Name Date from âThe Pardonerâs Taleâ from The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer Reading Warm-up B Read the following passage. Pay special attention to the underlined words. Then, read it again, and complete the activities. Use a separate sheet of paper for your written answers. When people became sick in medieval times, they usually attempted to cure themselves with home remedies. If these remedies failed, though, they turned to an expert for advice. The expert whose counsel they sought was often an apothecary, the medieval equivalent of a town pharmacist. Lives could depend on his quick diagnosis of an illness and his careful intervention with the proper medicine. Like todayâs doctors, apothecaries had to be prudent in administering cures, taking care not to intervene unnecessarily if the patient was likely to heal all by himself or herself. Apothecaries were respected professionals, not con artists or swindlers who set out to deceive those who came to them for help. Becoming a master apothecary required a seven-year apprenticeship and a great deal of dedication and discipline. An apothecary would not wish to betray a patient by promising a cure he could not deliver. Apothecaries did charge for their services, though, and it would have been hypocrisy for most apothecaries to claim that they worked only out of a sense of duty. Besides dispensing drugs, ointments, and potions, apothecaries needed to obtain the ingredients for their medications. To do this, they would plant and cultivate the right herbs and other plants, watering and tending them. Then, they would collect and dry the needed roots, barks, and seeds. It was essential that an apothecary learn which part of the plant to harvest, and exactly when it should be cut or dug up. A mistake in this area could be devastating or even fatal, since one part of the plant could be edible and another part poisonous. Of course, treatments did not always provide a cure. If an apothecary had too many failures, his business would suffer. If unsatisfied, a customer could easily become an adversary, seeking to harm the apothecary with slandering remarks that would damage his reputation. Unit 1 Resources: From Legend to History Â© Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 99 1. Circle the word that is a clue to the meaning of counsel. Name two experts modern people go to for counsel. 2. Underline the phrase that is a clue to the meaning of prudent. Why do doctors need to be prudent in treating illness? 3. Circle the words that name people who deceive others. Then, give a synonym for deceive. 4. Circle the words that tell what would betray a patient. Explain why this act would betray the patient. 5. Underline what it would be hypocrisy to claim. Then, circle the phrase that shows why it would be hypocrisy. 6. Underline the phrase that tells what you do to cultivate a plant. Then, use the word cultivate in a sentence of your own. 7. Underline the phrase that tells what an adversary may seek to do. Tell what adversary means. 8. Circle the words that tell what slandering remarks would damage. Describe a defense against slandering remarks.