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FCAT Prep.
Teaching Presentation
Mock FCAT 2.0
A chemical change is a change in which a
substance turns into a completely different
substance that can't be reversed
•
Chemical change is any change that results in
the formation of new chemical substances.
At the molecular level, chemical change
involves making or breaking of bonds
between atoms.
These changes are chemical:
• iron rusting (iron oxide forms)
• gasoline burning (water vapor and carbon
dioxide form)
• eggs cooking (fluid protein molecules uncoil
and crosslink to form a network)
• bread rising (yeast converts carbohydrates
into carbon dioxide gas)
• milk souring (sour-tasting lactic acid is
produced)
• Sun tanning (vitamin D and melanin is
produced)
•
Physical change rearranges molecules but
doesn't affect their internal structures.
Some examples of physical change are:
• whipping egg whites (air is forced into the
fluid, but no new substance is produced)
• magnetizing a compass needle (there is
realignment of groups ("domains") of iron
atoms, but no real change within the iron
atoms themselves).
• boiling water (water molecules are forced
away from each other when the liquid
changes to vapor, but the molecules are still
H2O.)
• dissolving sugar in water (sugar molecules
are dispersed within the water, but the
individual sugar molecules are unchanged.)
• dicing potatoes (cutting usually separates
molecules without changing them.)
1)
Ethan is observing chemical and physical properties of a substance. He heats a
substance and observes that the substance turns from a brown solid to a black
powder. He refers to several chemistry journals that claim this represents a chemical
reaction. From his observation and research, he concludes that the substance goes
through a chemical change when heated.
How can Ethan best defend his conclusion?
A. by demonstrating that the substance will eventually melt if the temperature
continues to increase
B. by verifying that the substance is now made up of different molecules than
before it was heated
C. by verifying that the substance is made up of only one type of element
D. by demonstrating that the substance is less dense after it is heated
B
Constant Speed / Distance and Time
Reading a graph.
• Constant speed is
movement at a fixed
(constant) distance per
unit of time.
Formulas
2) Mr. Roberts drives his car away from his house at a constant speed.
Which of the following graphs best shows the relationship between the
distance traveled and the time spent driving?
H
The Rock Cycle
At which point in the cycle shown above would the process of breaking down
rocks occur?
A. J
B. K
C. L
D. M
D
Balanced & Unbalanced Forces
Newton's first law of motion
*An object at rest stays at rest &
an object in motion stays in motion
unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
Since these two forces are equal and in opposite directions,
they balance each other.
• It is said to be at equilibrium.
• When all the forces acting upon an object balance
each other, the object will be at equilibrium; it will not
accelerate.
4) An object moves through space with balanced forces acting
on it. Which statement best describes the speed and
direction of the object as long as the forces acting on it
remain balanced?
F. The speed and direction of the object will both change.
G. The speed and direction of the object will remain constant.
H. The speed will change, but the direction will remain
constant.
I. The speed will remain constant, but the direction will
change.
G
Why is it important to design
experiments that can be replicated?
It is important to design an experiment that can be
replicated because:
1. Doing multiple trials helps provide assurance that the
results are correct
2. it also allows you to get an average
3. Observed results are less likely to be affected by random
chance.
5) A scientist performs an experiment and asks other
scientists around the world to replicate it. Why would other
scientists most likely try to perform the same experiment?
A. to find out if weather of various regions of the world
would affect the results
B. to see if the experiment would be less expensive in
another part of the world
C. to confirm the results of the experiment conducted by
the scientist
D. to verify that the hypothesis of the experiment is a
scientific law
C
Niche in a community?
•
Decomposers and scavengers break
down dead plants and animals.
•
•
They also break down the waste
(poop) of other organisms.
•
Decomposers are very important for
any ecosystem. If they weren't in the
ecosystem, the plants would not get
essential nutrients, and dead matter
and waste would pile up.
•
Scavengers are animals that find
dead animals or plants and eat them.
While they eat them, they break
them into small bits.
Examples are: flies, wasps and
cockroaches are scavengers.
Earthworms are also scavengers, but
they only break down plants.
