April 7, 2014 Download

Transcript
The Past, Present, and Future of
IGBT Technology
John Shen
Grainger Endowed Chair Professor
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
Chicago, USA
[email protected]
April 7, 2014
Outline
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Applications and market of power semiconductor devices
History of IGBT Technology
Very high power IGBTs
Future trends of IGBT technology
Summary
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Application of Power Semiconductors
Silicon limit
100M
Power [VA]
10M
1M
Thyristors
100k
10k
IGBT
(Insulated
Gate Bipolar
Transistor)
BJT
1k
MOSFET
100
Power IC
100
1k
10k
100k
Frequency [Hz]
1M
10M
100M
3
Worldwide Market of Power Semiconductors
2008 market data from iSupply
$14.1B of discrete power devices in 2010 (Yano and IMS)
4
Market Segments of Power Semiconductors
5
Outline
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Applications and market of power semiconductor devices
History of IGBT Technology
Very high power IGBTs
Future trends of IGBT technology
Summary
6
History of IGBT Technology
MCT
IGBT Power Module
Mitsubishi’s
CS-IGBT
Toshiba’s IEGT
(or 4500V IGBT)
Everyone is on
PT-IGBT
Toshiba solved
latch-up issue
PT-IGBT by GE
and RCA
Wafer scale IGBT
IGBT Press-Pack
Theoretical
limit of IGBT
Everyone is on
thin wafer
Field-Stop IGBT
SiC IGBT
Nano-IGBT
2010
Trench IGBT
Siemens’ NPTIGBT
2000
1990
1980
7
Design Trade-off of IGBT
VCE(ON)
IGBT turn-off
EOFF
Other factors
(short circuit
capability, EMI,
dynamic
breakdown, temp
coefficient, etc.)
IGBT turn-on
8
Improved Conductivity Modulation of IGBT
Carrier Distribution
PiN Diode
N+
Conventional
IGBT
N-
P+
N-
P+
N-
P+
Resistive
Bottleneck
Enhanced
IGBT
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Improved Conductivity Modulation of IGBT
M. Rahimo et al. 2006
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Trench Gate IGBT Concept
Shen & Omura, Proceedings of the IEEE, April 2007
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Thin Wafer Field Stop IGBT Concept
Shen & Omura, Proceedings of the IEEE, April 2007
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Evolution of 1200V Thin Wafer IGBTs
2008
100 m
2001
128 m
1999
185 m
1995
300 m
J. Vobecky, ISPSd2008
J. Vobeckt, ISPSD2008
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IGBT Performance Trend
Specific RDS(ON)=Vce(on)/Current Density
80
1200V IGBT @125oC
70
RDS(ON) (mΩ-cm2)
60
GE
Toshiba
东芝
50
三菱
Mitsubishi
40
Infineon(Siemens)
30
ONSEMI (Motorola)
20
STMicroelectronics
Fairchild (Samsung)
10
0
1980
Fuji Electric
富士电机
EOFF ~ 0.1mJ/A , Vcc= 600V
1990
2000
2010
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Outline
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Applications and market of power semiconductor devices
History of IGBT Technology
Very high power IGBTs
Future trends of IGBT technology
Summary
15
Very High Power IGBTs
 3300/4500/6500V,500-5000A
 MV voltage source inverters(replacing GTO or IGCT)
New steel mill installations(TMEC 2012)
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Applications of High Power IGBTs
 HVDC light
 FACTS
 MV drives (wind
generators, PV, oil &
gas pumps, etc.)
(Source:ABB)
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Topologies of HP-IGBT Converters
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Cascade H-bridge
NPC-MLC
IGBT seriesconnection
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Expanding the Power Range of IGBT
Silicon limit
100M
Power [VA]
10M
1M
GTO
100k
10k
IGBT
(Insulated
Gate Bipolar
Transistor)
BJT
1k
MOSFET
100
Power IC
100
1k
10k
100k
Frequency [Hz]
1M
10M
100M
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Technical Barrier of HP-IGBT
 IGBT chip size <2cm2,current rating <150A, much more sensitive
to defects than GTO
 Multi-chip IGBT power modules parallel IGBT chips through
bondwires with a current and thermal capability inferior to
pressure pack GTO
Parallel IGBT chips in power modules
Wafer scale thyristors
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Concept of Wafer Scale IGBTs
Gate Spring
门电极弹簧针
Contact Pin
IGBT
整晶圆IGBT
Wafer
Emitter
发射极电极
Gate
门电极外引线
Collector
Laser Trimmer
Gate
发射极金属垫片
Emitter Pad
Ceramic
陶瓷外壳
Casing
集电极金属垫片
Collector
Pad
IGBT
Zone 1
集电极电极
Collector
Emitter 1
Defective
IGBT Zone
Isolation of
Defective
Zones with
laser trimming
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Outline





Applications and market of power semiconductor devices
History of IGBT Technology
Very high power IGBTs
Future trends of IGBT technology
Summary
22
Theoretical Limit of IGBT Performance
(A. Nakagawa 2006)
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Nanoscale IGBT Structure
(M. Sumitomo, 2012)
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Superjunction IGBT
1200V IGBT simulation
(K. Oh et al 2006)
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SiC IGBT
 15000V,24 mΩ-cm2, 4H-SiC P-IGBT
 12500V,5.3 mΩ-cm2, 4H-SiC N-IGBT
(Cree 2012)
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Summary
 IGBT is the device of choice for medium power
applications
 We have not reached the theoretical limit of the
fundamental silicon IGBT structure yet even after 30
years of amazing technology advancement!
 Still a lot of potential and return of investment in
silicon (and BWG) power device research!
 Emerging opportunity to push IGBT into megawatt (1100MW) high power applications
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