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```miM (Lesson 17)
(I don't think it's that cold.)
Objectives in this lesson are to learn:
* "^^^f"(Ithink that...)
* expressions for uncertainty & probability
Mr Koyama and Mr Yokoi are waiting for their wives on the beach.
^-f£5 : (TA/^) *9:t (&o) < Ml (Mr)
Ufifc : Z (OS6) fcV^Li 5
(\$5^) (^3 j;)
-ffcho
: gcrt (^^V^ tch. ^ (t)
frirft : ^ 5 -vtp-o ?! v^^•r^o i:'r(fr) o
: %.?io -kLfrLfcb. (^x.)
Ut^A, £0
5^1-i:o %51~<^(<) 5o
U Cd?#(^) Li 50
Mike is in a Japanese language class.
(it/^VV), 4-B (# i 5)^b^(^) <^tL
(LotlV^) UT^V^V^1~^o
^:^ti:V^: H 5 Ltc/v^irfro
-rj? : 51 (fefc^) (V^fe) ^/w^to l&M (^^)
: S (feo) ^
-r-Y ^ ; ^fctf 0^)
LTV^^-f^^0 ZflK. ^-7]^ ^"Xf-SA/"Xf"f'o
: ^nD^jM^LJ:5o 1?%^ fiC^) (t; i 5 t) ¦
^(t) ^o^T<fc^V\
; frfrVitLtCo ^LL^-To
94
Vocabulary
to feel good, (#%^> = feeling)
7j<
water
t
clause conjunction
M (&i>) v^^1-
Masu Form of % 5, to think
G&J:)
^ tch
Te Form of ^3 j; <", to swim
wives
might
^ L/c ^
possibly
^ (^>1") tii>(D%:LX
Te Form of CD^i"-5,
to leave something
my, our
%5-rc
soon
TrLJ; 5
probably
% 5^(1"-) b
a little more
(Wc) v^
M (^^)
flu, cold (sickness)
^ (^ao)
fever, temperature
ff(^) oT
Te Form of to measure
Te Form of ^ i "t'-S, to feel drowsy
irbT
#7X C^^^-f)
to have a runny nose
^ (#)
Te Form of ^ to be careful
95
Grammar
17,1
<t? (I think that...)
expressing ideas & opinions
The Plain Form of verbs, "i"-adjectives, "na"-adjectives or nouns 4- "fc" comes
before the particle "t", a quotation marker.
Plain Form of the verb
Noun -4= fc
eg.
I don't think Mr Tanaka will come to the party.
(lit. I think that Mr Tanaka will not come to the party.)
^
1
^
Ih,
I think that this coffee is delicious.
£ L i riVu& Lirfrfc & ^ ^ 1^,
I think that it is quiet in the library.
£ T % Is ^1%
. J
I think that it is a nice car.
NB: "^6 % o "C indicates a third person's opinion.
eg.
John thinks that Japanese (language) is easy.
96
17.2 i, Lfr " (might...) conjecture 1
" — ^ expresses conjecture, probability or uncertainty. The Plain
eg. VERB: ^ 0
It might rain tomorrow.
It might be cold tomorrow.
The next exam might be easy.
NOUN: &<DXtt 0^A
He might be Japanese
17. 3 "— ^ Ls £ 9 " (will be...) conjecture 2
" — L J: 5 " is another expression indicating conjecture, probability or uncertainty
when pronounced with falling ( i ) intonation. " — Tr b i 5 " contains a higher
degree of certainty than " — The Plain Form of the verb or "i"adjective comes before " — L J; 5 "Na"-adjectives and nouns do not require
'7c" before " — "Tf L J; 5 ".
eg. VERB: 0^0^ £&<&£ (i)
It will be cold tomorrow.
T'-ADJ: BJ 0 « ^ V^ ^ L Jfe 5. ( i )
It will be cold tomorrow.
"NA"-ADJ: (Dv-7. h\t fr/wfc/u ^ L Jfc 5 = ( 4 )
The next test will be easy.
NOUN: ^ 0 M (i)
It will rain tomorrow.
97
Furthermore, " — "T? b J: 5" requests a confirmation, when pronounced with rising
(t) intonation.
eg.
VERB: /v (CO)
You are coming to the party, aren't you?
This book is interesting, isn't it?
This test is easy, isn't it?
NOUN: 4* B (t J; 5) & ^ ({f o) j: 5 0 (t/) ^ L & 5 = (t)
It's Monday today, isn't it?
17.4 "—TrLJ: 5 fc" & " — fcS 5
" — VL J: 5 fr" is the interrogative form of " — "T? L J; 5 "• This is"more polite
than " — and contains a degree of wondering on the part of the speaker.
eg.
Is the teacher here?
L J; 5 fco I wonder if the teacher is here?
" — fc -5 5 i ® %) is a combination of " — fcS 5" and " —
i"'." — fcS 5Plain Form of" — 1? L J: 5expresses conjecture. " — fc^bo h
has a slightly lower degree of certainty than " — "T? L i 5
eg.