There are two kinds of decomposers:
scavengers and decomposers.
Once a scavenger is done, the decomposers
take over, and finish the job.
• Many kinds of decomposers are
microscopic, meaning that they can't be
seen without a microscope. Others, like
fungi, can be seen.
6) Food webs show feeding relationships among different
types of organisms. Those organisms each have a specific
niche. Which of the following best describes a function of
decomposers in food webs?
F. to recycle nutrients into soil
G. to convert solar energy into food
H. to provide food for secondary consumers
I. to compete with secondary consumers for oxygen
F
Earth’s oceans:
• is the liquid water component
of the Earth. It includes the
oceans, seas, lakes, ponds,
rivers and streams. The
hydrosphere covers about 70%
of the surface of the Earth and
is the home for many plants and
animals.
7) The interaction between the cryosphere and hydrosphere
can have an impact on Earth’s oceans. Which of the following
is an example of an interaction between the cryosphere and
hydrosphere?
A. evaporation of water from oceans at the equator
B. release of fresh water into ocean water as icebergs melt
C. decomposition of organic matter at the bottom of oceans
D. release of large amounts of salt from icebergs into the
ocean
B
Every Changing Science
• Accepted theories are the best explanations
available so far for how the world works.
They have been thoroughly tested, are
supported by multiple lines of evidence, and
have proved useful in generating
explanations and opening up new areas for
research. However, science is always a work
in progress, and even theories change.
8) Scientific knowledge may change as new evidence or
information is discovered. Which of the following would NOT be a
result of new scientific research and information?
F. Binomial nomenclature is assigned to a recently identified plant
species.
G. An endangered monkey species is put in a reserve for
protection from extinction.
H. A newly discovered chemical element will be added to the
periodic table of the elements.
I. A nonnative plant species will begin to reproduce rapidly after
being introduced into a swamp ecosystem.
I
9) Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium
(Rb), Cesium (Cs), and Francium (Fr) are in the same
column in the periodic table. Why are these elements in
the same column in the periodic table?
A. They are the same size.
B. They react with each other.
C. They have similar properties.
D. They have the same number of protons.
C
Reading a chart:
G
A chemical change is a change in which a
substance turns into a completely different
substance that can't be reversed
•
Chemical change is any change that results in
the formation of new chemical substances.
At the molecular level, chemical change
involves making or breaking of bonds
between atoms.
These changes are chemical:
• iron rusting (iron oxide forms)
• gasoline burning (water vapor and carbon
dioxide form)
• eggs cooking (fluid protein molecules uncoil
and crosslink to form a network)
• bread rising (yeast converts carbohydrates
into carbon dioxide gas)
• milk souring (sour-tasting lactic acid is
produced)
• Sun tanning (vitamin D and melanin is
produced)
•
Physical change rearranges molecules but
doesn't affect their internal structures.
Some examples of physical change are:
• whipping egg whites (air is forced into the
fluid, but no new substance is produced)
• magnetizing a compass needle (there is
realignment of groups ("domains") of iron
atoms, but no real change within the iron
atoms themselves).
• boiling water (water molecules are forced
away from each other when the liquid
changes to vapor, but the molecules are still
H2O.)
• dissolving sugar in water (sugar molecules
are dispersed within the water, but the
individual sugar molecules are unchanged.)
• dicing potatoes (cutting usually separates
molecules without changing them.)
11) When a candle is lit, the wick burns, the wax melts, the
candle changes shape, and the air around the candle heats
up. Which of the following is an example of a chemical
change?
A. the wick burning
B. the wax melting
C. the candle changing shape
D. the air around the candle heating up
A
How does air movement near the
equator cause thunderstorms?
F. movement of ocean currents
G. decrease in relative humidity
H. heating by energy from the Sun
I. warming in the upper atmosphere
H
APPARENT AMAGNITUDE
The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial body is a measure of its
brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it
would have in the absence of the atmosphere. The brighter the
object appears, the lower the value of its magnitude.
13) One physical property of a star is apparent magnitude.
Which of the following is used in
determining the apparent magnitude of a star?
