CHARACTERISTICS OF ENGLISH WORDBUILDING 1.- Derivation (affixation)- By adding a morpheme to the base: a.- a prefix: before the base: co-author b.- a suffix: after the base: drive-er 2.- Composition (compounding)- By adding a base to another base: tea+pot 3.- Conversion (zero affixation)- The same word works in a different morphological function. It changes its grammatical category: drive (verb) and drive (noun). 2. DERIVATION OR AFFIXATION Prefixation. Prefixes do not generally alter the word-class of the base (except number 10) but suffixation often does. They normally have a light stress: ,pre’fabricated. The main prefixes are: 1.- Negative prefixes: un- (the opposite of, not): unkind, unexpected non- (not): non-existent, non-profit, non-stop in- (the opposite of, not): impolite, illegible, irreal dis- (the opposite of, not): disloyal, disagree, disfavour a- (lacking in, of): amoral, anarchy 2.- Restrictive or Privative prefixes: un- (reverse action, to deprive of): untie, unearth de- (to remove): decode, deforestation dis- (the opposite of, not): disinfect, discoloured, discontent 3.- Pejorative prefixes: mis- (wrongly): misconduct, misleading mal- (badly): maltreat, malodorous, malfunction pseudo- (false): pseudo-intellectual. 4.- Prefixes of degree or size: arch-duke (highest) super-man (more than) sub-human (less than) over-dressed (too much) under-priviledged (too little) hyper-critical (extremely) ultra-violet (extremely) mini-skirt (little) 5.- Prefixes of attitude: co-pilot (with), counter-revolution (in opposition to), anti-social (against), pro-communist (on the side of) 6.- Locative prefixes: super-structure (over), sub-way (beneath), inter-national (among), trans-atlantic (across) 7.- Prefixes of time and order: fore-knowledge, pre-marital (before), post-war (after), ex-husband (former), re-build (again) 8.- Number prefixes: (one, two, three, many) uni-lateral, mono-theism, bi-lingual, tri-partite, multi-racial, poly-syllabic. 9.- Others: auto-biography (=self), neo-Gothic (new), pan-African (all), proto-type (original, first), semicircle (half), vice-president (second) 10.- Conversion prefixes: witch > be-witch; slave > en- slave; float > a-float. Suffixation: grammatical suffixes are not important for the wordbuilding. The main suffixes are: 1.- N > N. a.- occupational : gang-ster, engine-er. b.- diminutive or female: book-let, kitchen-ette, wait-ress, dad-d-y, aunt-ie. c.- status, domain: boy-hood, friend-ship, king-dom, demo-cracy, slav(e)-ery. 2.- N, ADJ > N, ADJ: Israel-ite, Indondes-ian, Chin-ese, social-ist, ideal-ism. 3.- VB > N: driv(e)-er, act-or, inhabit-ant, employ-ee, explot-ation, amaze-ment, refus-al, driv(e)-ing. 4.- ADJ > N: happi-ness, san-ity. 5.- N, ADJ > VB: simpl-ify, real-ize, sad-d-en. 6.- N > ADJ: use-ful, home-less, child-like, grass-y, fool-ish, Darwin-ian, crim-i-nal, hero-ic, sess-itive, virtu-ous. 7.- VB > ADJ: read-able. 8.- ADJ > ADJ: young-ish. 9.- Adverb suffixes: happi-ly, back-wards, weather-wise. 3. COMPOUNDING We can find two ways; 1.- Noun compounds: a.- Subject and verb compounds; sun-rise, head-ache b.- Verb and object compounds; song-writer, record-player c.- Verb and adverbial compounds; swimming-pool, typing-paper, home-work, baby-sitter 2.- Verbless compounds: - N+N: girl-friend, frog-man, motor-cycle. - ADJ+N: dark-room, mad-man. - N+ADJ: home-sick, duty-free. - ADJ+ADJ: deaf-mute, British-American. - N+-ing form: heart-breaking, mouth-watering. - N+-ed form: hand-made, self-employed. - ADJ+ADV (ing/ed): good-looking, new-laid. - N+VB: baby-sit, sight-see. 4. CONVERSION The word can change into a different class or into a different feature of the same class: 1.- Into a different class: VB > N: love, answer. ADJ > N: comic, marrieds. N > VB: knife, brake. ADJ > VB: calm, dry. 2.- Into a different feature of the same class: a.- Nouns: non-countable > countable: three coffees countable > non-countable; a n2 of floor proper > common: a Rolls-Royce b.- Verbs: intransitive > transitive: run the water! transitive > intransitive: the door opened c.- Adjectives: non-gradable > gradable: a very legal boy stative > dynamic: He's just being friendly 3.- Minor changes of conversion: a. from closed-system to nouns: This book is a must for the student of physics b. from phrases to nouns: whenever I gamble, my horse is one of the also-runs c. from phrases to adjectives: an under-the-weather feeling d. from affixes to nouns: patriotism, and any other isms you’d like to name 5. MINOR TYPES: - BACKFORMATION: from housekeep to housekeeper, to beg from beggar. - REDUPLICATION: different vowel (ping-pong) or the same word (bye-bye). They are used to imitate sounds (tick-tock), to suggest alternating movements (seesaw), nonsense (wishy-washy) or to intensify (tip-top). They admit suffixes: riff-raffing and conversion ( a zig-zag course) - SHORTENINGS: Clippped words: beginning (the vac), end (phone), middle (flu) retained - Family circle: bike, Sam - Place names: the Troc - Common names: pop, doc, ad, sal (ary), gym... - BLENDS OR PORTMANTEAU WORDS: Oxbridge, brunch, motel ALPHABETIC SHORTENINGS OR ACRONYMS: many are pronounced as words: radar (radio detecting and ranging). The letters represent full words: SOS, M.A. or elements of the same word: TV.