Download Chapter 13 Reading Guide -The Cold War Begins

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Name _________________________________________________________________________________ Period ______
Chapter 13 Reading Guide -The Cold War Begins (1945-1960)
Directions:
Lesson 1, The Origins of the Cold War pp. 396-401
Define or identify the following:
1.
charter
2.
satellite nations
3.
Iron Curtain
Directions:
Read the lesson in the textbook to complete the outline below.
I.
Building a New World
A.
In 1944 delegates from 39 nations met in the city of ____________________ to discuss a new organization
called the ____________________. This organization would have a ____________________ of member
nations and also a ____________________ of eleven members.
B.
When the Soviet Union liberated ____________________ in 1944, they encouraged the establishment of a
____________________ government . The pre-war government had fled to _________________________.
Churchill and Roosevelt agreed to recognize the _____________________________ if members of the pre-war
government were included and that
____________________________________ be held as soon as possible.
C.
The leaders issued the Declaration of Liberated Europe that asserted all nations have the right to
___________________________________________________________________________________________.
D.
The Allies divided Germany into ____________________ zones. Each one would be controlled by one Allied
nation. They also insisted Germany pay ____________________ for the war.
E.
Tension between the United States and the Soviet Union led to the _________________________. The Soviets
believed in a(n) ____________________ economic system. U.S. leaders believed that a(n) __________
system was the key to peace.
II.
A.
B.
Truman Takes Control
In July 1945 Truman and Stalin met at the ______________________. Truman believed ____________________
was crucial for Germany, while the Soviet Union believed it needed _______________________ from Germany.
The Soviets refused to uphold the ________________________________________. The countries of Eastern
Europe would set up ____________________ governments and came to be known as ____________________.
Churchill later described it as an _________________________________________ falling across Eastern Europe.
Directions:
Summarize the main ideas of this lesson by answering the question below:
Explain how tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union lead to the Cold War by writing about the
issues that surfaced in the two conferences below:
1.
The Yalta Conference –
2.
The Potsdam Conference –
1
Lesson 2, The Early Cold War Years pp. 402-408
Directions:
Define or Identify the following:
1.
containment
2.
limited war
Directions:
Read each main idea in your textbook and answer the questions below:
A.
Main Idea:
The United States practiced a policy of containment with the Soviets as tensions erupted into
conflict.
1.
How did the Long Telegram shape American policy in dealing with the Soviets? ___________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
2.
Where did Soviet aggression occur after World War II? 1. _____________________ 2. ____________________
3. ____________________
3.
What was the Truman Doctrine? ________________________________________________________________
4.
Why did Congress pass the Marshall Plan? _________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
5.
Why was the Berlin Airlift necessary? _____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
6.
Why was NATO created? _______________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
B.
Main Idea:
The Cold War eventually spread beyond Europe and conflicts erupted in Asia, sending American
troops into battle.
1.
What was the Chinese Revolution? _______________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
2.
How did a Communist government in China affect U.S. relations with Japan? _____________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
3.
When did the Korean War begin? ________________________________________________________________
4.
Why did China become involved in the Korean War? ________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
5.
How did the Korean War mark a turning point in the Cold War? ________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Directions:
Summarize the main ideas of this lesson by answering the question below.
Explain how the U.S. policy of containment affected its relations with the nations listed below:
1.
The Soviets –
2.
Japan –
3.
S. Korea –
2
Lesson 3, The Cold War and American Society pp. 410-414
Directions:
Define or identify the following:
1.
subversion
2.
blacklist
3.
perjury
4.
censure
5.
fallout
Directions:
Read each main idea and use your textbook to supply the details that support or explain each main idea.
A.
Main Idea:
During the 1950s Americans lived with the fear of Communist infiltration of government
agencies and other organizations.
Details:
1.
The anti-Communist period known as the ___________________ began in ____________________ when a Soviet clerk
defected with documents describing Soviet ____________________ of the United States and Canada.
2.
President Truman developed a ______________________________to screen all federal employees. J. Edgar Hoover urged
the _________________________________________committee to hold hearings focused on the
________________industry. Anyone who was suspect was ______________________________ by producers.
3.
A New York couple, ___________________________, was convicted of spying for the Soviet Union. Cryptographers working
on _________________________ cracked the Soviet spy code.
4.
Many state and local governments required employees to take _________________________________.
The _________________________ of 1947 required union leaders to testify that they were not Communists.
B.
Main Idea:
Senator Joseph McCarthy made sensational charges of communism directed at people at home and
abroad, spreading fear throughout the United States.
Details:
1.
In 1950 Congress passed the ________________________ which made it illegal to agree to perform any act which would
contribute to the establishment of a _______________________________________ in the U.S.
2.
McCarthy became chairman of the Senate subcommittee on ____________________. His tactics became known as
____________________ . His downfall occurred in the year ___________________ when he targeted
____________________, the army’s lawyer.
3.
The Senate voted to ________________________________ him, one of the most serious criticisms of a senator.
C.
Main Idea:
Fear of communism and nuclear war affected the lives of many ordinary citizens.
Details:
1.
When the Soviets successfully tested the ___________________________, many Americans were fearful of a(n)
_______________________. Schools held ________________________while families built ________________.
2.
McCarthyism, fears of _________________________, and nuclear war led to plays, television shows, dance tunes, and
popular fiction containing Cold War __________________________.
Directions:
Summarize the main ideas of this lesson by answering the question below.
Explain how the fear of communism shaped life in the United States in the 1950s by completing the sentences below:
1.
The Red Scare began because
3
2.
Fear rose to a fever pitch because
3.
The Red Scare became a theme of
Lesson 4, Eisenhower’s Cold War Policies pp. 415-421
Directions:
Define or identify the following:
1.
massive retaliation
2.
brinkmanship
3.
covert
4.
developing nation
5.
military-industrial complex
Directions:
Locate each heading below in your text and use the information to help you write each answer:
I.
Massive Retaliation
A.
What did Eisenhower think was the key to victory in the Cold War? _____________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
B.
In what situations specifically was the policy of brinkmanship employed? ________________________________
C.
Why did Britain and France call off their invasions of Egypt? ___________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
D.
How did the U.S. respond to the Soviet launching of Sputnik? _________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
II.
A.
B.
Covert Operations
Why did Eisenhower use covert operations? _______________________________________________________
What were two examples of covert operations that were successful? ___________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
C.
What was the Eisenhower Doctrine? _____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
D.
What was the U-2 spy plane incident? ____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Directions:
Summarize the main ideas of this lesson by answering the following question:
Complete the chart below by explaining how the policy of massive retaliation prevented the United States from becoming
involved in war and by explaining the role covert operations played.
Massive Retaliation
Covert Operations
1. The Suez Crisis
1. Guatemala
2. Taiwan
2. Iran
3. The Korean War
3. the U-2 incident
4
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