A. the constellation the star is in
B. the distance the star is from Earth
C. the number of times the star rotates
D. the number of prominences the star makes
B
Deforestation has many negative effects on the
environment. The most dramatic impact is a loss of
habitat for millions of species.
Deforestation also drives climate change. Forest
soils are moist, but without protection from sunblocking tree cover they quickly dry out AND
EROSION OCCURS..
14) Deforestation occurs when large areas of trees are
cut down. Which of the following impacts on the
environment would result from deforestation?
F. increased erosion
G. colder temperatures
H. excess ground moisture
I. greater oxygen production
F
Density Formula
Density is all about the compactness in molecular
arrangement in any substance which decides how heavier
or lighter any substance is!
Let’s consider the ice cubes on the water.
We can see ice floats on water which tells us that water is denser than ice.
Density is defined as:
• The mass per unit volume of a substance at a
specified pressure and temperature.
• The quantity of something per unit measure,
especially per unit length, area, or volume.
Density is calculated using the below formula.
It is represented by D .
D
A. Substance X has less mass than substance Y has.
B. Substance W has less volume than substance X has.
C. Substance Y would have less mass than substance Z would have if they had
the same volume.
D. Substance Z would have less mass than substance W would have if they had
the same volume.
C
Variables in an experiment:
• Variables – the factor that can
be changed in order to study
the hypothesis of an
experiment.
• Independent variables are the
variables that are changed in a
given model or equation.
• Dependent variables usually
the part of the experiment
being measured or observed.
• it responds to the test variable.
(changing only as the
independent variable does.)
Controlled Variables the
factor/s that is purposefully
kept the same
16) Keesha did an experiment to study the rate of photosynthesis in the water plant
Elodea. She placed a piece of Elodea in a beaker of water and set the beaker 10
centimeters (cm) from a light source. Keesha counted the bubbles released from the
plant every minute for five minutes (min). She repeated the process two more times.
First, she moved the light to 20 cm from the beaker, and then she moved the light to 30
cm from the beaker. Keesha’s setup and data are shown below.
What is the outcome variable (dependent variable) in this experiment?
F. the number of bubbles produced
G. the type of plant placed in the beaker
H. the distance of the light source from the plant
I. the amount of time the bubbles were counted
F
Replication VS Repetition
• Repetition
• is the act of you doing
your own work over
and over again
• REPLICATION
• the action or process of
reproducing or
duplicating some ones
experiment or work
The statement from which investigation is an example of repetition?
A. Investigation 1
B. Investigation 2
C. Investigation 3
D. Investigation 4
D
Why is Mercury so
heavily cratered?
• Mercury is heavily
cratered because it has
virtually no atmosphere .
• Without atmospheric
weathering or geologic
reworking of the surface,
any craters become
permanent features of
the planet.
• Craters form when an
asteroid or meteor
collides with the planet
or moon
18) The surface of Mercury has many more craters
than the surface of Earth has. Which of the following
statements best explains why Mercury has many more
craters than Earth has?
F. Mercury rotates faster than Earth does.
G. Mercury has a smaller mass than Earth has.
H. Mercury is much closer to the Sun than Earth is.
I. Mercury has a thinner atmosphere than Earth has.
I
WHAT CAUSES THE TIDES?
• Tides are periodic rises and falls of
Large bodies of water.
• Tides are caused by the
gravitational interaction between
the Earth and the Moon.
• Since the earth is rotating while this is happening,
two tides occur each day.
Isaac Newton was the first person to explain tides
scientifically.
19) The water level at the beach changes
during the day. What causes the different
water levels?
A. Earth’s revolution
B. the Moon’s rotation
C. Earth’s magnetic field
D. the Moon’s gravitational pull
D
No “fluff” review for next question
H
What contributes to evolution of
scientific ideas?
Science changes
because …
A. Advancements in atomic models proved the atomic theory was accurate.
B. The discovery of new evidence resulted in changes to the atomic theory.
C. With the discovery of every new element, the atomic theory was modified.
D. Changes in atomic models showed that the atomic theory was based on
opinion.
