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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
A Map of Ancient Egypt
3100 BCE – King Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt
2690 BCE – Beginning of Old Kingdom and Age of Pyramids
2600-2500 BCE – Pyramids at Giza built
2181 BCE – First Intermediate Period
2050 BCE – Middle Kingdom begins and Expansion
1780 BCE – Second Intermediate Period (Hyksos invades)
1550 BCE – New Kingdom is considered Golden Age
1470 BCE – Reign of Hatsheput (one of four female Kings)
1450 BCE – Reign of Tuthmosis III (Expands Egypt’s territory)
1350 BCE – Reign of Arkhenaton (Wanted to change religious beliefs)
1334 BCE – Reign of Tutankhamun (Religious revolution is reversed)
1297 BCE - Reign of Ramses II (Exodus of Jews from Egypt)
1069 BCE – Third Intermediate Period
Timeline Continued
525 BCE – Persians conquer Egypt
332 BCE – Alexander the Great defeats the Persians and
considered savior of Egypt
50 BCE – Cleopatra VII is crowned Queen of Egypt
30 BCE – Egypt becomes part of Roman empire after death
of Cleopatra VII and Mark Anthony
Populated Areas
There were three main areas that were populated in Egypt
1. The Nile Valley
The Nile River was the most important factor influencing the culture and
civilization of Egypt
2. The Nile Delta
This was the largest piece of fertile land in Egypt
3. Faiyum
Irrigation from the Nile made the Faiyum the third most populated land
and it was considered an Oasis
Geographic Effects
• Because of the Nile the soil
was very fertile
• Egypt was a desert so it was a
very protected land
• They were near the
Mediterranean which affected
• Their culture was one of
stability and not rapid change
•Pharaohs were the rulers of the land
•They were believed to be the earthly
embodiment of the god Horus who was the
son of Amon-Re
•Pharaohs then had the divine right to rule
•This allowed them to move between god
and their people
•People followed their orders because they
believed they were from god
•No one would challenge the King’s
authority and he could rule in relative peace
•Ma’at was the goddess and symbol of
equilibrium of the universe and the king had
to rule according to her principles
•The throne passed on to eldest son of
Principal Queen who was usual the eldest
daughter of the previous king therefore the
king’s sister
•Pharaohs owned all the land – they had a
hierarchy of government officials to help
him rule
•Second to the Pharaohs were the scribes
who would record the doings of the Pharaoh
• The Egyptians were deeply religious
people, their was no separation between
secular and sacred
• Their roots were in the worship of nature
deities – their first gods were in animal
• Those responsible for creation were the
most important gods (Atum is the creator
• They later developed national gods
around the Middle Kingdom
Myths and Mysteries