APHG Chapter 11 Test Review 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • When and where did the Industrial Revolution begin? Great Britain, late 1700’s What was the main source of power for steam engines and blast ovens? Coal What type of goods were produced using the steam engine? Textile and Iron What was an important development in transportation during the Industrial Revolution? Canals 5. In a cottage industry, where are goods produced? • 6. What did the chemical industry contribute to the textile industry? • 7. In the home Bleaching, dyeing, and food processing The four most important industrial regions in the world are: • Eastern North America, Eastern Europe, Northwestern Europe, East Asia 8. 9. Which regions are in Western Europe? • Which region benefits from proximity to European consumers? • 10. Mid-Rhine What made Eastern North America an important manufacturing center? • 11. United Kingdom, Rhine-Ruhr Valley, Mid-Rhine, Northern Italy It had the largest markets What is New England’s most important industrial asset? • Skilled, but extensive labor force 12. • 13. • 14. • What is the Great Lakes most important asset? Access to the nation’s transportation network Where is Canada’s most important industrial area? The St. Lawrence Valley and the Ontario Peninsula Which Russian region benefits by being near Russian consumers? Central Industrial Region 15. Where did the Soviet government promote new manufacturing regions? • 16. Which region has the most varied mineral deposits in the world? • 17. In the Urals and Kuznetsk The Urals What are characteristics of the Italian Po river basin? • Contains half of the country’s population, and two-thirds of its industry, has a key asset in cheap labor, inexpensive hydroelectricity, industries include raw material and mechanical part processing 18. What did Japan have to overcome to become a major industrial power? • 19. Why has the US Gulf Coast become an important industrial area? • 20. Distance from consumers Access to oil and natural gas Which European country has experience the most rapid manufacturing growth recently? • Spain 21. What two location factors have kept industries in the NE US and NW Europe? • 22. What is the biggest challenge for former communist countries? • 23. Skilled labor and rapid delivery to market Unmet consumer demand Why are Asian companies more successful in the US than US corporations in Asia? • Asian executives know more about the US culture, than US executives know about Asian 24. Which Asian country has the largest labor force employed in manufacturing? • 25. What is Russia’s oldest manufacturing areas? • 26. St. Petersburg Which region in Russia is very similar to London or Paris? • 27. China Central Industrial Region What is a bulk-reducing industry? • An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs, ex: copper mill 28. • 29. • 30. • 31. • What is a bulk-gaining industry? An industry in which the final product weighs more or compromises a greater volume than the inputs Why is a fabricating plant an example of a bulkgaining industry? Separate parts are combined to make more complex and massive products Which industry is most dependent on low-cost labor? Textile Why did the US steel industry move westward in the nineteenth century? Better access to iron ore 32. 33. What is a minimill? • What factor do automobile producers consider when deciding on a location? • 34. a secondary steel producer that chooses location based on access to markets Access to markets Where are US automobile assembly plants located today? • Midwest 35. What are the three factors that determine industrial site locations? • 36. Where has steel production declined since the 1980’s? • 37. The United States What are the two factors that determine industrial situation locations? • 38. Capital, labor, and land Access to inputs and access to markets Situation factors are chosen to minimize the cost of what factor? • Transport 39. Why is it cheaper for firms to sell in the US clothing made in Asia and shipped to the US, than producing it directly in the US? • 40. What are examples of bulky raw materials? • 41. Cheap labor makes up for transportation costs Lumber, Pulp mills, Plywood, and Veneer Which four countries are considered Asian tigers? • South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong 42. What is the definition of a quaternary industry? • 43. 44. the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital is What are three first-tier world cities? • London, Tokyo, and New York What is an ancillary activity? • Economic activities which surround and support large-scale activities 45. 46. 47. What is a core region? • Regions that have achieved high levels of socioeconomic prosperity and are dominant players in the global economic game What is a semi-periphery country? • A country that provides goods to a core country, ex: Brazil and China Which country is known for having special economic zones (SEZ)? • China 48. Which Asian country has followed Britain’s model of colonization and industrialization? • 49. 50. 51. Japan China has the world’s second largest economy? Vietnam is the SE Asian country furthest from industrializing. What is specialization? • a country or business becomes an expert in the production of one or two goods 52. What is the most efficient way to transport goods over long distances? • 53. What is the most effective way to transport goods over short distances? • 54. Truck What is the most effective way to transport highly perishable or high value goods? • 55. Shipping Air What is a break-of-bulk point? • When two or more transportation systems meet at a point and goods are moved from one mode to anotehr 56. • 57. • 58. • 59. • What was the primary concern in Weber’s model? Transportation costs Who created the world-system theory? Immanuel Wallerstein What are the important parts of the economic model of industrialization? flowing water or underground water source within walking distance, good farmland nearby to produce foodstuff for the inhabitants, locations on or adjacent to established trade routes, locations which are easily protected and defended against invaders and attackers. What separates a city from a village? In a city, a significant proportion of the population is devoted to non-agricultural type jobs. 60. 61. 62. Why is the Longlot Model recognizable? • By the location of farms and lots, each located on the water source The earliest settlements came about for economic reasons. The Cultural/Religious model is based on its need for a place to bury the dead.