B
Ages of Rock
• To find the relative age
of a rock, you need to
identify the:
• geologic age
• time in Earth's history
• Radioactivity
22) The oldest rock formation identified on Earth is found on the
shoreline of Hudson Bay in Canada. This rock formed 4.28 billion
years ago. What information does a scientist need to more
accurately determine the age of a rock?
F. the percentage of each mineral that makes up the rock
G. the thickness of younger rock layers that cover the rock
H. the amount of each radioactive element present in the rock
I. the amount of weathering present on the surface of the rock
H
What’s the difference?
• Climate encompasses • weather, is the
•
•
•
•
the statistics of
temperature
humidity,
atmospheric pressure,
wind,
precipitation
present condition of
these elements and
their variations over
shorter periods.
23) The climate of an area can be different from its weather.
Which of the following statements describes the climate of an
area?
A. There should be heavy rains tomorrow morning.
B. The rains next week are expected to cause some flooding.
C. The average temperature from 1930–1996 was 23°C (74°F).
D. The high temperature on September 4, 2009, was 32°C (89°F).
C
Our Universe / size comparison
Earth
H
How the body functions (to maintain homeostasis) in both
hot and cold environments?
Answer:
The body detects changes to temperature in two ways:
• receptors in the skin monitor for changes to external temperature;
• while the hypothalamus detects changes internally.
It does this by monitoring the temperature of the blood as it passes this part of the brain. Feedback systems
then respond to these changes in temperature:
too HOT:Sweating is a method to keep us cool.
The sweat evaporates using the energy from the body.
too COLD:• Hairs on our skin stand upright ; (this traps a layer of air close to our skin, which is a
good insulator.)
• Shivering generates heat energy from our muscles.
25) In order to maintain homeostasis, the systems of the
human body work together to keep a constant internal
temperature. Which of the following statements describes how
the human body responds in a cold environment?
A. The nervous system moves the jaw bones and causes the
chattering of teeth.
B. The nervous system signals the muscles of the muscular
system to contract and warm the body.
C. The circulatory system delivers less carbon dioxide to the
muscular system, resulting in stiffening of the muscles.
D. The skeletal system produces more blood cells that circulate
through the blood vessels, increasing the warmth of the body.
B
Layers of the Earth & Plate tectonics:
Exactly what drives plate
tectonics is not known.
One theory is that
convection within the
Earth's mantle pushes
the plates
G
Physical properties…
• can be observed or measured without
changing the composition of matter. Physical
properties are used to observe and describe
matter.
• Physical properties include: appearance,
texture, color, odor, melting point, boiling
point, density, solubility, polarity, and many
others.
D
Click on the link to see brief video lesson:
http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=sce304
I
Electromagnetic
Spectrum and
Wavelengths
• Our most important energy source is light, and the entire spectrum
of colors is derived from light. Sunlight, which contains all the
wavelengths, consists of the entire electromagnetic spectrum that
we depend on to exist on this planet.
And light does not travel alone. Light travels with other energies as
illustrated below.
• Each color found in the visible light
spectrum has its own wavelength
and its own frequency, which
produces a specific energy.
29) Sunlight is composed of energy that is visible to
humans and energy that is not visible to humans.
Which statement describes how the visible energy
from the Sun is different from the nonvisible energy?
A. It travels at a different speed.
B. It travels a different distance.
C. It has different wavelengths.
D. It has different amplitudes.
C
Charged
particles:
• All things are made up of charges.
• Opposite charges attract each other (negative to
positive).
• Like charges repel each other.
• Most of the time positive and negative charges
are balanced in an object, which makes that
object neutral.
• Static electricity is the result of an imbalance
between negative and positive charges in an
object…through friction.
30) Luis rubbed a balloon on his hair and held the
balloon next to the wall. He observed the balloon
stick to the wall. Which of the following is
responsible for the balloon sticking to the wall?
F. friction
G. gravity
H. electric force
I. magnetic force
H
How can light change directions?
• There are various ways to change the
direction of light. As a simple
example, a mirror changes the
direction of light by reflection.
