and
important in transferring
meaning.
that people of high-context and low-
style,
nonverbal communication and
behaviors (Hall, 1976; Ting-Toomey, 1988). Scholars identified
of culture such as
Individualism-Collectivism
(Triandis, 1972; Hofstede, 1980).
Individualistic
independent individual
individual
and value
benefits
over
individual
(I-C)
cultures emphasize
needs and
while members of collectivistic cultures
collective needs and
Japanese
very important in making up
nonverbal cues are
life interactions
differ greatly in
low-context
the information is
(Hall, 1976). In low-context
situation are also
research and real
context cultures
benefits
mass of
in words; in high-context culture, meaning is
understanding the
many
high-context
the message. A
while
79)
typical
considered a
the relationship and
Intercultural
(p.
the
one which most of
part of
is just the opposite; i.e., the
explicit code.
is
internalized in the person,
physical context or
very little is in the coded, explicit, transmitted
other
in
years of
23
in intercultural
work
context culture and
in
Meaning
(1976),
a
is
After
and
benefits
have strong
needs and
over
and
the
Power Distance
value of
group
needs and
in-group identity
benefits. Individualist
and value
cultures
Emoticons Usage
encourage
harmony
I-C
individuality
Japanese
Researchers find that
reported
people
that people
from
individual
Chinese
of
should
Emoticon
be
culture ranks
high towards the individual
emotional expressions and nonverbal
individualist
cultures
because
discourages
reflected
display more
such variations
in how
found
development
the
I-C dimensions
behaviors. For example, it is
varieties of emotions
less tolerant
people use emoticons and
how the
than
of
(Matsumoto, 1991). These
of emoticons were seen as
(Katsuno & Yano, 2002,
the use
of emoticons
emoticons, called kaomoji in the
symbols such as
cultures are
end of
cultural
meanings of
uses and culture
and
on
and
collective cultures are
culture"
not
in-group
interpreted.
use and
technology
24
culture are representative of the collectivism culture.
differences in low-/high-context
collectivistic cultures
emoticons are
The
and
variations and
differences
American
culture
indicate differences in
Meaning
and uniqueness while collectivistic cultures encourage
and cooperation.
scale and
and
(A_A)
and
high-context
p.
206). Since
in CMC in China, I
stead.
(*_*). In the
Chinese
will
interaction,
academic research was
use of
kaomoji
aspect, both Japanese
lot
of social
discuss the
emoticons and
cultural
cultures and share a
"confluence
share
and
Japanese
many
Chinese
of connections and similarities
(Hall,
1976).
A
scholar with
Japanese background, Katsuno
collaborated on a research on
technological,
the
emoticon use
social and cultural origin of
among Japanese Internet
and an
American
in Japan in 2002.
kaomoji. The two
users on emoticon uses
in
various
scholar
Yano
They explored the
scholars conducted a
domains
of
Internet
survey
Emoticons Usage
Some kaomoji
communication.
kaomoji
motivations to use
provided useful
information
Meaning
interviewed for detailed knowledge
users were
and on
and
the ways how
on emoticon use
they
in Japan
used
and
kaomoji. Their
on
25
their
research
insight into the influence
of
culture on the use of emoticons.
Before Internet technology
Japanese Internet
users were
was
divided into
noncommercial computer network
of general public users connected
standing transnational
identified
relation
network users.
As
a
academic users
through
the
believed that the basic
Americans
and/or
they
general public
started
to
be
the
and the most popular
users'
then
used
networks.
in the
more
first
kaomoji
Kaomoji
Japanese
Because
than that of the
symbol
were
of
the
long
general public
popular.
s
Both the
(A_A)
first
was
in 1986
used as cyber signature and
American
number and
untraceable, it is
appeared
When the Internet
JUNET'
became very
kaomoji
cyber culture created
commercial network users overwhelmed the
soon
and a small number
Japanese academics, The JUNET
use of
body of messages.
accessible to the general public, the
kaomoji
linked through the
commercial networks.
and
in 1990s, the
result, the American emoticons were mostly used in JUNET
interactions. Although the invention
among the
general public
(JUNET, Japanese Unix Network)
between American
with a cyber culture of
for the
available
widely
variety
by
was made
easily
the early
style cyber culture and
of
kaomoji increased
rapidly.
There
the
are
surface
differences between the American
level. As
mentioned
before,
one
The American
emoticons and
is the
Japanese
emoticons are read.
Japanese
emoticons are written right side up.
ways
in
the Japanese kaomoji
which
the American and the
emoticons are written sideways and the
When Pollack,
a
on
New York
Times'
Emoticons Usage
in Japan
correspondent
reported on the use of
Japanese
emoticons
and
Meaning
in 1996, he
26
relegated
this difference between kaomoji and the American emoticons to the discomfort of the
Japanese
to tilt their heads when reading and thus an
users
American
symbols.
The American
focus. The American
and the
Japanese
its American
can
do that)
counterpart
as
smile without
but because the
mouth
in the American emoticon, the
knowing the
did
and
symbol could
character set of
letters
hardly be
protocol
and punctuation marks
is transmitted
as one
on
The Japanese
written system
ideographs. To
word
produce
processing
Japanese language. Users
automatically
face than
character
understood as a
planners of
facilitate
in
part
from the
the Internet were
communication
in
to transmit text over the Internet
the sounds
Japanese
to a
other
in
languages
is based
the
on
the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII). The
is based
pictographic
the eyes.
the American writing systems and computer input
alphabets and
and ones.
use
and
Roman
set
emphasize
emoticons originate
the invention of the Internet was to
The
expressive
up (no keyboard
possible problems associated with online communication
were not anticipated.
ASCII
not curl
(Katsuno & Yano, 2002; Pollack, 1996). The early
mostly American
differ in
the
specific context.
difference between the Japanese
English,
kaomoji
recognize
(--) bore more resemblance
The differences in Kaomoji from the American
systems
emoticons also
emoticons emphasize the mouth and
Pollack thought that the Japanese basic smiley
inability to
converts
is based
on
byte
of
English. Each
made of a
enter words
in
the
keyboard
of eight zeros
kanji (Chinese characters)
these intricate pictograms,
programs and a
string
of
which are
computer users
have to
keyboard specially designed to handle the
phonetic alphabets and
the text into kanji. The Japanese
the
computer
characters are made of
two
bytes.
Emoticons Usage
For the
punctuations marks, people can choose
characters.
The double bytes
Emoticons
made of
byte
counterparts
have
characters appear to
double bytes
problems of
pictograms.
But
system was
Romanized decades
computers will
of
unlike
will
her
production of
kaomoji
up
to
call
up the
kaomoji is
accelerate
The popularity
easy
represent all
their
their single
computer users
into Chinese
the Roman alphabets and
automatically
and
the characters.
made of
(A_A)
when
when
Internet
the correspondent
the word
use
can program
of
keystroke
user can program
"smile"
his
is typed in. As the
becomes widespread, the
uses of
other communication media such as
and mobile phone users utilize emoticons
the traces
The
two-byte characters
keyboards. Users
typed in. For example, a
kaomoji among
users and
with word
characters are also made
heavily in
pager and mobile phone users
the development of these symbols and imbue into these
characteristics of
wider.
characters.
from the Internet to
Pager
of
byte
emoticon
made
to
bytes. Emoticons
programs are
are popular and extend
messaging.
users can enter
to customize their
emoticons
pagers and mobile phones.
used.
made of one
designated in their
computer
look
feeling than
alphabets
27
double bytes
the phonetics into Chinese characters
take two
computers allow users
their computers to call
or
Computer
ago.
enough combinations
look larger than those
characters
a stronger
converting the Roman
convert
punctuation marks also
Japanese
convey
or
spaced and
Similar to the Japanese kanji, the Chinese
two bytes to allow for
Chinese
be double
byte
Meaning
the complex Japanese phonetic systems, the Chinese phonetic
automatically
programs.
processing
characters
one
(Pollack, 1996; Katsuno & Yano, 2002). The Chinese
identical
almost
between
and
symbols
the media technologies
text
in turn
the
via which
they
are
Emoticons Usage
Different from Japanese
emoticons which are
up, the Chinese
users and written right side
emoticons that are read sideways and some
texts.
It may be impossible to know
Japanese
style emoticons appeared
imported from their
or were
users under
emoticons
Japanese
in Chinese
than the academic
Internet
computers
emoticons
Japanese
public
users.
Internet
generally do
not allow
style emoticons.
For example, the
into
smiley
one-byte
form,
of
original
smiley face
when
emoticon
not
is
styles
that the academic Internet
likely to
use
use
Japanese
have their
hardly
style emoticons are
made of one-byte
with
Chinese
recognizable as a
system
one-byte
word
this time whether
American
also
style emoticons
problems.
for customizing keyboards to
only look ugly, they
it is typed in
the word processing
texts since the computer's
computer users
the general public users, especially
likely to
both
has to be
with
also unclear
users
typed in
lose the
ASCII
word
processing
switched
to produce
with double-
comic gestalt
characters
smiling face. To
Since
produce
the original emoticons made of single space
of
troublesome to insert a
unclear at
more
When the American
meaning
)
:
two-byte
quite
It is
like Japanese computers, it is troublesome for the Chinese PC
effect and potential
is
American
by Chinese
invented
possible
users and
Emoticons
byte Chinese characters, the icons
changed
It is
the Japanese
that are read in line
network communication.
original countries.
characters.
:-)
will
be
programs.
keep
its
The
original
from Chinese to English. It
American
emoticon
into the two-byte Chinese
system
has to be
shifted
processing
28
the first American-style and
styles were
teenage girls who covet Japanese culture, are
Chinese
emoticons
the influence of American cyber culture are more
than the general
of
emoticons are made of some
when and where
different
these emoticons of two
whether
mostly the inventions
Meaning
and
one style will prevail upon
the
back
other one or
and
both
forth. It is
styles will
Emoticons Usage
co-exist alongside.
But
with
and
29
Meaning
the graphic emoticons as a powerful option, it is probable
that users of both the American style and the Japanese style emoticons will
gradually
converge
It
into
one style of graphic emoticons.
was reported that
Japanese
the reason might be that
phenomenon
cultures.
may
words.
the
are used
on pictographic
also reflect the
Contrary to
explicitly in
of
Japanese
language is based
written
use emoticons more
for
all
reading
Chinese
Part
and
their
using pictograms,
characters
Americans,
the Japanese people tend
They rely heavily
on
facial
not
the
and
the Internet users of various cultural
American
to express everything
expressions and personal
It is difficult to
since
of
(Pollack, 1996). This
differences between the Japanese
the context to pass the message through.
text
to
frequently than Westerners.
express
understanding
feelings
with plain
backgrounds but it is especially
troublesome for the Japanese users. Lack of nonverbal cues in computer mediated
interactions seriously
affects not
and correct communication of
in the discussion
claimed
they
of reasons
only the transmission
meaning in
why they
used emoticons
a negative way.
used
forms
One
Internet
kaomoji
when
his
Internet
users
messages sounded
message.
put emphasis on something.
too
Conversely, I
Then I
(2002)
to
the
wholesome
that
unanimously
(Pollack, 1996;
interviewed
in
use emoticons
various
chats and mobile phone text messaging.
emoticon uses at online
my
to soften the nuances of a
to
Yano
and emoticon veterans on motivations
participant explained on
used
and
also
almost predictable
to modify the nuances of text messages
of communication media such as
"I
So it is
emoticons, Japanese
Katsuno & Yano, 2002; Nishimura, 2003). Katsuno
representative
feelings but
of
bulletin boards that,
serious.
Kaomoji have the
also used
would use a
them
kaomoji that
when
I
showed
power
wanted
my
Emoticons Usage
emphasis.
Whereas in my face-to-face conversations, I felt I
and
Meaning
30
could always
transmit the nuance of my sentence through my tone or voice or facial expression,
in
cyberspace-chat or email
the sentence represents and what I
what
kaomoji."
(p.
other people.
