RQ 15 Study Guide VIPs Zheng He Christopher Columbus Henry the Navigator Bartolomeu Dias Vasco da Gama Ferdinand Magellan Ferdinand of Aragon Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Moctezuma Atahualpa Isabel of Castile VIS Know the four major trends that led Spain and Portugal to sponsor voyages of exploration. Know how/why the spread of Islam boosted trade in the Indian Ocean Know the swag carried in Zheng He’s junks, and the reasons why the Ming court eventually suspended his voyages Understand the importance of the Vikings as medieval mariners Understand the role Spain and Portugal played in the maritime revolution of the 15th-16th centuries. What was Portugal’s initial motive for explorations, and how did it change over time? What were their motives for overseas expansion shared by both Spain and Portugal? How did the Pope settle the dispute between these two countries over territory in the New World? If Italy gave birth to the Renaissance, why didn't the Italian states take a lead in exploring the Atlantic? Know the two most important maritime technologies of the age of exploration, and where they came from. Hint- not Europe. Also know the 3 types of boats used by European, Chinese and Arab explorers. Where was Chris from? Who sponsored his voyage? Where did he insist he was when he reached the Caribbean? What historical event did Columbus’ “discovery” of the New World set off? Know the methods that the West African kingdom of Benin used to limit its contacts with the Portuguese. Know how the Portuguese gained control of the eastern Indian Ocean. What was their base in China? Who were the first “Indians” (not Indians) to encounter Europeans? What was the word used to refer to jerks like Pizarro and Cortes? Be prepared to compare the impact of the Spanish in the Americas to that of the Portuguese in Africa and the East. Be prepared to describe the factors that enabled Spanish to conquer such an enormous territory with so few men. How did they maintain control of their empire in the Americas?