• Light passes from one medium to
another, by a process called
refraction such as with water, lenses,
camera, telescope & microscopes.
• A prism bends light.
B
How is energy converted?
Three types of energy
• Chemical energy - Energy
that is available for release
from chemical reactions.
• Electrical energy - Energy
caused by the movement of
electrons.
• Mechanical energy - Energy
due to a object’s motion
(kinetic) or position
(potential).
• Electrical energy is usually
converted into mechanical
energy through
electromagnetism.
(The term electromagnetism is
defined as the production of a
magnetic field by current
flowing in a conductor)
• Example: The flow of
current through a coil of
wire can either directly
perform work or be
converted to rotational
energy (an electric motor).
F. Chemical energy transforms into electrical energy.
G. Mechanical energy transforms into electrical energy.
H. Electrical energy transforms into mechanical energy.
I. Mechanical energy transforms into chemical energy.
H
Organization of living things
• The simplest level of organization is that of the cell.
• A group of cells with a similar function is called a tissue.
• Groups of tissues working together to perform a
common function are called organs.
• Groups of organs working together to perform a
common function are referred to as a system or organ
system
• Many different systems function together to allow a
complex organism to function.
D
Heat transfer
•
•
•
The transfer of thermal energy from a
hot area to a cool area is known as
heat flow.
This occurs when a certain object or
material is at a different temperature
than surrounding objects.
when a difference in temperature
exists between materials, the heat flow
can only be slowed, not stopped.
• Types of Heat flow:
• Conduction (The transfer of heat from one substance to
another by direct contact.) - heat spontaneously flows from a
body at a higher temperature to a body at a lower temperature
• Convection (A technical way of saying that heat rises and this
sets up air currents.)
• Radiation (Radiation describes any process in which energy
travels through a medium or through space, ultimately to be
absorbed by another body.)
F. from the aluminum cube to the beaker
G. from the copper cube to the boiling water
H. from the aluminum cube to the copper cube
I. from the boiling water to the aluminum cube
I
• Airplanes descend by reducing thrust, or
engine power. This creates less lift, so the
airplane slowly lowers. The flaps are then
engaged to create just enough lift to keep the
plane in the air but still descend.
A. The lift is equal to the drag.
B. The lift is less than the weight.
C. The thrust is equal to the weight.
D. The thrust is greater than the drag.
B
What is Cell Theory?
• The initial discovery of cells
was done by Robert Hooke.
• Hooke designed one of the
first microscopes.
• One specimen he examined
was thinly sliced pieces of
cork.
• By looking at the cork through
the microscope, he discovered
that it was made up of many
small units… He named these
units cells.
• and, without realizing it, he
had discovered the basis of all
living matter.
• The cell theory states that all
living organisms have a basic
unit of structure and function,
which is the cell…it suggested
that all living things have a
common denominator.
•
http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-the-cell-theory.htm
•
This link will show us the cells under a
microscope and a “Did you know: video clip
F. The organisms have cells that lack a nucleus.
G. The organisms are made of one or more cells.
H. The cells of the organisms undergo photosynthesis.
I. The cells of the organisms are identical to each other.
G
Diversity & Evolution of living
organisms.
Be able to classify organisms
based on their characteristics.
• The Kingdom that
the organism is
assigned to is based
on:
• Its cell type
(complex or simple)
• Its ability to make
food or not
• The number of cells
in the body
37) Mushrooms, bread molds, and yeasts are
classified together in the fungi kingdom. Specific
characteristics are used to classify these
organisms. Which of the following is a
characteristic used to classify these organisms as
fungi?
A. They are parasites.
B. They are unicellular.
C. They are prokaryotes.
D. They are heterotrophs.
D
Genetic variation & environmental
factors
• Genetic variation is the
raw material of evolution.
• Without genetic variation,
a population cannot
evolve in response to
changing environmental
variables and, as a result,
may face an increased risk
of extinction.
3 main types of Animals
38) A certain reptile species is a herbivore and exists only on an
isolated island. Which of the following would most likely result in
the extinction of the reptile species over a period of twenty
thousand years?
F. The reptile species produces many offspring with many unique
traits, and the vegetation remains constant.