Some times
intention but if he
insulting to
this
he
and
opinions
had to be
other readers and
often added emoticons
that
voice and
in
expressed
this might
his formal
to
news
gap between
group discussions
in formal language
to prevent the
to convey the intended mood.
nuances of shades
the
t say. To fill this gap, I used to
want
during participation
used casual expressions
would sound
dialogues
cannot express
use
215)
He described his dilemma
problem
communication, I
formality
evolve
of
many
his
against
the statement, he
into flame
statement
with
wars.
to soften his
To
solve
cyber
The
emoticons
delicately modify the
body languages
contribute
in face-to-face
communication.
It has been
noted that
discussions, known
Japanese
Katsuno
Internet
susceptible
"flaming."
as online
emoticons were
words-only
CMC is
The first inventions
both American
and
of
arguments.
and
friends. Major
Yano's
(2002)
chat rooms and
interviews
for the fun
Instant
of
emoticons
trouble to type in emoticons
clicks of the mouse and
Internet
Messaging
users'
messaging
of
smileys, intended as joke markers to defuse the seriousness
chatters use emoticons
saved the
to foster negative argumentative
inserting them
at
chat participants revealed
inspired in interactions between
programs offer
by calling up
the desired
conversations operate as synchronous
that
basic
emoticons.
the intended
places.
Chat
interactions
emoticons
room and
and require
They
by
instant
heavy
Emoticons Usage
Messages
engagements of participants.
terminals
immediately
interactions rely
basis
after
flow
on
conversations
Katsuno
and
"[w]hat I thought
Yano
I
such an unproductive symbol.
kaomoji.
me want
.
..[C]
hat
to use
kaomoji."
Both the Japanese
verbal messages and
emoticons
have been
explained on
and
to
was
try
always
rooms conversation
(p.
informal,
in
the
that kamoji have the
room and
where uses of emoticons
because
to
taking
jump
the time to make and use
on
my friends
by creating new
will respond
This
immediately
makes
with
emoticon users use emoticons
to
supplement
users'
reasons
to
use or not
A female
to
use
emoticon user
choices,
"Kaomoji certainly function to
understand what
Chat
conversations also
deeply affected by the Japanese culture.
marks are not needed
emoticons also
216)
the American
use
the
messages are the
takes place one after another.
have fun. But Japanese
her kaomoji
of
interview that,
kaomoji, because somebody
another
network
interactions between two friends. An Internet
kaomoji
about
31
transmission of meaning for the
use emoticons
(2002) in his
fun
and
the
because typed
online conversations.
be light
tend to
People tend to
was
speed
of
The ongoing
helping express feelings,
facilitate
the fun that uses of emoticons set off in
told
signal.
users sacrifice accurate
speed and
are natural and appropriate.
veteran
"send"
typing
interactions. Besides
of social
instant messaging
the
Many
greatly increase the typing
of
the sender hit the
participants'
heavily
of conversations.
smooth
to the receiver's end
are sent
Meaning
and
in
make
the
messages sent
other
party
power
to
means
make
nuance of sentences clear.
between my
to say
close
friends
my
message
less
such
and me.
without such marks.
the tone of
But
We
can
Actually, I feel
serious.
Emoticons Usage
Therefore I
use
know. Also, I
them
use
them I only use a
want
when
happy mark.
to. I also can't use an
Yano, 2002,
p.
sending little
Of course, I
can't use
apologizing kaomoji
seriousness of
relationships and social
how
emoticons are
be
of socialization when use and non-use of emoticons
sender and
close
friends did
not use
made
it
for them to
need
possible
the
help
motivations and
Chinese
Yano's study
harmonious
substitute
also
culture
I really
party."
(Katsuno
other
have
and
an
impact
on
used, to whom the
Emoticons
used.
turn to
be
an
uses
become
indicator
and embedded contexts and
is
high-context
uses
may
In
consistent
nonverbal cues
also exist
in
a
of social
each other
they did not
(Hall, 1976). These
emoticon use
high-context
indicates that
among
culture.
culture affected
Katsuno
the
reasons
to expectation, people of high-context cultures
clarify the meaning
emoticons as an
in their
culture
also regarded as a
use motivations
tended to use
relationships
for
familiar
culture as a
kaomoji
tended to add emoticons to
They
when
to get the correct messages across. This resonates the
Chinese
people use emoticons.
words.
assume
Japanese
on
although with
the receiver. When the user explained that she and her
behaviors in kaomoji
users since
I
I really should, because it
emoticons, she indicated that their knowledge of
of emoticons
characterizations of
why
when
sender and receiver
emoticons are addressed and also what emoticons can
distance between the
familiar,
32
some people
angry kaomoji
my intentions to the
distance between the
choices where emoticons are used,
way
jokes to
Meaning
219)
users'
and
messages or
them with those with whom I'm not so
doesn't convey the
The
only
and
communities.
of plain
text and modify the
indicator
This
nuances of
of social relationships
to create
use of paralinguistic cues could
that are important in high-context
cultures.
be
a
The Americans
Emoticons Usage
"joke
used emoticons as a
marker"
(Fahlman, 2002)
their social interaction motivations are
users.
This tendency
computer-mediated
more motivated
cultures
The
because
dimensions may
Scholars
it is
for
in
sophisticated than those of the
emoticons use motivations
likely that
social
high-
users of
to the
intentionality
use:
agree
that emoticons
nonverbal
in face-to-face
missing
different
associated with emoticons
and effect
can provide supportive
facial
information to
less
are thought
to be
controlled and
not
in this
be the
made with
deliberate than
always aware when
involuntary
specific
they
are
way
texts in
these symbols to
(Rezabek, 1998; Walther & D'Addario,
same as nonverbal
verbal messages.
for
connotations
behaviors. Nonverbal
intentions, but many forms
actions that the others can assume are performed
communicated
written
expressions enhance people's experience of verbal
of written messages
may
different
meanings with emoticon usage.
2001; Danet, 2001; Katsuno & Yano, 2002). However, intentional
are
nonverbal cues.
and collectivistic/individualistic
communication and emoticons users use
disambiguate the meaning
behaviors
individualistic
motivations of emoticon usage and users of
associate
Japanese
in intercultural
users'
affect
33
users of collectivistic cultures are
interactions than
/low-context
Meaning
to lubricate Internet interactions but
collectivistic cultures are more sensitive
the same way that
messages
and
to use emoticons
backgrounds may
Emoticon
reflected
interactions
difference in the
cultural
cultural
be
should
far less
and
of nonverbal
Some behaviors
reasons other
or not.
Some facial displays
(Walther & D'Addario, 2001; Lane, 2003). But
communicate
than the information
and are perceived as unintentional.
smiling
behavior
People
are not
are considered
as typed out symbols,
Emoticons Usage
emoticons are seldom
intentional than
unpoliced and
verbal messages
intentionality of emoticon
the
of
left
in
Meaning
34
their uses may be no less deliberate and
electronic communication.
Marvin
(1995) recognized
uses and commented on this phenomenon
in her discussion
MOO interaction that,
in face-to-face
smiles
In the
context of the
private
something
contexts can
MOO.
.
.
be
every
flowing across
strategic or spontaneous and unintentional.
be consciously indicated. In
smile must
the computer screen might causes a participant
to spontaneously smile, but a conscious choice must
participant might
smile,
But do
do
and
have
an experiment
emoticons on
at the
keyboard
and
but
made
to type it out; a
[sic] strategically decide
to type
a
(para. 13)
emoticons affect
emoticons
did
frown
be
the meaning of messages in the intended
on message
interpretation in CMC? Walther
among American
interpretation
of
college students
meaning in Internet
positive and negative verbal message with a smile
and
to find out the
communication.
emoticon,
a
way?
What impacts
D'Addario
(2001)
actual effects of
They paired each
frown
emoticon or a wink
participants
emoticon
in
messages
in terms
revealed
reaction
supposed email exchanges and observed
of
interpretation
of
the
message and
ambiguity
towards the
of meaning.
The
results
that
[i]n
most
that
they
did
cases,
emoticons were overwhelmed
accompanied.
not generate
In
almost all
cases,
by the
email messages
different interpretations than did
terms of the known functional
valence of verbal statements
containing
emoticons
messages without emoticons.
relationships of nonverbal communication
to
In
verbal
Emoticons Usage
communication, the emoticon may serve the function of
messages at
Limitations
of
best but
their
not
study
are obvious.
same emoticons were presented
have
setting
flawed
was
D'Addario
had been
friend's
(2001)
email
and might
because
judgment
they
might
communication and uses
in
previous
emoticons.
prosaic.
The
chapters, there was
Since this disagreement
affected the
reliability
of
similarities and
Americans
as shown
in Japan have
proved
the final
that
affected a particular niche
clarify the
uses
from
fail to do so,
for these findings that
that
they
stopped
disagreement
high-context
emoticons
and
using
signs of
under
test were
may be different. As
on
the
meanings of
in the test, it
pointed
the
might also
have
results.
has
use of emoticons
Yano's
an
(2002)
impact
between the Japanese
on emoticon use.
in Internet applications, it has
culture with a
low-context
and
thorough investigation on emoticons
affected
Culture
culture.
not
CMC in
meanings associated with emoticon usage across cultures, this
a
and
on
the three emoticons
was not considered
and
culture
since the
diminished, culturally
(Kastuno & Yano, 2002). As
However,
potential
differences in the
in Kastuno
to read the statements as
judgment. Walther
the most common ones and effects of less typical emoticons
out
the
and this might
may have their initial dramatic impacts
become
verbal
participants'
affected the
emoticon users also reported
emoticons
35
participants'
participants were required
emoticons were overused
knowledge,
complementing
verbal messages paired with
the impact of theses symbols had
historically. Some Japanese
common
Contradictory
messages, nonetheless
have
Meaning
enhancing them. (p. 341)
proposed another potential reason
overused and
emoticons
or
together for the
Although the
caused confusion.
recipients of a
contradicting
and
only has
general.
study
To
compares
Emoticons Usage
Culture
and
for international
lower than
The Internet is
intercultural
The Internet is
media
The limitation
communication scholars
reshape
deeply rooted in
people's
intimate
and
cost and
whom
demand
friend
via
involvement
enrich
Internet
culture
of
Kozar
(1995) found
that, the Chinese
used
affected
the
celebration on
is
much
locale is transcended in
hub for
global communication.
technology
will
and taken the place of traditional
and relatives.
to an individual's
It is
summer
letter. New
to
replaced
possible that emails are
than telephone and
letters, but
connect with remote
programs and
communication.
Chinese
their
technologies
People
less
friends
have
can speak with
culture and reciprocally, the
of cyber culture.
characters
An
example
is the
Chinese
recreation
the Internet.
through email exchanges with
ASCII
cost
MSN Instant Messenger.
leaves its traces in the development
the Chinese New Year
its
e-business
the Internet interpersonal
Internet technologies have
and
that the information
also allow users
telephone or
phones and
is faster
a new
daily lives
such communications
not contact via
been invented to
a
on
a convenient
the Internet. For some people, email has
letters between friends
impersonal for
they do
36
(Chen, 1998; Ma, 1996).
in many situations, from e-government,
telephone calls and
It is
speed
predicted
communication
medium.
of geographic
becoming
have
vacation well planned and prepared via
low
international
because its
communication
network communication.
greatly
a conspicuous
most traditional media.
Intercultural
Meaning
CMC
The Internet has become
choice
and
to
Chinese
recreate traditional
overseas students
Chinese
in 1992
cultural symbols
Emoticons Usage
on
the
Internet, including sending
celebrate
Chinese New Year
Ethnicity
and
and
identity
electronic media.
play
and
The
as
and object
demonstrated how
and
for the
global and
claimed
local
that,
by the proliferation
of communication allow people
also provides them with an
for the
creation of new patterns
of
to
interface for
performance of
7)
creative celebrations of
both tool
both
made
friendships, but it
through play
tradition, (para.
being
Not only does this kind
renew and strengthen
37
Meaning
electronic cards made of punctuation marks to
Mid-Autumn Festival. Kozar
are
and
for
the
Chinese New
year proved
the "power of the Internet
research"
(Kozar, 1995,
cross-cultural ethnographic
culture
influenced Chinese
para.
1)
users'
computer
application of
the
Internet.
