Imperfect and Perfect Tenses Download

Transcript
Present,
Imperfect, and
Perfect Tenses
English has a
present tense
and a past tense.
Present Tense
She praises her mother.
She is praising her mother.
She does praise her mother.
Past Tense
She praised her mother.
She was praising her mother.
She did praise her mother.
Latin is better.
Latin has a
present tense and
TWO past tenses
Present Tense
puella matrem laudat.
The girl praises her mother.
The girl is praising her mother.
The girl does praise her
mother.
Imperfect Tense
puella matrem laudābat.
The girl was praising her mother.
The girl used to praise her mother.
Perfect Tense
puella matrem laudāvit.
The girl praised her mother.
The girl did praise her mother.
The girl has praised her mother.
puella matrem laudābat. – Imperfect Tense
The girl was praising her mother.
puella matrem laudāvit. – Perfect Tense
The girl praised her mother.
What’s going on here?
laudābat means “she was
praising”?
laudāvit means “she praised”?
So they both happened in the
past?
NON INTELLEGO.
The imperfect tense is used
for continuing or repeated
action in the past.
The perfect tense is for single
events completed in the past.
See the difference?
Oh, I get it now!
puella matrem laudābat cotidie.
The girl was praising her mother daily.
puella matrem laudāvit heri.
The girl praised her mother yesterday.
Cicero librum scribēbat.
Cicero librum scripsit.
Cicero was writing a book.
Cicero wrote a book.
BENE!
OPTIME!
bonus discipulus es.
Present Tense
present stem
personal ending
Personal Endings of Verbs
• the last part of a verb form
identifies the subject
• three persons
• two numbers
Personal Endings of Verbs for
the present tense
1st sing.
2nd sing.
3rd sing
I
you
he, she, it
1st plural we
2nd plural you all
3rd plural they
-ō/m
-s
-t
-mus
-tis
-nt
Present Tense
1st
2nd
3rd
sing.
sing.
sing
laud ō
laudā s
laudā t
1st
2nd
3rd
plural
plural
plural
laudā mus
laudā tis
laudā nt
Imperfect Tense
present stem
tense sign -BĀpersonal ending
Imperfect Tense
1st
2nd
3rd
sing.
sing.
sing
laudā ba m
laudā bā s
laudā ba t
1st
2nd
3rd
plural
plural
plural
laudā bā mus
laudā bā tis
laudā ba nt
Perfect Tense
perfect stem
perfect personal ending
How can I find the
Perfect Stem?
from the 3rd principal part
st
1
principal part
laudō
This is the 1st singular
present tense.
“I praise”
nd
2
principal part
laudāre
This is the present infinitive.
“to praise”
present stem + re
rd
3
principal part
laudāvī
This is the perfect tense.
“I praised”
perfect stem + perfect personal
ending
Perfect Tense Personal Endings
1st sing.
2nd sing.
3rd sing
I
you
he, she, it
1st plural we
2nd plural you all
3rd plural they
-ī
-istī
-it
-imus
-istis
-ērunt
Perfect Tense
1st
2nd
3rd
sing.
sing.
sing
laudāv ī
laudāv istī
laudāv it
1st
2nd
3rd
plural
plural
plural
laudāv imus
laudāv istis
laudāv ērunt
portō, portāre, portāvī
present portat
imperfect portābat
perfect portāvit
ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī
present ambulat
imperfect ambulābat
perfect ambulāvit
dicō, dicere, dixī
present dicit
imperfect dicēbat
perfect dixit
regō, regere, rexī (rule)
present regit
imperfect regēbat
perfect rexit
mittō, mittere, misī (send)
present mittit
imperfect mittēbat
perfect misit
scribō, scribere, scripsī
present scribit
imperfect scribēbat
perfect scripsit
moneō, monēre, monuī
(warn)
present monet
imperfect monēbat
perfect monuit
FINIS
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