Sui Tang Song Lecture Notes I. Slide Two Download

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Sui Tang Song Lecture Notes
I. Slide Two- After the Fall of the Han
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a. Three Kingdoms Period began
a. North, East and West kingdom
b. Economic development deteriorated
a. However there were advancements in Military Tech
1. Gunpowder Invented
2. Tech for Metal-smelting and shipbuilding improved
Slide Three- Sui Background 581-618
a. Wen defeats the Chen Kingdom and Reunifies China
b. Murdered by his son Yang
c. Assassinated by his officials for harsh taxes and labor requirements
d. Li Yuan (official under Yang) Creates the Tang Dynasty
Slide Four- Benefits of the Tang
a. Land Distribution System
a. Distributed land based on number of people in each household
b. Aimed to reduce gap between rich and poor
c. Farmer’s passion enhanced resulting in the improvement of the agricultural production
b. Formalized Confucian Exam System
a. Started during the Han
b. Revived during the Sui Dynasty
c. Would be used for next 1300 years
c. Silk Road Trade
a. Foreign relations weakened during the Sui
1. Political Turmoil
b. Silk Road was an exception
1. Laid foundations for foreign relations that would grow during the Tang
d. Professional Army Created
e. Grand Canal
a. Created to improve transportation between North and South China
b. Connected Yellow River with Yangtze River
1. Accelerated economic and cultural exchange
Tang Dynasty 618-907
a. Liyuan took advantage of political chaos to seize Chang’an as his capital in 618
b. One of the most prosperous dynasties in Chinese History
a. Many compare it to the Han Dynasty
c. Economic instability and regional separatism lead to fall of the Tang
d. Fall led to period of Five dynasties and Ten States
Tang Achievements
a. Perfected Exam system
b. Religious toleration
a. Buddhism flourished during the Tang
b. Since then it has become part of China’s traditional culture
c. Journey to the West
1. One of the four great classics of ancient China
2. Recorded Xuanzang’s journey to Tianzhu (India) to obtain the Buddhist sutra
c. Foreign Relations
a. Admired by people abroad, Tang culture spread to Asia, Europe and Africa
b. Neighboring countries sought relations with Tang Government
1. Xinlou (korea), Japan, Tianzhu (India), Bosi (Iran), ect.
2. Sent Each other special local products and books on various subjects
c. Became the center of cultural exchanges between the East and West
d. New Technologies
a. Areas for producing silk products, flax products and porcelain were distributed all over the country
b. Tang Tricolor porcelain appeared during this period
e. Tea arrives from Southeast Asia
f. Trade Routes Thrive
a. Economic development during the tang was unprecedented
1. Convenient transportation due to unhindered Silk Road
2. People work more enthusiastically
a. Because of policies that alleviated Taxes and forced labor
3. Greater attention paid to foreign relations
a. Promoted transactions between china and foreign nations
4. Practical Transport on canals
a. Merchant fleets shuttled in an endless stream
g. Social Mobility
a. Because of Examination system
6. Chinese Class Structure
a. Emperor, Aristocracy, Bureaucracy, Eunuchs, Clergy, Peasants, Artisans and traders, Slaves.
b. Gentry Class
1. scholars and government workers from wealthy landowning class
2. Exempt from land taxes, and dominated the money-lending system of China
3. Foot Binding occurred at this level
c. Peasants
1. The majority of Chinese.
2. Worked land but could rise in social class through education and government service
d. Merchant Class
1. Lowest class because they profited from the labor of others.
e. Women
1. given more respect and power compared to other civilizations
2. Allowed to take religious orders and become priestesses
7. Foot Binding
a. Broke the arch and four toes on both feet
b. Usually around seven years of age
c. Not everyone practiced
a. Ethnic minority groups
1. Manchu’s and Hakka Chinese women
a. Hakka had to work on farms as men away from home
d. According to legend began when a beautiful concubine danced on her toes like a ballerina
e. Became image of beauty and grace
f. Continued in China for 1,000 years
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a. Mainly continued because men found it attractive
g. Footbinding seen as an investment in girl’s future
h. Theory: way to ensure female submission in a patriarchal society
a. Women physically disabled thus depended on male labor for survival
Tang Government
a. Sui Legal Code
a. Simple to understand set of laws that were very specific
b. Three basic departments created laws and policies
a. Administered by six ministries
1. Personnel Administration, military, finance, rites, justice, and public works
c. Model upon which all subsequent dynasties based their own systems
a. Used by other countries such as those in Vietnam and Korea
d. Emphasis on Education lead to success
Empress Wu Zetian
a. At Age 14 became Emperor’s concubine
a. Concubine- live-in mistress that is not a wife. Usually a woman whom the male could not marry due
to social status.
b. Families encouraged concubines as a way to better the female’s status
b. Sought to become Empress
c. Strangled her own daughter and accused the current empress (Wang)
a. Wang was stripped of her title
b. 655 Wu Zetian announced new Empress
d. 660 Emperor Gaozong afflicted by an eye disease
a. Wu Zetian takes control
b. Disposed of his sons to take complete control
e. 690 Became the first woman to rule in the Tang Dynasty
a. Opened silk road that lead to middle asia
b. Dies at the age of 82 in 705
Fall of the Tang
a. Battle of Talas
a. Tang vs Abbasid 751
1. Tang defeated, halts western expansion
b. Chinese POWs give paper to the Muslims
b. Causes of decline
a. Misrule
1. Emperor (Li Longji) neglected state affairs and fell in love with his concubine
b. Court intrigues
c. Economic exploitation
d. Rebellions
1. Huang Cho Rebellion
c. 907 Tang fell
a. Zhu Wen established a new regime- later Liang
Song Dynasty Background
a. 960 General Zhao Kuangyin seizes power and establishes the Song Dynasty
b. Divided into two periods: Northern Song (960-1127), Southern Song (1127-1279)
c. Known as the Chinese Renaissance
12. Song Achievements
a. Song Military
a. Not too much focus on military (Confucian values emphasize government)
b. Consisted of the poor, uneducated peasants, mercenaries, or allies.
c. Diplomacy favored form of dealing with enemies
d. Paid tribute to enemies
1. Left Song susceptible to attack from others
e. Two non Chinese kingdoms existed to the North of the Song
1. Liao and the Western Xia
b. Internal Trade
a. Earliest paper money called Jiao Zi
b. Silk industry, textile industry, and porcelain-making industry all outstanding
c. Rice Production
a. Increased Rice Yields
1. New strains of rice from Central Vietnam
2. Improved methods of water control and irrigation
b. Two crops per year
1. Summer and winter crop
c. Terracing
1. Terraced hilly land so that rice could be grown on it.
d. Paper Money
a. Introduced by rich merchants and financiers
b. Extremely difficult to counterfeit
1. Printed pictures of houses, trees, and people
2. Red and black ink intermittently applied
c. 1023- only official notes printed by the government were allowed
d. Why was it successful
1. Each issue of paper notes put into circulation were backed by cash
2. Paper notes and standard coins were interchangeable
e. After Chin occupied the north China they followed the Song practice
e. Rise of the Middle Class
a. Four Classes identified by counfucian scholars
1. Scholar/gentry, peasant farmers, artisans and craftsmen, merchants
f. Neoconfucianism
a. Emphasized self-cultivation as a path not only to self-fulfillment but to the formation of a virtuous
and harmonious society and state
b. Put service above personal interest
c. Philosopher Zhu Xi is known for his synthesis of Neo-confucian philosophy