Network technologies have
before
and
intercultural
increased intercultural interactions
communications.
foreign
made
cultures.
Because
They can
of
the
Internet,
interact
with people
horizon. The increased knowledge may
both
online and offline.
intercultural
debate
studies
have
shown
communication.
project
among
email
also
(1998)
and
Turkey to
sensitivity.
debates greatly increased their
promote
more chances
facilitate intercultural
measure
the
greatly
courses
effect of
expand
communication
an effective medium
in business
The
to be exposed to
various cultures and
be
than
Internet
organized a twelve-week
college students enrolled
the improvement of intercultural
from
that the Internet can
Chen
Denmark, France, Hong Kong
in turn
have
people
their
Empirical
will
communication much easier
to
international
promote
email
in the United States,
intercultural CMC
on
that
participants
cultural sensitivity.
responses suggested
The
students reported
that
Emoticons Usage
communicating
They
also
different
ideas
making friends
found that
as
business
on a regular
with
from different
basis
a positive
on
was
(1996) interviewed
countries who participated
participants reported
they finished
that
and
see
found that debate
Chen
communication.
The
experiment proved
all
chats.
intercultural
Most
direct
about
cross-cultural communication
(Ting-Toomey, 1985, 1988) However,
not perceive much effort
communication style.
The
and adaptation
in adapting to their
Internet
they
would
also
be in face-to-face
found that they
situations since
"indirect"
from both
and
often
the Asians.
cultures reported
that
partners'
culture and
Relay Chat
were more
the
in
to the opposite style
parties to preserve their own cultural style and to communicate
differences. Participants
East Asian
their partner's culture
between the Americans
most participants
informality of the
and
sensitivity.
the US and the Asian
of
the project. It is known that Asians are more
are
that
the participants. The
from the United States
in intercultural relay
had
scale, could provide more
communication and enhance
college students
on cultural or social
the importance of these
of
be beneficial for
and
communication
concluded that email exchange
applied on a global
Americans
how individuals from
intercultural
understanding
students.
38
other countries was exciting.
welcomed
they had increased understanding
communication while the
during
in
important to
had. Students
foreign
systems,
for intercultural
students
Meaning
things and to learn about the different values
electronic communication could
opportunities
they did
it
enhanced their
intercultural
computer communication
happens
fellow
long period of time
over a
perspective of
impact
intercultural
after
majors
cultures
international impact
issues from the
Ma
with
cultures and countries viewed
people
issues
and
and
"culture"
both
successfully despite the
direct in relay
restrains
allowed
conversations
that ordinarily
than
hold them back
Emoticons Usage
from
some
situation.
behaviors in face-to-face
However,
experience
most
interacting
indirect"
reserved, and
found that they
to-face
p.
the
(Ma, 1996,
engaged
in
restrains
in their
and another
nonverbal
intercultural relay
communication.
able
was
felt that
chats and
Students
focus
For example,
many
potential
opportunities
especially helpful to
exposed
to foreign
However,
any
have
an
about
in the
"polite,
in the relay
be
US
chats
affected
participant
by
found that the
self-disclosure"
(Ma, 1996,
Instead,
talk about themselves.
their culture. Without some
was minimized
students
than in face-
of
communication such as appearance and
difference
online
much previous
students and the
American
they did not
more
partners were
polite, but do not initiate
in the
medium was more egalitarian
the
speech,
computer-mediated
than
face-to-face
also reported that the computer-mediated conversation was
chats
more on verbal messages.
Internet had the
Asian
of self-disclosure
mostly facts
the
not
182). Both East Asian
student thought
status
did
not exist
participants were still reported to
informational than face-to-face
to
offers
p.
information in face-to-face
most participants
more
reported that their
nice and
American
disclosed information
participants who
higher level
a
cultures.
Asians "are extremely
183)
Asians
with
interaction, but East Asian
behavior
east
American
did
communication
39
Meaning
and
to
be
for
because
The
promote cultural
the
visual
cues,
were
they
demonstrated that the
students'
experience
an efficient medium
people of
without
different
sensitivity
for intercultural interaction. CMC
cultural
backgrounds to interact
of people who
have few
and
chances
to
it is
be
cultures via traditional media.
there
conclusions and the
are significant
capacity
the two intercultural Internet
of
limitations in the
CMC to
application of
these
promote cross-cultural communication.
communication projects were
Both
highly task-oriented in
of
design.
Emoticons Usage
In Chen's
business
formal
form
(1998)
affairs
and
of
experiment, participants were engaged in debates
for
school credits.
impersonal. Although Ma's
Internet
content was
Relay Chat,
the reports.
build up
with
It
was unknown
vital
face-to-face
cultural
among
was unclear what
that intercultural
how the quality
cross-cultural
interpersonal
to
interpersonal interactions
people across
different
among
two studies. Although CMC
due to the limitations
of
intercultural
among
kind
interactions
lighter
and
were
less formal
on cultures and
the
of relationships participants were able
during the interactions
and whether
in
to
the
via
CMC
when nonverbal
can surpass
information
face-to-face
people within
the same culture
was not mentioned
experience and replace
to enrich cultural
cross-
of
are common
in
in the
intercultural interactions in many ways,
channels, it cannot
is
is
communication
features that
help promote
with
which
of paralinguistic
significant
match
in both
experience and
Comparing emoticon
the
richness and
face-to-face intercultural
online and
build up
uses across
face-to-face
relationships
cultures, this
socioemotional content and relational communication
intercultural interactions.
sensitivity,
Use
communication
communication
cultural
is filtered out, it is doubtful that the quality
of communication
Nonverbal
participants'
promoted the
the computer-mediated interactions compared
cultures.
can
people across cultures.
insights to
a
discussion focused
interactions. But
face-to-face intercultural
communication.
of the
international
on
of socioemotional content was not reported
CMC
of
communication
online communication
variety
form
40
Meaning
terminate or continue when the projects ended. Although the
researchers reported
that of
participants'
their experiment partners
relationships would
it
the
content and
(1996) experiment took
mostly impersonal. Existence
either of
yet
Both the
and
in
study
offers
computer-mediated
Emoticons Usage
Emoticons
and
an
name and
expressions of emotions.
important form
form suggest,
the
People
and
communication
by pictorialising emotion
Yano
(2002)
how
facial
Thompsen
and
suggestive of
as
expressions.
people use emoticons
Foulger
facial
(1996)
both
because
Scholars
in CMC
are
facial
of nonverbal cues
in
"re-embody Internet-based
"
and supra-text
(p.
206)
and
assume that the
closely
meaning
the
forms
emoticons are stereotyped
expressions"
(p. 230). Rezabek
of
of
associated with the
way
"in
much
and
Cochenour
(1998) believed that
the same way that visuals or
body
communication"
(p. 202).
can enhance verbal
online
behaviors
communication theories
gain
sub-
for the lack
in
thought that emoticons were "nonverbal surrogates,
emoticons contributed to verbal messages
Since
41
cues, especially the facial affect displays in face-to-face communication.
nonverbal
language
emoticons are symbolic online
agued that emoticons
process of re-embodiment was made possible
graphic representation of
of socioemotional communication
use them to compensate
CMC. Katsuno
emoticons and
Meaning
the culturalized nonverbal communication
Emoticons have become
CMC. As both the
and
insights
reflect
human interactions offline, many
in face-to-face interaction
on people's online
framework to
explore
from
the
the effect of emoticons
existing
and via other media as reference
to
behaviors (Walther & Tidwell 1995; Herring, 1996). Due
to the connection of emoticons to visual cues and to emotions, it is
researchers use theories
scholars use
natural
that
many
nonverbal communication and emotions as a theoretical
use of emoticons online or as reference theories
(Knepp, 2002; Walther & D'Addario, 2001).
to
understand
Knowledge
of
Emoticons Usage
emotions and nonverbal communication
is
essential to the
and
Meaning
42
of emoticon
understanding
usage.
There
verbal
are six
functions
of nonverbal communication
in human interaction: repeating
message, contradicting verbal message, substituting for verbal message,
complementing
verbal
verbal message
(Knapp, 1972). However,
nonverbal cues are
message, accenting verbal message and relating and regulating
most of
the
missing in the CMC. For example,
and physical characteristics such as
physique,
general attractiveness are all screened out
expression substitutes on
body
dimensions
functions
and
the
of
tempo
cues such as vocal pitch and
height,
shape, color,
in CMC. Emoticons
be
can
weight and
used as
facial
the Internet to reflect a small part of the nonverbal cues missing
in CMC interactions.
Researches have
Since facial
many
proved
that culture has a significant impact
expressions are one of
researchers
1975). Ekman
focus their study
and
Friesen
expressions of certain
American
the
film
and
primary
Friesen
the
(1975)
alone
for
facial
anger,
conducted
and
and
interactions,
Friesen,
experiments
that
facial
happiness, disgust,
and
fear
laboratory experiments
in
stress-inducing films. Each
the film
viewer's actions were captured on
muscle movements.
film alone, Japanese
social
are
backgrounds.
part of the time and then watched
The
in
(Matsumoto, 1991; Ekman
emotions such as
college students were shown
about the experience.
actual
on them
visual cues
(1975) have demonstrated through
universal regardless of cultural
Ekman
the most conspicuous
behaviors.
on nonverbal
Comparison
of
the
while
the
Japanese
and
participant watched
talking
video
results showed
Americans had identical facial
which
to
that
expressions.
to an
assistant
measure
when
the
watching
However,
when
Emoticons Usage
watching in the
presence of another person
(1975), "cultural
be
rules about
the management of facial appearance
and
43
Friesen
(display rules)
would
applied"
(p. 24), the Japanese
more
than the
Ekman
displays to
(1975) did
they
offered to
describe the
disgust, but
Ekman
and
Friesen
and anger.
from
mass media.
feelings
is universal, but
expressions of surprise and
face for primary
across cultures.
Ekman
of
the
(Ekman
et
al,
to
expression of emotions and
the six emotions
they had
yet
six
primary
each photograph.
of some
not
feelings
fear
in
be
distinguish between facial
appearance of
expressions also varied
three
problems
the
to be
many
limited the
only study
of
convincing.
experiments were
and surprise was vague to
the
given situations.
replicated
in the
emotional
the universality of facial
but facial
experiments were
to
to learn
studies showed that
all people
portrayed and presented
The distinction between fear
did
display rules
these
from
different
over emotions such as
no chance
1987) later proposed that
First,
experiments.
depicted in
descriptions
the
had
fear. All together, the
on
several cultures
the experiments to the originals in New Guinea
the New Guineans
Cultures had impact
et al
to choose one
experiment also confirmed
emotions was common
from
showed photographs of
dropped sharply
mass media and
The
expressions with one exception:
90%) in
agreement
extended
visually isolated from
expressions
They
emotional state
to a quite high rate (>
and
findings
expression
another experiment with people
of emotion expression.
happiness
were
expressions of negative
observers and asked each participant
was consensus
such as
that
Friesen
universality
emotion words
There
facial
Americans. The study demonstrated that facial
and
to prove the
emotion
masked their
specific.
culturally
of
where, according to Ekman
Meaning
and
the facial
Second,
not all
accurately identified.
participants
from America,
Emoticons Usage
Brazil, Chile, Argentina
distinguishing
facial
portrayals of
had to be
validated
emotions
in
real
blended
observers.
Facial
Ekman
Judgments based
the
on posed expressions
secondary
of
of
to
established experiments
the same
emotions.
and
on
in ten
the universality
instructions
the
facial
This study
The
et al. proposed a possible explanation
than to
to
the
relative
also provided evidence of
participants were
posed
affected
that
found to
by foreigners.
was obvious
factor probably
to
cross-cultural
expressions and
that that were
emotional expression
were shown
emotions on the pictures shown
of emotion.
expressions
different from theirs
their own culture due to
findings
muscles under
Americans. For the Asian judges, it
foreigner's
intensity and were
emotions, spontaneous expressions and
emotions signaled on
emotions
in
the emotions. The results showed
to
judgments. Ekman
(1987)
identify the
less intense
posers were white
always varied
et al.