A: mB (& LTc) Ot) HZ
B; tc&Asm (fefe) 5 t^tto
98
Coffee break t'Vt
"if-5
"
names of body parts
fcfcs
T>fcV^
m/
99
A: £ 5
fcfc*
B: M^V^-Tri-o
Sl^V\
(¦fo5)
:(-S»<o5)
1-3
MIS cfs^A-)
^ «>&«)
(ow ^TV^3,
(tao)
(T>5P)
rm (if 19) -rz
iwt'-rz
m (frto
# 02*1)
The above drawings are copied, from the original ones in E to tasuku de manabu Nihongo,
Murano, M. Tanido and A. Murano, Bonjinsha, 1988, Tokyo, p. 28.
100
Coffee break BJIBfctttiZ'VL J: 5<>
It'll probably be fine tomorrow.
5^^ j: {S 5 weather forecast (a weather map)
}ttl fine
occasionally later
< % ^ (< % ^)) cloudy
i/ttl €>% M
V-' /
V/
*> —fflii 9
f rain
*9 ^ -5) thunder
(4o ^ H^ {hT j£ ^ ^ o (What's the temperature?)
5^) o (It's 30 degrees/C.)
(degree/C =-fro b_
V^LJi5
H+^ (+^±)
z:+E^^H+^
+^^z:+Ejg
n r
v>:^
101
H
m
Activities
1.1 Drill
Link" — iriiE (^o%) to the following verbs.
present tense past tense
(+)
(+)
eg. go
(-)
come
watch
do
there is
1.2 Drill
present tense
past tense
interesting
difficult
fine
fresh
my text book
r .
1.3 Drill
Create questions, using the words provided below,
eg. 0^ ^ (or (iloV^T) if
0^(0 i 5) jr-xhyVTtDiif^-g^
y (fiv^<) V®
102
1.4 Drill
Ask your classmates their opinions on the topics introduced in 1. 3 Drill. Then,
report their opinions to the class, using "—
Topic
Name
eg. */ 3 y
Opinion
(O
1. 5 Drill
Answer the following questions as shown in the example.
eg.
J: 5 (no)
AytD^ytsi-fro (yes)
tev\
(1) 10 ^ ^ a y ^ (/cV^^ <) (t) t. Ltcti\ (yes)
(2) ^ (-^r^V^ ^^^7^ (yes)
(3) (^^) (no)
(4) M (fefe) te^fc^oTV^-f^o (no)
(5) s^yyj V^ttc/uV^t.irfro (yes)
(6)
(yes)
(7) ^^0'7-70o^^!9¦Tr1-K (no)
(8) (-^t/c) (yes)
103
1. 6 Drill
present tense
eg. go
(+) LtvSiiX
(-)
(-)
come
there is
watch
rain
eat
ring
-cvuxt-s
difficult
expensive
easy
noisy
busy
crowded
interesting
troublesome
/tVWi,
past tense
(+)
t
boring
Japanese movies
104
1. 7 Drill
Forecast of tomorrow's weather for the following cities.
/N-yUi
h it
TT^-Kte
/
F-V'fyit
trryxn
t v 7>^7°y yf^fc
105
2. 1 Translation practice
Translate the following sentences into Japanese, using " —- 1? L J: 5" (or other
conjectures).
(1) The price of petrol will rise again soon.
(2) More Japanese tourists will come to the Gold Coast next year.
(3) More people will use computers in the future.
(4) More students will come to Bond Uni. from overseas in the future.
2. 2 Translation practice
Translate the following sentences into Japanese, using " — ^ (CO) TLi 5"
(for confirmation).
(1) You will be home tonight, won't you?
(2) You will come to uni. tomorrow, won't you?
(3) You don't play golf, do you?
(5) It's cold in winter in Japan, isn't it?
(6) Japanese food is difficult to eat, isn't it?
(7) Studying at uni. is hard, isn't it?
(8) Natalie is not Japanese, is she?
3. Drill
Change the following sentences to " — Tf L i 5 &"¦
(1) (S>Lfc)M(&fe)^^^1-^o
(2) ^ Chib)
(3) (O <v Ut^itrf^Lvv-el-^o
(4) (tctefr) (t)
106
(5) L-^
(6) B&V X 5 (tcfr) VMrf^o
(7)
(8) 7'!; L^<V^1-^o
4. Situation practice
Express the following concerns, using " — L- <t 5 ^"•
(1) You are worried if the next exam is difficult.
\$
(2) You will go on a picnic tomorrow and are worried that it might rain.
(3) There has been an earthquake in Japan. You are worried about your coming
trip there.
(4) You are just about to visit your teacher. You are wondering if he is there.
(5) You have to buy a textbook. You are wondering if it is still sold at the
bookshop.
107
5. Drill
Link" — /c -5 5 <^1U^ to the following verbs and adjectives.
present tense
eg. go
past tense
(+)
(-)
(+) ffofcy-c5 5
5
(-)
use
go shopping
eat a meal
do homework
cook
happy
alright
6. Pair work.
Pair up and develop a conversation on the following topics.
(1) tomorrow's weather
(2) next Japanese examination
(3) life on the Gold Coast
(4) facilities of Bond University
(5) studying in Australia
(6) cost of living (^o^) in Australia
108
5
```
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