G. The reptile species produces few offspring with some unique
traits, and the vegetation remains constant.
H. The reptile species produces few offspring with no unique traits,
and the vegetation changes quickly.
I. The reptile species produces many offspring with some unique
traits, and the vegetation changes slowly.
H
Compare/contrast the major
organelles of plant & animal cells
A. Mitochondrion
B. Cell Wall
C. Cytoplasm
D. Nucleus
B
INTERACTION IN A COMMUNITY – PREDATION, COMPETITION, SYMBIOSIS
AND ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
• Parasitism is a relationship
between two organisms of
different species where one
organism benefits (the
parasite) and the other is
harmed (the host).
• Commensalism is a
relationship between two
organisms of different
species where one organism
benefits and the other is not
harmed or does not benefit.
• Mutualism is a relationship
between two organisms of
different species where
both organisms benefit.
• Predation is an interaction
between the predator and
the prey in a specific
territory .
• Competition is two species
fight for their survival.
F. African ants living in acacia trees feed on leaf-eating insects found on the tree.
G. Spider crabs are camouflaged by the green-brown algae growing on their shells.
H. A whale is unaffected by the attached remora fish feeding on the whale’s leftover
food.
I. Bees fly from one flowering plant to another gathering nectar and pollinating the
flowers.
H
Punnett Square
• The Punnett square is a
diagram that is used to
predict an outcome of a
particular cross or breeding
experiment.
• A genotype refers to the
actual set of genes that an
organism carries inside.
When these genes are
expressed under observable
conditions, they are called
phenotypes
• Curled Ears = C
• Straight Ears = Cc
41) The gene for curled ears (C) is dominant over the gene for straight ears (c).
The picture below shows a cat with curled ears (Cc) and a cat with straight
ears (cc).
C
Carbon Cycle
•
Plants, animals, and soil interact to
make up the basic cycles of nature. In
the carbon cycle, plants absorb
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
and use it, combined with water they
get from the soil, to make the
substances they need for growth.
•
Other animals, such as the fox, eat
the rabbit and then use the carbon
for their own needs. These animals
return carbon dioxide into the air
when they breathe, and when they
die, since the carbon is returned to
the soil during decomposition. The
carbon atoms in soil may then be
used in a new plant or small
microorganisms.
42) A diagram of the carbon cycle is shown below.
Each arrow represents a process in the cycle. Which of the following best describes the
process that occurs at arrow X?
F. Bacteria break down molecules in animals into carbon-based soil nutrients.
G. Animals release oxygen that is used by bacteria to produce carbon dioxide.
H. Animals release carbon dioxide that is used by bacteria for growth and reproduction.
I. Bacteria combine carbon-based nutrients from plants and animals to produce glucose.
F
Read the introduction well and the
images over for each question
Process of elimination works
best…cross out what does not work and
then see what is left to find the best
answer.
The Indian River Lagoon (3 QUESTIONS to Follow)
An estuary is a body of water in which fresh water draining from the land mixes
with salt water from the ocean. The result of this mixture is an environment with
abundant plant and animal life. The Indian River Lagoon is a 156-mile-long estuary
on Florida’s east coast. It is a diverse estuary, supporting thousands of species of
plants and animals. The food web and food pyramid shown below are examples of
the relationships that exist in the Indian River Lagoon ecosystem.
The Indian River Lagoon
43. Which of the following has the largest population in
the Indian River Lagoon ecosystem?
A. crab
B. egret
C. flounder
D. sea grass
D
The Indian River Lagoon
44. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the energy
transfer between the levels of the food pyramid in the Indian River Lagoon?
F. Energy stays in the phytoplankton at the lowest level.
G. Energy is released into the environment only from the egret.
H. Energy travels up from the phytoplankton to the clam worm.
I. Energy moves from the flounder to both the clam worm and egret.
H
The Indian River Lagoon
45. In the Indian River Lagoon ecosystem, many organisms
compete with one another for food sources. Which organism
in the food web competes with the egret for food?
A. clam worm
B. crab
C. flounder
D. heron
D