Caucasians moving facial
intensity
the experiment results in
to validate their former
intensity judgment
a
by the New Guineans. Third,
validation of
differences in
intensity to
difficulty in
extended to the spontaneous expression of
displays
emotion
emotions.
facial displays
cultures quite
had
emotional expressions were not as pure as the posed
observers were asked
agreement on the
strength of
be
expressions of posed
them and to rate the
attribute
could
Spontaneous
secondary
The
were posed.
concerning the
On the contrary,
photographs of adult
cultural
and surprise posed
and non-Western countries
of emotions.
observers also
44
life.
remained
with
Western
fear
before they
spontaneous emotions.
expressions.
Japan. The American
in this study
expressions used
Problems
and
Meaning
and
that
they
The
were
from
the accuracy of their
people attributed
less
similar expressions of member of
politeness or greater uncertainty.
Emoticons Usage
To study the
have
compared subjects
difference in
with
possible effect of culture on nonverbal
in high-context
and
communication, many
low-context cultures because
high-/low- context and
collectivism/individualism
difference in
Ekman, 1989; Matsumoto, Kasri & Kooken, 1999). Japanese
cultures.
Many
emotion
displays
results are
studies on
and
the
influence
American
indicative to behaviors
Matsumoto
Japan
choose
high-context/
and
Ekman
Japanese
backgrounds may have
implied
and
affected
the
the way
intensity ratings
intensity
English
anger,
thus would have
Japanese
of
the different
the same facial
of
affect ed
participants.
Japanese
expressions
judges'
of
the
facial display.
interpreted
emotions were
According
adversely.
It
might
expressions of other people regardless of
brought
that the "differences.
(p. 145).
whose
the
(1987) in
et al.
emotion
terms
.
.
up.
in the
may have
The
authors
intensity
levels
produced
the
cultural
They cited the example of the translation
ratings"
differences in
word
research and
on
culture attenuated emotional
problem of translation was
Ekman, 1989) found
by the translations
for their
subjects
Ekman, display rules in Japanese
their cultural background. The
cultures are
differences in these dimensions
They proposed differences
downplaying the intensity of emotional
(Matsumoto
American
low-context/Individualistic
participants rated
counterparts.
expressions and this might affect
coordinates
the cultural categories each of them represents.
the results showed that Japanese
to Matsumoto and
lead to
of
of cultural
scholars
(Matsumoto &
(1989) duplicated the experiment of Ekman
less intense than their American
cultural
and
collectivistic and
and
45
cultural
dimensions
emotional expression and nonverbal communication
taken as classic examples of
Meaning
and
translation
implied
a more
the accuracy of the judgment of
intense level
emotional
of
the
of anger and
intensity for the
Emoticons Usage
To
address
these problems, the two scientists chose
pictures of emotional expressions posed
judgment
p.
145)
was obtained with
without references
contempt,
Japanese
the emotions except
for
Other
differences in
and
et
Their
al., 2002).
experience.
display intensity
expression and
and
(Mastumoto &
exaggerated
Kooken's
work
(1999)
of emotional expression and
that Americans gave
higher
the Japanese gave higher
Ekman, 1989)
on
expression of
ratings
to
ratings on
assigned
the
the internal feelings.
the differences in
suppressed and attenuated
the external
Japanese
(Matsumoto, Kasri &
external emotional expressions and
intensities that Japanese
the Americans who
in intensities
and
the
the American
and
all
finally concluded that
feelings than the Americans. The Japanese
both the
Contrary to former speculations
was
cultures
and
regardless of the
expressions
Matsumoto, Kasri
experiments revealed
experience of emotional
intensity degree to
(anger,
that the Americans rated
rules might affect
experiments also confirmed
displays than the Japanese
emotion expression
results showed
interpretation
the American and Japanese
subjective experience.
same
The
the
Ekman, 1989,
sadness, and surprise) were shown to American
intensity judgment of emotional
Kooken, 1999; Matsumoto
and part of
and
participants attenuated perception of emotional
perception of emotions.
internal
(Matsumoto
the posers depicted. Matsumoto and Ekman
display
external emotional
Japanese
to emotional terms. Pictures of seven emotions
indicated that Japanese
compared
and
rating"
intensity
intensity rating.
fact that the Japanese
cultural
Caucasian
46
Meaning
new experiments
disgust significantly higher than the Japanese
gender and culture of
the
"anchorless
disgust, fear, happiness,
participants
by both
for their
and
internal
their
feelings, it
emotional
Emoticons Usage
The differences in
contexts where
emotional
different
intensity perception can be
display rules
are applied.
accounted
It has been
for
suggested
Meaning
and
47
by cultural
(Matsumoto,
1991, 2002)
that individualistic cultures encourage outward emotional expressions more
openly than
collectivistic cultures.
emotional experiences
have
emotions that
proved that members of
cultures
have
theories
of
significant
the
are applicable
emoticons
from
or
to infer
emoticon use
less intense than
Scholars have
in CMC,
people of
pointed out
in their
less intense
perception of emotional expression
individualistic
cultures.
that meanings of emoticons come
research
with
intensity. If
people of collectivistic cultures should rate
(Katsuno & Yano, 2002, Rezabek & Cochenour, 1998). Some
functioned like masks,
research
in face-to-face interactions
their resemblance to facial expressions and are interpretative and
emoticons
the
of
cultures and members of collectivistic
effect of culture on nonverbal communication
to
Americans to
they feel (Matsumoto, 1999). These
individualistic
difference in the
the
either encourage
the expressions of their internal feelings
exaggerate
works
This may
little
written on
the
from
highly contextual
researchers argue
faces but
much
to
be
that
read
into
emoticons'
(Katsuno & Yano, 2002). The interpretation
emoticons are used are
code
in
which
they
As interpretation
universal and
mediated
may be
closely
and
(Katsuno &
display of facial
to
also
compensate
be
reason
why
Yano, 2002, Rezabek & Cochenour, 1998).
and
universal and
for the lack
the
the contexts and the well-defined cultural
expression
culturally specific, the meaning
interactions may
used
associated with
are embedded
meanings and
of
in face-to-face
the
communication are
use of emoticons
culturally
specific.
of nonverbal messages
in
both
computer-
Emoticons in CMC
in face-to-face
Emoticons Usage
But the
communication.
paralinguistic cues to
Discussions
behaviors, be it
unique characteristics of the
function
above
have
nonverbal communication
meanings of emoticons and/or
Theoretical
approach:
Semantic differential
& Miron,
1975)
emoticons
Osgood
claimed that
constructed upon
his
semantic
research to
different
dimensional
cultural
(Osgood, 1958)
They found that there
other cultures and
by Osgood and his
study the
not share
the same
of words and
perception of the
of
meaning
the semantic meaning of English words
meaning
(E), potency (P)
similarity in the
dimensions
languages too. The meaning
and
existed
of words can
and
in 21
construction of
in the meaning
be
was
activity (A). He
of affective words across cultures
was pan-cultural
the EPA
(Osgood, May
co-workers
backgrounds.
three dimensions: evaluation
meaning
or emoticons usage
Semantic Differential Scales
co-worker examined the semantic
languages.
may
on people's
the motivations to use emoticons.
in this
people of
in face-to-face interactions
or
measured
of words
semantic scales anchored each with a pair of adjectives of opposite meaning:
Potency: powerful/powerless, big/little, strong/week;
Many
in
by three
Evaluation: Good/bad; nice/awful, sweet/sour;
Activity:
48
interactions.
impact
a significant
backgrounds may
scales generated
were used
among
cultural
has
Meaning
also challenge online
differently from those in face-to-face
shown that culture
in CMC. Users from different
CMC may
and
fast/slow,
alive/dead,
research works
active/passive.
(Schneider, 1996; MacKinnon & Keating, 1989; Lundqvist,
Esteves & Ohman, 1999; Nathan, Marsella, Horvath & Coolidge, 1999)
used
the EPA
Emoticons Usage
semantic
differential
in different
profiles can
differences
for
media
because
be
as
in
cross-cultural
perception of
and
Horvath
individual,
EPA
makes
profiles an
when multiple
languages
to measure the
meaning
ideal
are
applied
of
(Schneider, 1996; Nathan, Marsella & Horvath, 1999).
used
self and
long been
the Semantic Differential
Scales to
analyze
the
group, three important concepts in
cultures
in Japanese
(JA)vand European-Americans (EA). The
by
sociologically describes
126)
individualistic/collectivistic
anchored
that
comparisons, especially
cross-cultural studies
Nathan, Marsella
49
concluded:
identities. This capacity
Semantic Differential Scales have
concepts
Schneider (1996)
seen as a meta-language
of emotions and
involved, (p.
Meaning
to compare perceptions of words, concepts and even pictures
scales
cultural contexts
EPA
and
adjective pairs generated
national
(JN), Japanese-Americans
research used seven-point
by Osgood
and
his
bipolar
co-workers
scales
to test the
evaluation, potency and activity dimensions of each concept. The ratings of the Japanese
nationals and the European- Americans of each concept corresponded
characteristics of collectivistic and
Japanese-
and
Americans,
individual in the
American
self and
as an
was proved
group
cultural groups
individualism
predicative.
overlapping
semantic
cultural groups.
individualistic
The
to
cultural
differential
group,
scales
able
to
represent
towards individualism and
that
between the
the
they
constructed
semantic construction of
be
and collectivism
cultures
The
dichotomy had psychological
the
The
concepts of self
the Japanese and
concepts of
ethnocultural
collectivism.
represent.
poles of
the three
to the
inclination
individual,
of
results also proved
the three
that the
connotation and could
be
Emoticons Usage
Besides
used
being
Lundqvist, Esteves
role of
the
were
and
applied
to
of
Ohman
indicator
Successful
valence as
selected
from Osgood's
faces
actual emotional
of
facial
facial
expressions.
scales to measure the
affected all
Activity
and
each end of
impact
of a
nose) in conveying
made of
in this study)
and
the scales there
works.
The
three dimensions whereas
four features
Potency
and was
threatening face. The
potency
that the
mouth and eyes
the
results of
were
were adjective pairs
Negative Valence. The V-shaped
and
the
results showed
eyebrows
only
lead to
most powerful
this study
could stimulate emotional response and could
uses of
among different
measure
(negative
Activity, Negative Valence
that schematic
50
facial features. Semantic
the combinations of the
evaluation
greatly
differential
Schematic faces
dimension
of emotional
emotional
threatening.
At
each
of
of
scheme.
dimensions
high rating
used semantic
facial feature
shape of eyebrows
affected
(1999)
facial
as shapes of eyebrows, eyes, mouth and
represent all
activity,
each
representing
of pictures and schemes such as
facial impression
designed to
dimensions
to
meaning
facial features (such
emotional
Meaning
to test concepts in words, semantic differential scales are also
used
to measure the
and
be
used
supported
to
represent
expressions.
Semantic Differential Scales to
cultural groups and
display indicate
the meaning of
to
measure people's perception of pictures of
that it is
emoticons
examine perception of concepts
appropriate
among
to use Semantic Differential Scales
people across cultures.
Purposes
Emoticons
been widely
are an
used
important
in Internet
part of paralinguistic communication
communities around
the
world.
in CMC
Emoticon
users
and
have
have
Emoticons Usage
become
as
culturally diverse
heavily influenced by
Internet
as
users'
cultural
aspects of emoticon use such as
meaning
usage
it is
in
and on
the
particular contexts
has
yet
to
from
left
intercultural
an
meaning
of
specific, the
perception of
Ekman, 1989).
Most
usage.
CMC
in the
of message
of emoticon
answers
CMC
for the
the meaning
agree on
research on emoticons
show that the
cross-cultural
cultures agree on
emoticons.
facial
that emotional
background
backgrounds
in intercultural CMC has
have been widely
resemblance to emotional
proved
cultural
study
not
tends
on emoticons
Internet is
communication and can promote
used
unknown whether users of
the same
have found many
the effect
or culture and a cross-cultural
studies of
is to find
different
emoticons
cultures, it is still
to be
an efficient
intercultural
been
studied and
studies.
following
question
in
emoticon use
perspective:
people of
Although
cultural
country
out of scene
goal of this research
RQ: Do
have
different
socioemotional content
emoticons were
The
one
be done. Cross-cultural
sensitivity but
51
(Walther, 2001; Utz, 2000; Thompsen & Foulger, 1996). But
for task-oriented intercultural
medium
shown
interpretation
of emoticon users and also
the motivations of emoticon
to focus the discussion in
researchers
the effect of emoticons on the
still unknown whether people of
of emoticons and
background. Previous
inter-relationship
have been
users and emoticons uses
Meaning
and
expression and
the meaning
and also
culturally
meaning
in Internet
different
The meaning
expressions
the
of emoticons?
communities of various
cultural
backgrounds
of emoticons comes
agree on the
from their
(Katsuno & Yano, 2002). Since
interpretation
of emoticons
coded
are
both
may be both
scholars
universal and
culturally
universal regardless of
(Ekman & Friesen, 1975; Matsumoto &
Emoticons Usage
Emoticons have been
adopted as a
represent nonverbal expressions
messaging
via cell phones and
time-saving
in CMC
have
(Katsuno & Yano, 2002). Although
world.
and effective
Emoticons
to replace ASCII emoticons in many popular
most of
the previous researches on emoticon
have been
neglected.
graphic and animated emoticons can
emoticon and
uses.
But it is
in
meaning
study
will use selected
of
to
understanding
of
emoticons.
Graphic
discussion
users.
The
and
on
graphic and animated emoticons
the difference in presentation affects people's
ASCII,
graphic and animated emoticons
the difference in the form
of
computers
a complete and up-to-date scenario of
on
the fundamental
the needs for
in the international CMC
meaning
contemporary
questions about emoticons will
nonverbal communication and
perception
connotation.
in the test to
the perception of
reflect people's real experience with
Knowledge
text-
have been widely
on emoticons without
hardly reflect
in
to
programs and web sites,
the ASCII and graphic emoticons with the same
of the
importantly,
Studies
used
This
explore
the
and most
emoticons.
improve the
the use
of nonverbal cues
communities.
Method
Procedures
This study
52
presentation and can enhance people's experience of emoticon
unknown whether
possible effect of
Internet
only study ASCII
today's experience of emoticon
are colorful and vivid
widely
graphic and animated emoticons
adopted
animated emoticons
are also
Meaning
of visual cues
territory beyond the
their
expanded
form
and
used surveys
to find out
perception of the emoticon meanings.
users'
A
motivations
in
emoticon use and
convenience sample of
Chinese
and
their
American
Emoticons Usage
emoticon users were used
in the test. The survey
was administered
and
in the
Meaning
53
following
process:
1
.
After gaining
permission
Rochester Institute
PHP (a
Technology,
a
survey
language) form. The
web page
uploaded
of
from the Human Subject Research Review Board
to the researcher's
was
web page
homepage
on
designed
form
of
the Internet
and
the
of
then written in
survey
was
the URL
under
http://www.rit.edu/~yxwl204/survey.php3.
2.
American
course at the
The
in
researcher gave a
class and
encouraged
brief introduction
distributed to
same
from
a
university in
time, Chinese
URL
as presented
instructor
information
south
in the
at
of
Rochester Institute
survey
web page on
fill
China. The
out
it. The
the survey
researcher sent
college.
distributed the
Technology.
the introduction of
students were
form.
The instructor
paper
to the
English
courses
the introduction and the
distributed to the American
the Chinese
of
the research project to the students
students were recruited at advanced
paper
on paper and
of
each student a sheet of paper with
to go on the Internet and
At the
course
an undergraduate communication
Communication Department
the project and the URL of the
3.
in
participants were recruited
students to
printed out
students.
The
the
the
content of
the paper distributed to the Chinese students was exactly the same as the
content
distributed to the American
encouraged
online
to
survey
go on
the
students.
Internet, follow
after class.
The Chinese
the URL
on
students were also
the paper and take the
Emoticons Usage
4.
Two
was
weeks
low
several
later,
and stopped
English
technologies
and
content of
URL
of
Chinese
survey
and
All the
Chinese
discussion
specifically
web page as appeared on
American
had taken the survey
groups related to computer
chosen
and
in China. The
to target university students.
by clicking the
before the
the paper distributed to the
to participate. People could
students and a request
participants were assured
research
beginning
of
URL
provided
anonymity
and
in the
message.
confidentiality
identity was
forms
The survey
would
of
information
be filled
out
results were stored
questionnaire was
filled
Three hypotheses
collected and
particular respondents.
confidentiality
This
the
research could not
assurance of
was conveyed
honestly to
in
during the
the survey questions. No information of the
respondents'
back to any
54
the researcher posted messages in English at
online
groups were
Meaning
the message included the introduction of the project and the
the survey
access
5.
the
increasing,
geographically located respectively in US
Chinese discussion
The
the number of the participants who
as
and
an online
to the
trace information
anonymity
and
participants so
that survey
entirety.
database automatically
after each
out.
were
tested in the
research
based
on
literature
review and
the
research questions.
HI: American
participants
messages more than the
H2. Chinese
American
Chinese
participants
participants.
tend to use
emoticons
to
supplement
the meaning of verbal
participants.
tend to
use emoticons more
for socializing
purposes
than the
Emoticons Usage
As indicated
collectivistic
culture
meaning than
likely to
members of
nonverbal communication practices.
likely to use
nonverbal
cues, relationship
low-context
people of
meaning in
communicate
cultures.
Meaning
differences in high-/low-context
works on cultural
/individualistic dimensions,
differ in
also more
by research
and
American
People
of
culture and
high-context
and circumstances
People
explicit and coded
of
low-context
to
55
and
Chinese
cultures are
help transfer
cultures are more
form. As "typed-out textual
symbols"
(Walther & D'Addario, 2001),
elements of
intentional
context cultures
meaning than
strong
emoticons
communication"
and
may be
in-group identity
function like
Similarly,
cultures.
and encourage
harmonious
people of collectivistic cultures are more
likely to
connections
in
computer-mediated
expected to show these tendencies
H3: Americans
The
and
of gender and cultural
expressions and
research
be
used
Chinese
past experiments
has
shown
to replace
have
in
proved
produce similar results,
it
can
be
help transfer
since collectivistic cultures
add emoticons
have
among members,
to elevate the
and
interactions. Americans
the meaning
that the primary
friendly
and
Chinese
are
for the
expected
cultures can recognize emotional
same emotions.
expressions made of
expressions
that
of emoticons.
emotions are universal regardless
different
of
that pictures of emotional
facial
of low-
symbols to
social relationships
participants agree on
similar expressions
emotional
People
emoticon use.
backgrounds. People
display
wording.
help create harmonious
seriousness of plain text and use emoticons to
interpersonal
"deliberately encoded
likely to use these encoded textual
more
high-context
people of
may be
Since
facial
previous
characters can
in Semantic Differential Scales
people agree on
the meaning of
and
emoticons
Emoticons Usage
that represent the
facial
display of the primary emotions (Lundqvist,
and
56
Meaning
Esteves & Ohman,
1999).
Design
of
Literature
the survey
review
in
difference in the high-/low-context
associated with
difference in
American
emotional expression and nonverbal
cultures
context/individualistic cultures
conclusion, this
survey
shown that the cultural
and collectivistic/individualistic
Ting-Toomey, 1988, Matsumoto, 1991). Previous
and
has
culture and nonverbal communication
behaviors (Hall, 1976,
have indicated that Chinese
researches
high-context/collectivistic
typical
are
dimensions is closely
respectively (Hall, 1976; Hofstede, 1980). Based
chooses
American
Chinese
and
low-
and
emoticon users to
on
this
study their
usage of emoticons.
The three
to
selected
most
test
widely
whether
used
ASCII
people
smiley :-), frown :-(
emoticons:
agree
on
the
Cochenour, 1998; Walther & D'Addario, 2001). Since
widely
graphic
used
emoticons,
the
graphic
corresponding to the ASCII smiley, frown
are chosen
to
represent
compare with the
the emoticon
list
ASCII
of
picked
there
emoticons
and wink
is
Graphic
H'
,
are
(Rezabek &
no statistics on
~
the most
i?"'
(animated)
and
in the MSN Messenger
the group of graphic and animated
emoticons.
emoticons
;-)
emoticons
graphic emoticons and
and animated emoticons are chosen
to
from
MSN Instant Messenger (Microsoft, 2004). Since MSN Messenger is
one of the most popular
countries
of
meaning
and wink
Internet Instant
(Randall, 2002). Five
other
Chatting
graphic
from the MSN Instant Messenger
Programs in the America
and other
are
randomly
and animated
emoticon
list
and
they
emoticons
are open-mouthed
laugh
Emoticons Usage
S
(corresponding
emoticon'?/
(:[email protected]
to
(:-S
Semantic differential
meaning
of opposite
meaning
activity dimensions
V (
emoticon
'-'
embarrassed emoticon
in ASCII), angry
:'(
(:-$
or
:$
in ASCII)
and
participants'
scales are used
Three
are created
of
crying
or :s).
these emoticons.
of
ASCII),
in ASCII),
or :@
confused emoticon
in
:-D
57
Meaning
and
its
perception of the
seven point-scales each anchored with
for
meaning.
to measure
each emoticon to test the
The
two adjectives
evaluation, potency
adjectives are selected
from the highest
and
loading
factors in the English language in the Recommended Pan-cultural Scales for Semantic
Differential from
Hong Kong
language
Cantonese have
described the
word
one
also
was not examined in
Participants
(Osgood, May & Miron, 1975). Scales from
pan-cultural analysis
are required
emoticons
by
been
Osgood
and
to indicate to
choosing
his
one
the
official
Chinese
co-workers'
what
researches.
degree they think
each pair of words
the scale. The button
a circle on
indicates the highest degree, the
Mandarin,
considered since
the
in the
middle
indicates
circle nearest
neutral and
to the
the farthest
indicates the lowest degree.
Survey
questions about motivations to use emoticons are asked
differences in
emoticon usage
between the American
Motivations identified for kaomoji
describe
possible motivations
for
use
in Katsuno
emoticon use.
and
For
express
my
feeling
(p.
sentences
emoticons to supplement
my
"I
and
(p.217)
or emotion more
motivations and statements such as
219)
use emoticons
are
the Chinese
Yano
participants.
(2002) study
example,
clear"
to "make the nuance of
and
to see if there are
"adding
motivation
to clarify
as
words
helps
informational
my
survey
to
to use kaomoji
kaomoji to my
are categorized as
developed
are revised
statements
and
"I
to test
use
Emoticons Usage
58
Meaning
and
participants'
motivations of emoticon use.
emoticon use motivations.
as
"not true
of
Each
statement
"neutral"
me", 3 as
and
instructed to indicate their
5
Altogether,
10 statements
is followed
by
as
a
five-point
"completely true
opinion towards the statement
are made
of me".
for the
open scale with
Participants
by selecting
one of
the
1
are
five
points on the scale.
Participants
210
online surveys were
the survey if
they had
had both
were examined.
Only participants
before
of
the
were eligible
were excluded.
The
used emoticons
population who
the survey
out.
respondents were asked at the
seen emoticons such as
if they had
were then asked
filled
before. This study
seen and used emoticons
for the
who
had both
research.
Those
before
was
who
of
had
were
respondents met the
Among
criteria.
Chinese
who were
and
born in China
otherl9 people were self-reported as
only American
and
Chinese
before taking
the respondents who met the criteria
of
the respondents was
during
first language
and whose
was
the survey.
67
participants
English. 105
first language
was
Chinese.
from India, Norway, Lithuania, Azerbaijan,
Belgium, Croatia, Jamaica, Malaysia, Poland,
Since this study is interested in the
only interested in the
the sample population,
their
they
not seen or used emoticons
Identification information
Americans born in the United States
participants were
The
first
of
since motivations of their usage
not collected and participants were assured to remain anonymous
191
chose yes,
seen and used emoticons
Demographic information
sample population was collected.
before. If they
and
:-)
beginning
South Africa, the Netherlands
comparisons of
and
the American and Chinese
participants were selected
for the final data
Vietnam.
CMC users,
analysis.
Emoticons Usage
and
Meaning
59
Results
Overview
Participants'
collected
for
Data
of
demographic information
contexts to
67 Americans
are used
and
99
for data
high
The
Chinese
school and
105 Chinese
analysis.
are males.
age of the
and
interpret the
participants
were admitted
vocabulary
of at
with moderate
learning
into
survey
least
at
as a
least 4000 English
that there could
another
people's judgment and the
of
the
used
in the
accuracy
was written
semantic
English language in Osgood
Miron, 1975). The
easily
understood
able
in English
differential
and
his
scales
the Chinese
be
degrees,
least
the average
all
is in
the other
college students
six years when
have
they
acquired a
to understand English articles
discrepancy
language
results
and the
in the meaning
discrepancy
respondents.
of the
could affect
(Matsumoto & Ekman, 1989). To
and was not translate
in the survey
are
in the survey
Chinese
avoid
into Chinese.
highest
co-worker's cross-cultural research
words and statements used
by
at
females
participant who
degree. Chinese
been
words and
in
Words
associated
participants should
original words and their translations
survey
American
and
are
indicated in Chinese College English Test Syllabus (Netease,
as
research showed
this problem, this
one
foreign language for
Theses Chinese
is 29.67
participants
have
a college
answers met all the criteria and
Chinese participants, 73
and
American
respondents who
English
college.
difficulty
2004). Previous
participants'
is 26.97. Except for
have
with emoticons were
results.
average age of the
five Chinese
have been
their experience
Of the 172 American
respondents are in college or
should
and
loading
factors in
(Osgood, May &
are quite simple and can
respondents should
be
be
able to
Emoticons Usage
read
the entire
survey
with ease and understand
the
meaning
and
Meaning
60
of each word and statement
correctly.
Table 1
Demographic Information
of
Total Participants
number
Average
American
67
Chinese
Total
All the
Male
Female
29.67
33
34
105
26.97
66
39
172
28.02
99
73
participants
two Chinese
have been using
college students who
other respondents
have
experience corresponds
who
long the
computer
the
of
is
to their
Chinese
participants
years and
majority
3
of
and
Respondents
the research. The
years.
have
149
(1
of
who
average
them
participants
the
more
more
for less than two years,
year
more
than two
years.
participants
have been using the Internet
for
has been using the
for
more
for less
emoticons
all of
and
for
the subjects
emoticons is about
than two years,
more than one year and
used emoticons
students
that would affect the results of
have been using
used emoticons
used emoticons
the
The difference in
seen and used emoticons are chosen as
time the
all of
but less than two years,
not regarded as a variable
have
for
than two years. Their Internet
than one
for
than one year. Except
history. Except for two Chinese
participants
(1.73%) have
participants
for
more
(86.63%) have
1.56%) have
for
used computers
the Internet
American
is
computers
computer usage
used
insignificant and
research.
1.85
used computers
have been using the Internet for
the other participants
how
have
age
20
less than two
than one year.
The
a considerable time and
Emoticons Usage
should
be familiar
with emoticons.
The difference between the Chinese
Meaning
and
61
American
and
participants'
time of
using
emoticons and their
familiarity of emoticons
is insignificant
and negligible.
Table 2
Average Computer Use information
More than
of
Participants
than one
more
More than 30
Less than 30
three hours
hour
minutes
minutes
(percentage)
(percentage)
(percentage)
(percentage)
American
37
55.22%
24
35.82%
5
7.46%
1
1
Chinese
57
54.29
37
35.24%
8
7.62%
3
2.86%
Total
94
54.34%
61
35.26%
13
7.51%
4
2.31%
three
hours
Most
each
of the participants
day, 61
than three
and
participants
hours
(94 persons,
(35.26%)
online each
report that
day, 13
only 4participants (2.31%)
54.34%)
they
participants
spend
spend more than
spend more than one
(7.51%)
less than 30
spend
less
hour
than one
minutes online each
.49%
online
and
less
hour
online
day.
Hypothesis Tests
Motivations
Hypothesis 1
for independent
Chinese
and
hypothesis 2
samples is used
to
are related
compare
to the
the
The five
motivations of emoticon use.
motivations of
points of
the Americans and the
the scale
is
coded as
participants'
emoticon use.
T-test
0 to 4
Emoticons Usage
Alpha risk is
epectively.
the
notivations of
The
set at
Chinese
.05.
American
and
results of statistic analysis
entertainment, social
Americans
and
the
Table 3 is descriptive
interaction
information,
Chinese. But the two
Meaning
62
emoticon use
participants.
indicate that the three
and
for
statistics
and
groups
are
for using
motivations
true to some
differ in their
emoticons:
degree for both the
attitudes towards some
single statements.
For the three
(p>0.05) for
"Emoticons
Chinese's
two statements
amuse
use emoticons
for the
("I
statement
(p<0.05). The Chinese
"I
(p>0.05) in
friends"
the
four
& "I
value
because I just like
no significant
because they like to
use emoticons
American
statements of
use emoticons so
I
use emoticons
look humorous
because it
with people"),
p
exists
statements.
participants
emoticons use makes them
use emoticons
interaction, p
value
is
is something to do
and
0.000,
which
more
likely
attitudes towards
to use emoticons
for
social
greater than
when
0.05
chatting
"Emoticons
indicates that
the two
demonstrate strong inclination to
and
because it is
with
to other people more easily"). For the other two
value equals
friendlier
and the
is less than 0.05
makes me
between the two
Chinese
Chinese
and
enjoyable"
are
groups'
difference
them";
them and emoticons are amusing. P-
inclined to
emoticons
can talk
0.05
respondents.
the social
("Using
use
greater than
to use
friendlier"
("I
statements
is
difference between American's
because they
respondents are more
two statements
motivation, p
these two motivation statements. Both the
enjoyable to use them than the
Among
use emoticons
me.") and there is
attitudes towards
Americans
value
statements of the entertainment
make me
significant
motivational
use emoticons
humorous. Overall, Chinese
because
participants are
interaction than the Americas. Hypothesis 2
is
Emoticons Usage
supported
the data. For the
by
emoticons so
is
sentences.")
emoticons
and
to
Chinese
supplement
I
information motivation, p
value
for two
and
Meaning
("I
statements
greater
than
clarify my
and
0.05 (p>0.05)
meaning.") is
and
p
"I
value
use emoticons
for the
other one statement
("I
American
much
clarify
to use emoticons to
clarify
meaning clearly
participants rate the statement
and to
"I
use
higher than the Chinese
meaning.
and appear to
be
more
Hypothesis 1 is
also supported.
Table 3
Descriptive Statistics for
N
emoticon use motivations
Mean
SD
t-value
p-value
DF
1.23
0.219
144
3.04
0.003
152
0.83
0.410
136
Entertainment
I
use emoticons
because I just like to
use
American
67
3.34
1.21
Chinese
105
3.58
1.26
I
use emoticons
because
they
them.
are enjoyable
American
67
3.15
1.17
Chinese
105
3.73
1.31
Emoticons
amuse me.
American
67
3.42
1.28
Chinese
105
3.58
1.23
Social Interaction
I
use emoticons
because it
use
less than 0.05 (p<0.05). Although both American
tend to use emoticons to communicate
the text statement, the
to supplement my
meaning"
motivated
use
clearly."
can communicate more
respondents
emoticons to
63
makes me
friendlier.
Emoticons Usage
N
~67
American
105
Chinese
Using
emoticons
Mean
SD
t-value
p-value
3~22
L32
4X)3
0.000
4.03
1.20
is something to do
when
American
67
3.64
1.20
Chinese
105
3.89
1.35
Emoticons
make me
look humorous
67
2.82
1.23
Chinese
105
3.59
1.27
use emoticons so
I
can
chatting
with
Meaning
DF
friends.
1.24
0.218
152
3.95
0.000
143
0.067
136
1.75
0.083
144
3.54
0.001
141
0.94
0.347
140
with people.
American
I
and
talk to other people more
American
67
3.15
1.35
Chinese
105
3.53
1.29
easily.
1.85
Information
I
use emoticons so
I
can communicate more clearly.
American
67
3.78
1.32
Chinese
105
3.41
1.37
I
use emoticons
to clarify my
meaning.
American
67
3.90
1.30
Chinese
105
3.17
1.32
I
use emoticons
to
supplement
my
sentences.
American
67
3.72
1.24
Chinese
105
3.53
1.24
I
use emoticons
to
supplement
my
sentences.
64
Emoticons Usage
and
Meaning
65
'~~
N
~67
American
105
Chinese
Mean
SD
t-value
p-value
DF
3~93
i~18
b~75
0.454
U4
4.07
1.23
N=Number, SD=standard deviation, DF=degree
Perception
of
meaning
For the third hypothesis that Americans
emoticons, t-test
freedom
of
for independent
variables
the scales are coded as zero to six. Table
4
and
is
Chinese
used
agree on the
for data
analysis.
of
meaning
The
seven points of
the mean
presents an overall view of
scores
samples'
and standard
deviations for the Americans
emoticons on
with graph
the EPA scales.
lines
analysis
of each group's profile of
dimensions. The blue line
ratings and
Detailed
the purple
line
Chinese
and
the
for
mean
each emoticon
perception of
rating
of
in the test is
represents
the Chinese
presented
meaning in the EPA
the profile of the American
represents
the
mean
mean ratings.
Table 4
Descriptive Statistics for Mean Evaluation,
Potency and Activity
Ratings for
Emoticons
N
Mean
SD
t-value
p-value
DF
American
67
0.373
0.599
2.93
0.004
169
Chinese
105
0.73
1.01
American
67
1.49
1.12
1.68
0.095
162
Chinese
105
1.82
1.41
American
67
1.63
1.29
0.35
0.724
151
-)
E
P
A
Emoticons Usage
E
P
A
N
Mean
SD
Chinese
105
1.55
1.43
American
67
5.687
0.633
Chinese
105
5.22
1.17
American
67
4.70
1.15
Chinese
105
4.03
1.84
American
67
3.84
1.46
Chinese
105
3.64
1.85
American
67
1.43
1.21
Chinese
105
1.82
1.58
American
67
4.58
1.18
Chinese
105
3.86
1.36
American
67
3.52
1.11
Chinese
105
3.79
1.50
American
67
0.433
0.657
Chinese
105
0.79
1.07
American
67
1.54
1.18
Chinese
105
1.49
1.22
American
67
1.57
1.29
Chinese
105
1.22
1.19
t-value
and
Meaning
p-value
DF
3.39
0.001
166
2.94
0.004
169
0.78
0.437
162
1.81
0.072
164
3.69
0.000
154
1.35
0.180
166
2.71
0.007
169
0.28
0.783
143
1.77
0.078
132
\
.
.-)
E
P
A
E
P
A
66
Emoticons Usage
E
P
A
-
E
P
A
E
P
A
-
N
Mean
SD
t-value
American
67
5.45
1.17
Chinese
105
5.24
1.07
American
67
4.72
1.18
Chinese
105
3.76
2.00
American
67
3.88
1.60
Chinese
105
3.35
1.99
American
67
1.81
1.62
Chinese
105
1.32
1.57
American
67
4.64
1.20
Chinese
105
4.11
1.58
American
67
3.72
1.28
Chinese
105
3.86
1.77
American
67
1.01
1.20
Chinese
105
0.79
1.28
American
67
2.21
1.40
Chinese
105
2.28
1.70
American
67
1.72
1.41
Chinese
105
1.88
1.68
and
Meaning
p-value
DF
1.18
0.239
131
3.93
0.000
169
1.92
0.057
160
1.93
0.056
137
2.47
0.014
164
0.60
0.547
167
1.16
0.246
147
0.28
0.778
159
0.67
0.503
157
(animated)
(animated)
67
Emoticons Usage
E
P
A
E
P
A
E
N
Mean
SD
American
67
4.55
1.41
Chinese
105
4.76
1.57
American
67
3.18
1.74
Chinese
105
2.62
2.07
American
67
4.31
1.29
Chinese
105
3.90
1.68
American
67
0.433
0.908
Chinese
105
0.72
1.29
American
67
1.04
1.27
Chinese
105
1.51
1.51
American
67
1.13
1.09
Chinese
105
1.35
1.31
American
67
2.04
1.52
Chinese
105
2.25
1.90
American
67
4.69
1.20
Chinese
105
4.26
1.47
American
67
4.70
1.37
Chinese
105
4.05
1.78
American
67
3.48
1.49
and
Meaning
p-value
DF
0.91
0.364
151
1.91
0.058
157
1.80
0.074
163
1.73
0.085
168
2.19
0.030
157
1.18
0.238
158
0.77
0.441
161
2.10
0.037
160
2.71
0.007
163
3.30
0.001
141
t-value
68
Emoticons Usage
P
A
N
Mean
SD
Chinese
105
4.25
1.50
American
67
2.87
1.38
Chinese
105
3.16
1.55
American
67
3.57
1.40
Chinese
105
3J30
T~43
t-value
and
Meaning
p-value
DF
1.31
0.193
152
0.15
0.882
143
69
(E)valuation, (P)potency, (A)ctivity.
N=number,
Basic
SD= standard
Smiley
deviation, DF=degree
freedom
of
:-)
r"~"S>-fi
P
V'
Figure 1. Profiles
The Americans
dimensions
on
of
the
of
the American and Chinese
and the
Chinese
basic smiley
Americans
and
the Chinese
Comparing
rate
the
the
evaluation
E
P
fa*
and
dimension. Figure 1
basic ASCII smiley
Basic Frown :-(
0.05)
activity
it can
lively
be
and
presents
observed
:-)
(p>0.05)
difference between the two
the two profiles,
basic smiley happier, higher than the Chinese.
A
mean ratings of
potency (p>
there is significant
the perception of basic smiley in the
graphs of the means ratings.
the
and
agree on
participants'
groups
line
that both the
the Americans
rated
Emoticons Usage
Figure 2. Profiles
of
The Americans
the American and Chinese
and
(p<0.05) dimensions
of
the
Chinese disagree
the
basic ASCII frown
(p>0.05). The basic frown
frown
Chinese
Meaning
70
participants'
mean ratings of
the evaluation
and agree on
(p<0.05)
the
and
:-(
potency
activity dimension
that both the Chinese and Americans think the
the American participants perceive the
apathetic and
than the
profiles show
on
and
basic frown
sadder and
lower
participants.
Basic Wink ;-)
E
P
--+
A
Figure 3. Profiles
The Chinese
activity
of
and
the American
the American
(p>0.05) dimensions
of
the
perceptions of the wink
Americans
and the
participants rate
Graphic
basic
mean ratings of
wink and
the evaluation
there is
significant
(p>0.05)
;-(
and
difference between
in the potency dimension (p<0.05). Both the
Chinese think the
the
participants'
participants agree on
groups'
the
Chinese
and
wink
emoticon more much
and emotional
cunning
but the American
frivolous than the Chinese
sample.
Smiley W
?--. ,
P
A
participa
Figure 4. Profiles
For the
the
potency
of
perception of the graphic version of the
and
mean ratings of
the American and Chinese
activity dimensions
basic ASCII
are not significant
smiley, the
(both p>0.05)
*
differences
and there
is
in
Emoticons Usage
significant
perceive
difference in the
the graphic
think the graphic
line
smiley
graph shows that
the two emoticons
little bit livelier
happier than
the
Chinese
participants.
both
Graphic Frown
participants
negligible.
The
groups'
profiles of the graphic
of
them change
in the EPA dimensions. Both
than the
71
Meaning
The Chinese
smiley livelier than the Americans but the difference is
basic ASCII smiley but both
the
dimension (p<0.05). The American
evaluation
much
and
ASCII smiley but the
smiley
resonate their ratings of
slightly in degrees
on
the perception of
groups think the graphic emoticons a
change
is
small and negligible.
e
E
P
A
4
participan
Figure 5. Profiles
There is
in
Chinese
the American and Chinese
significant
evaluation and
the
of
difference in the potency dimension (p<0.05)
activity dimension is
think the graphic
much more apathetic than
dimension (high/low)
frown
mean ratings of
is
frown
not significant
sad.
rate
the graphic
but the difference in
statistically insignificant. Both
correspond to the profiles of their perception of the
Animated Graphic Wink
difference
(p>0.05).Both the Americans
The Americans
the Chinese sample
and the
frown lower
the potency
profiles of
the graphic
basic ASCII frown.
w
E
P
A
Figure 6. Profiles
of
the American
and
Chinese
and
mean ratings ot
and
Emoticons Usage
perception of the animated graphic
wink, there
difference in the potency dimension
(p<0.05)
the
and
difference in
is
line
frivolous
remain
than the
Chinese
for
the graphic and
ASCII
Although the two
participants.
dimensions differ slightly to their
graphs
72
ratings
emoticons
rate the cartoon
samples'
ratings of
for the ASCII wink,
indicates
significant
the evaluation and
activity dimensions is insignificant (p>0.05). The American participants
the EPA
Meaning
groups'
In the two
wink more
and
comparison of the
that their overall perception
the same.
Open-mouthed
Smiley'^'
Mk
E
p
?1a';
A
Figure 7. Profiles
There is
no significant
the EPA dimensions
the
the American and Chinese
of
Americans
Animated
(p>0.05) between
and the
wild and active and
difference in the
Chinese
both
?=?-'
participants'
mean ratings of
perception of
the open-mouthed smiley in
the Chinese and the American
perceive
the open-mouthed graphic
groups reach consensus on
participants.
smiley
the meaning of this
as
all
Both
pleasant,
emoticon.
Crying Emoticon
E
P
A
~jm
Figure 8. Profiles
There is
of
the American
no significant
perception of the animated
difference
crying
and
in
*~-+.
Chinese
participa
-
mean ratings of
the Chinese and American
emoticon
in the EPA dimensions (p>0.05). Both the
Emoticons Usage
Chinese
and
animated
emoticons
crying
Angry
E
the Americans are
in their
perception of the
meaning
Meaning
of
73
the
in the EPA dimensions.
Emoticon'^
?-..-..
P
'
17
A
Figure 9. Profiles
There is
of
the American and Chinese
no significant
perception of
and violent.
rated
participants also rated
and the
the
Chinese
emoticon
the emotion more
but the difference is insignificant
Embarrassed
mean ratings of
sample and
the
'IP
Chinese
the angry emoticon in the evaluation and activity dimensions
The difference in the
(p<0.05). Americans
participants'
difference in the American
(p>0.05). Both the Americans
angry
close
very
and
perceive the graphic
perception of
angry
emoticon
potency dimension is
very
significant
hotter than the Chinese. The American
angry
and violent than
the Chinese
participants
statistically.
Smiley'-'
E
P
=
:
A
i
i
participa
Figure 10. Profiles
of
mean ratings of
the American and Chinese
Chinese'
There is
meaning
no significant
difference in the American
of the embarrassed emoticon
difference
exist
in the potency
the embarrassed smiley
and
in the
and the
evaluation
perception of
dimension (p>0.05). Significant
(p<0.05). The Americans
activity dimensions
more tender and timid than the
the
Chinese.
perceive
Emoticons Usage
Confused
Smiley
74
Meaning
and
as
E
P
A
Figure 1 1. Profiles
of
the American and Chinese
The difference in the American
smiley in the
potency
and
dimension is
evaluation
activity dimensions
are
Chinese
significant
more awful
The data
whether
the
of
perception of the confused
(p<0.05)
differences in
insignificant (p>0.05). Participants
Semantic Differential Scales
and
Chinese CMC
and
Chinese
participants agree on the
and
disagree
on
the meaning of
wink, graphic smiley,
embarrassed graphic
and
and the
of the
of
both
meaning
respondents rate
the
the
cultures
and agree on
confused
in the potency dimension than the Americans.
the Americans
Americans
U
participan
activity dimension (quick/inert). But the Chinese
smiley
mean ratings of
in the potency dimension (delicate/rough)
are almost neutral
the
and
participants'
graphic
smiley
the Chinese
answer
users share
meaning
the research question that
meaning
of open-mouth
of emoticons.
smiley
and
American
crying smiley
basic ASCII smiley, basic ASCII frown, basic ASCII
frown,
animated graphic
wink,
and confused graphic smiley.
agree on
the meaning of
angry
graphic
smiley,
third hypothesis that the
The
emoticons
is partially
supported
by
data.
Discussion
The
results
from this
Both the Chinese
and
experiment are
American
interesting for
participants claimed
intercultural CMC
that
they
in many
used emoticons
for
ways.
Emoticons Usage
entertainment, social
Japanese
emoticon users stated
American
emoticons users
expressed
meaning
interaction
But there
are also
These differences
to
are
in the
The
results of
Chinese
meaning
communicate
the
clarify
leave
or supplement the
Empirical
research
that people
social
cultures to
of
and
find that
and
social
interactions
the Chinese
in
Members
cultures.
likely
words
extra
the
which supports
likely than
adding
than the
clarifying
communication styles
in
cultures
and are more engaged
words,
cultures are more
the
high-
low-context
purposes such as
expressed
in
body language,
participants were more
meaning
2002)
rely
from
explicit codes such as words.
of messages expressed
cultures
researches
than members of individualist
high-context
(Katsuno & Yano,
interactions.
least in degrees.
people
and members of
a message ambiguous without
meaning
high-context
distance
of
in
supplement the
online
CMC. Previous
for information
text and supplementing the
/low-context dimension. People
low-context
meaning in
that American
differences between the American
for fun, to
and
face-to-face intercultural
context
meaning
relationships
show
Chinese
use,
humorous in
and
75
to the reasons
use nonverbal cues such as
harmony
participants to use emoticons
of the
friendly
in the face-to-face
communication
this survey
use emoticons
new environments of
of collectivistic cultures emphasize
Similar
on emoticon
application of
have strong tendency to
friendly in-group
purposes.
motivations of emoticon use, at
important in the
have strong tendency to
to promote
look
differences in their
relationship to
situation,
indicate that they
communication
context cultures
information
in their interviews
words and
theories
communication
intercultural
in
and
Meaning
and
in
high-
people of
information to
(Tim-Toomey, 1988).
on emoticon usage motivations also suggests
on context and
interrelationships between
internal information
communicators
in
stead of
such as
linguistic
cues
Emoticons Usage
to
such as emoticons
Chinese
help
and
76
Meaning
transfer meaning in CMC. These reasons can
also explain
why
participants indicated
that
they
were
less
likely
to use emoticons
for information
purposes.
Chinese
participants
indicated that they
interactions than the American
and
on
to
facilitate
harmonious
between the Chinese
in
Universality
collected in
meaning
letter to
a
sender or
not
in
However,
Chinese
that
does
the
emoticon user,
Chinese
EPA dimensions
not mean
if
an
of nonverbal cues
differences
is partially
respondents
and share the
American
uses
supported
disagree
meaning
on
of
:-) or a graphic
receiver cannot understand what
data
by
the
only two
smiley in
a
the American
the emoticon means at all. The disagreement often happens in the degree and
of
the scales, i. e., the graph
mean ratings of the same emoticon
general and the
for
each
directions
of
dimension
extremely sad, very low
in EPA
the two
of
the
ASCII frown in the survey, both
lines
lines
scales
of
the American and the Chinese
usually
are always
share a similar pattern
the
the Americans and the Chinese think the
on
emoticon
mean
and somewhat apathetic and the profiles of the two
EPA dimensions
Chinese disagree
mean
different. For example, for the
Americans'
in
in
the same but the two
emoticons are always
ratings share the same pattern and
emoticon
social
individualistic dimension.
collectivistic/
this study. The American and the
the
for the lack
for
collectivistic cultures and the cultural
Americans in
and the
to use emoticons
phenomenon supports the emphasis
perception of emotions across cultures
in the direction
ratings
in CMC. This
relationships
of most emoticons on
emoticons.
participants to compensate
friendly interactions
in-group
likely
were more
direction. But the
are
higher than the Chinese's
the intensity in the
perception of
the
mean ratings of
and the
emoticon in
the
Americans
and
these dimensions.
Emoticons Usage
Emoticons
can
be
used as paralinguistic cues
between
communication
cultures can understand
Meaning
and
77
in computer-mediated intercultural
people of collectivistic and
individualistic
cultures.
the overall meanings of the same emoticons
Users
but their
across
perception
emoticons'
of
the
meanings
emoticons
may
There
not
First, for
animated graphic
crying smiley)
experiments
facial
tendency
of
of
effect of the
high
in the
perception of the
intensity (open-mouthed
to the
meaning
of
smiley
intensity
in EPA
rate the
scales than the
corresponds
intensity
rated
the
associated with the
of
the two emoticons in the
can
of
Chinese
Ekman'
and
identify
emoticons, the
to the findings
participants.
s
intense
emotional
difference
facial
This
online symbols of emotions,
of previous research on
facial displays among Americans
collectivistic/mdividualistic dimension.
meaning
and
the relative intenseness of these emotional
meaning
participants and the scholars
perceived the
of
participants and the
in Matsumoto
conclusion
meaning
and
expressions
less intense
participants
than the
believed that the difference in intensity
of
the Japanese and American
The fact that American
of most emoticons tested
in
this
study
the
Japanese
(Mastumoto & Ekman, 1989; Matsumoto, 1991, 2002). Japanese
in face-to-face study
American
intended
the rest of the emoticons, the Americans participants constantly
than the Chinese
judgment of emotional
participants
the
in the survey, the American
expressions and agree on
Americans to
more intense
and
that people of different cultural backgrounds
higher degree
be
used
results correspond
Second, for
expressions.
could
interesting findings
participants reach consensus and share the
emotional
assign
intensity
in
fullness.
the two emoticons of
EPA dimensions. The
(1989)
conveyed to
are also some other
emoticons.
Chinese
be
may be different
cultures
ratings
in
emoticons users
as more
intense than the
Emoticons Usage
Chinese
users proves
perception of
also
true
the
difference
that
intensity
of
individualistic
of emotional expressions
and
Meaning
and collectivistic cultures
78
in the
in face-to-face communication is
in CMC.
Conclusions
The Internet has become
interactions among
study the CMC
to
promote
new
people all over
with an
field for intercultural
international
the world via the
intercultural
the intercultural
This study
an important
perspective.
interactions among
medium.
Internet
make
The Internet is
people of
The rapidly increased
it very important to
a powerful new medium
different
cultures and also a
communicators to explore.
on
the
meaning
high/low-context
and
individualism/collectivism dimensions that have
and use of emoticons proves
use of communication styles also
interactions. The
cultural
universality
expressions are also effective
emoticons, a
users
do
category
impact
an
and
of paralinguistic cues used
in general.
communication
the
This study does
in the Chinese
findings
not
and
test
of
this study
are
be
of context
countries.
The Internet
can
help
promote
emotional
to informal
applied
and
to intercultural
involved in
take the Chinese and American
cultures as representatives of higlv/low-context cultures based on
in these
online
only limited to
restricted
cannot
cultures and
most previous research works were earned out well
in
in CMC. Since many Internet
is mostly
for the level
American
affected people's
the perception of
in CMC. However, these findings
Internet interactions,
differences in
on people's emoticon use
differences in
not use emoticons and use of emoticons
personal
CMC
small
have
that cultural
previous research.
before the Internet
cross-cultural
was
widely
sensitivity
But
used
and
Emoticons Usage
to various
expose users
alter
may
the Internet.
on
culture and abandon
behaviors that
may
are
not
the
They
may
Internet
online
affect
dominated
by
behaviors
affect people's use of context
may
use emoticons
cultures.
Since
compensate
interactions
the Internet.
dimensions
of
both
in the
will
by
be done to
such as power
help
promote
Internet
cultures
distance, uncertainty
it is
possible that
language. This
For example, Chinese
used
high-context
the Internet for more than
every day, their
cultures
users
thorough
differences in
behaviors
online
intercultural
various
existing
use
avoidance, masculinity, etc. affect the
in CMC
and on
on
for
to a
level.
Reference
communication
the influence of
culture on
international communication
medium
new
and
its unique culture and cyber
that use the English
cultural
interactions. Knowledge
communication
of another
distinguish
of nonverbal cues used in
how
explore
users
intercultural
Perceptions
online communities and
time on the Internet
to make the Internet a better
intercultural
has
79
adapt to the cyber culture of their
in the survey have
verbal and paralinguistic messages
computer-mediated
they
also
the cyber culture or foreign
affected
work should
in
for the lack
considerable
may have been
Future
Internet
used
own culture.
online communication.
most of the participants
two years and spend a
on
in
in his
Meaning
behaviors
and are always used to
when
low-context
may
to
group
users.
English is widely
communities.
typical communication
practices
typical to one cultural
hold true for Internet
cyber cultures are
adopt
may
corresponding
users'
culture
cultures and communication practices.
their perception of their own culture and other cultures through
interactions
cultures
different
and
style
CMC
and
to
Emoticons Usage
Asteroff, J. F. (1987). Paralanguage in
doctoral
electronic mail:
A
case study.
and
Meaning
80
Unpublished
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(pp. 229-285). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
communication via email
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Emoticons Usage
Appendix 1 Approval
and
Meaning
88
Human Research Review Board
of
RIT
Rochester Institute
of
Technology
NTID Institutional Review Board for the
Protection of Human Subjects in Research
52 Lomb Memorial Drive
Rochester, New York 14623-5604
Form C
Phone:
585-475-5343
Fax:
585-475-77850
Email:
ghydc(o.mail. rit.edu
IRB Decision Form
TO:
Yujiao
FROM:
RIT Institutional Review Board
DATE:
November 7, 2003
RE:
Decision
Project Title:
Wang
of
the Institutional Review Board
Cultural Differences in Emoticon Uses
The Institutional Review Board
|
(IRB) has
taken the
following
action on your project named above.
Exempt
I
[Xl
Approved
as
Type I. No Informed Consent
Deferred. Do
Please
| I
Disapproved
the
Now
not
submit the
seek
informed
consent or
following additional
You
or suspended.
is required.
are
involve human
information
free to
so
Board
resubmit with
subjects until approved
by
Board.
can act on your request:
revisions, and to
request a
heanng
with
Board.
is approved, you may proceed as you described in the Form A. Note that this
is only for a maximum of 12 months; you may conduct research on human subjects only
between the date of this letter and September, 2004. You must promptly report to the IRB any
proposed modifications, unanticipated risks, or actual injury to human subjects. The IRB will send you a
that your project
approval
Form F approximately two
project will extend more
contact me
for information
subjects research at
months
before the
end of your
12-month human
research project.
than 12 months, your project must receive continuing review
that must
be
presented to the
IRB for continuing
by the
If your
IRB
approval to conduct
-
please
human
RIT.
1
Marjone K. Za
Institutional Review Board Administrator
(On behalf of Richard Doolittle, IRB Chair)
cc:
IRB Members
Appendix 2 Questionnaire
Hello,
welcome
communication
the
cultural
to my
emoticon survey!
department
differences in
of
My
name
Rochester Institute
is Yujiao Wang. I am a graduate student at the
of Technology. My graduate thesis is to explore
people's motivations of emoticon uses and
to find
out whether emoticon
Emoticons Usage
the meaning
users agree on
Do
to fill
minutes
answers will
1
In
.
be kept
confidential.
2. Whaf s
Female^
Male
|
3. Please indicate
in
States^
Or
your
country
in
"^
American,
Asian American
As
|
m
*-*
you and enjoy.
survey.
It
will
take
throughout the survey and
about
all
15
the
:-)
birth.
of
I Or
what
is
other
your ethnic
I African American
p
background?
^
I Caucasian
you
hold?
p
^
|
Hispanic
n
"
|Native American
I
other
5. What is the highest
academic
degree
JT*
W*
IT"1
High
invited to take this
anonymous
ip
^
I China
you are an
^
Thank
kept
your gender?
ip
4. If
you are
are
born? I
which year were you
Unite
If yes,
the form. Participants
out
89
Meaning
of emoticons.
emoticons, such as :-)?
you use
and
diploma*"*
|
school
degree
associated
U
Bachelor
|
^
P
^
Master
|
|
PhD
P
|
Or
|
other
I
6. How
long
have
More than two
7. How
long
you
been using
years1^
|
have
you
8. Have
p
Yes^
9. Have
10. How
|
more than one year
for
|
No
example
:)
or
*"*
a year
|
less than
a year
less than
a year
_____
:-) ?
long
have
you
been using
much
years^
|
time do you
more
emoticons?
than one
spend on
year
V
"^
More than three hours
U
|
_____
the Internet every day?
r-.
minutes
less than
P
^
P
How
|
n
^
More than two
1 1
^
you used emoticons?
P
Yes^1
No
one year
IT"
years^
you seen emoticons,
|
than
been using the Internet?
P
More than two
more
a computer?
|Less than three hours
p
^
|Less than
an
p
|Less than 30
n
12. Please indicate
your attitude
me"
as "not at all
true
of
and
"5"
toward each of the
as
"completely true
statement on a
use emoticons
because I just like to
1 to 5
point
scale, with "1
of me".
id
I
hour
use them.
5^
2C
3^
4^
"
Emoticons Usage
,c
because they
use emoticons
and
Meaning
2c
3c
4c
2^
p
3^
4^
2L_.
P
3^
4^
2c
3^
4^
2c
3^
4^
2c
3^
are enjoyable.
5^
id
Emoticons
amuse me.
5^
id
I
use emoticons
because it
friendlier.
makes me
5^
Using
emoticons
is something to do
when
chatting
iC
with
friends.
5^
id
Emoticons
make me
look humorous
with people.
5^
iC
I
I
use emoticons so
can
talk to
-P
other people more easily.
5^
iC
I
I
use emoticons so
2c
3^
2c
3^
A^
can communicate more clearly.
5^
iC
I
use emoticons
to clarify my
mP
meaning.
5^
iC
I
use emoticons
to
supplement
my
2c
3^
2c
3^
sentences.
P
5^
iC
I
use emoticons
Please indicate how
nearest
to the
word
you
think the
following
indicates the highest
words
degree,
the farthest one indicates the lowest degree.
Happyc
High
c
Livelyc
Happyc
Highc
c c c
c
c c
c
c c c
c c
Low
c
c c c
c
Apathetic
c
c
4^
to express my feelings.
c
c
c c c c
c c c c c
Sad
Sad
Low
describe
the
one
each emoticon.
in the
middle
The button
indicates
neutral and
90
Emoticons Usage
G
LivelyG
C C C G C
Apathetlc
15.;-)
G
Cunning
G G
G
Serious^
U
Rational
16.
G G G G
G
^
G
U
G
U
G
U
simp|e_minded
G
^
Friv0|ous
^
Emotiona,
-
Sad
Happy
High
p
L-
Lively
17.
P
^
P
^
c
Sad
Low
c c c
c c
Apathetic
'-
Rational
tJ
c c C iC IP
c
c
G
C
Serious
G
G
G
G
simple-
G
Friv0|OUS
r-T
f-^
r-i
"*i
?-*!
f-*i
F~^
U
^
^
^
^
U
^
Emotional
5
Pleasant^
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
Tame
G
WildG
G
ActlveG
20.
Apathetic
c c c c
c
c
Cunning
19.
c c c c
c
C; c; c; c; c; c
!
L"
P
^
Lively
18.
c
Low
-
Happy
High
c c c c c c
G
G
G
G
G
Unp|easant
Dull
-
U
Cheerful
Weak
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
strongG
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
Lone,y
21.
Angry
C
HotG
Violent
22.
G
n
G
G
G G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
P|eased
Cold
G
Ca,m
and
Meaning
91
Emoticons Usage
G
SweelG
Courageous
Meaning
Sour
C C C C C C
C
Tough
C C G G C
and
Tende,
C G C G C C C
T|mid
23 sa
c c c c c c
Nicec
C G
Dolioo.eC
QuiokG
Thank
come
you
back
Submit
i
G
for
G
taking
a month
Gear
C
C
Awlul
C G
C G C C
Rough
lnert
time to complete this survey. If you are interested in the results,
later
or please contact me at [email protected]
you
may
91