Electron Beam and Specimen Interactions Download

Transcript
More review problems for OM
13. What are differences between the common transmitted
(or reflected) OM and polarized OM?
14. Can a polarized OM be used to determine the orientation
(or optical axis) of an anisotropic single crystal? State your
reasoning.
15. Can you see something from eyepiece lens when an
isotropic crystal is on the sample stage of a polarized OM?
Why or why not?
Lecture-4 Scanning Electron Microscopy
(SEM)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What is SEM?
Working principles of SEM
Major components and their functions
Electron beam - specimen interactions
Interaction volume and escape volume
Magnification, resolution, depth of field and
image contrast
Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (WDS)
Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM)
X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
http://www.mse.iastate.edu/microscopy
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYNknR-e5IU
to 2:40 Introduction
http://virtual.itg.uiuc.edu/training/EM_tutorial
http://science.howstuffworks.com/scanning-electron-microscope.htm/printable
Comparison of OM,TEM and SEM
Probe
Source of
electrons
Light source
Condenser
Magnetic
lenses
Specimen
Objective
Projector
Eyepiece
Specimen
CRT
Cathode
Ray Tube
detector
OM
TEM
SEM
Principal features of an optical microscope, a transmission
electron microscope and a scanning electron microscope,
drawn to emphasize the similarities of overall design.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b4WOsYktdn4
comparing microscopes to 0:12
Optical Microscopy (OM ) vs
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
radiolarian
25mm
OM
Small depth of field
Low resolution
SEM
Large depth of field
High resolution
What is SEM
http://virtual.itg.uiuc.edu/training/EM_tutorial
Column
SEM is designed for
direct studying of the
surfaces of solid objects
Sample
Chamber
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a microscope that
uses electrons rather than light to form an image. There
are many advantages to using the SEM instead of a OM.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sFSFpXdAiAM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrXMIghANbg How a SEM works ~1:20-2:10
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SaaVaILUObg Operation of SEM
Advantages of Using SEM over OM
Magnification Depth of Field Resolution
OM
4x – 1000x
SEM 10x – 3000000x
15.5mm – 0.19mm
~ 0.2mm
4mm – 0.4mm
1-10nm
The SEM has a large depth of field, which allows a large
amount of the sample to be in focus at one time and
produces an image that is a good representation of the
three-dimensional sample. The SEM also produces
images of high resolution, which means that closely
features can be examined at a high magnification.
The combination of higher magnification, larger depth of
field,
greater
resolution
and
compositional
and
crystallographic information makes the SEM one of the
most heavily used instruments in research areas and
industries, especially in semiconductor industry.
Scanning Electron Microscope
– a Totally Different Imaging Concept
• Instead of using the full-field image, a pointto-point measurement strategy is used.
• High energy electron beam is used to excite
the specimen and the signals are collected and
analyzed so that an image can be constructed.
• The signals carry topological, chemical and
crystallographic information, respectively, of the
samples surface.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWxYsZPtTsI
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrXMIghANbg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nPskvGJKtDI
at~4:18-4:38
at~4:16-4:42
Main Applications
• Topography
The surface features of an object and its texture
(hardness, reflectivity… etc.)
• Morphology
The shape and size of the particles making up the
object (strength, defects in IC and chips...etc.)
• Composition
The elements and compounds that the object is
composed of and the relative amounts of them
(melting point, reactivity, hardness...etc.)
• Crystallographic Information
How the grains are arranged in the object
(conductivity, electrical properties, strength...etc.)
http://virtual.itg.uiuc.edu/training/EM_tutorial
A Look Inside the Column
Column
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7EVTnVHN-s
at~1:10-2:10 inside the column
A more detailed look inside
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sFSFpXdAiAM
<72o
e- beam
Electron Gun

Source: L. Reimer, “Scanning Electron
Microscope”, 2nd Ed., Springer-Verlag,
1998, p.2
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mr9-1Sz_CK0
at~1:06-2:40
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GY9lfO-tVfE
at~2:38-4:45
 - beam convergence
• What is SEM?
• Working principles of SEM
• Major components and their functions
How an Electron Beam is Produced?
• Electron guns are used to produce a
•
fine, controlled beam of electrons
which are then focused at the
specimen surface.
The electron guns may either be
thermionic gun or field-emission gun
Electron beam Source
LaB6
w
W or LaB6 Filament
Thermionic or Field Emission Gun
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fxEVsnZT8L8
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWxYsZPtTsI
at ~2:10-2:20
at ~1:05-1:40 thermionic gun
http://www.matter.org.uk/tem/electron_gun/electron_sources.htm
http://www.matter.org.uk/tem/electron_gun/electron_gun_simulation.htm
Thermionic Emission Gun
• A tungsten filament
heated by DC to
approximately 2700K or
LaB6 rod heated to around
2000K
• A vacuum of 10-3 Pa (10-4
Pa for LaB6) is needed to
prevent oxidation of the
filament
• Electrons “boil off” from
the tip of the filament
• Electrons are accelerated
by an acceleration voltage
of 1-50kV
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZIJ1jI1xDhY
+
Electron gun detail
Field Emission Gun
• The tip of a tungsten needle is
made very sharp (radius < 0.1
mm)
• The electric field at the tip is
very strong (> 107 V/cm) due
to the sharp point effect
• Electrons are pulled out from
the tip by the strong electric
field
• Ultra-high vacuum (better than
10-6 Pa) is needed to avoid ion
bombardment to the tip from
the residual gas.
• Electron probe diameter < 1
nm is possible
http://www.matter.org.uk/tem/electron_gun/electron_sources.htm
Source of Electrons
E: >10MV/cm
Thermionic Gun
T: ~1500oC
Filament
W
(5-50mm)
(5nm)
W and LaB6
Cold- and thermal FEG
Electron Gun Properties
Source Brightness Stability(%) Size Energy spread
W
3X105
~1
50mm
3.0(eV)
LaB6
3x106
~2
5mm
1.5
C-FEG
109
~5
5nm
0.3
T-FEG
109
<1
20nm
0.7
Brightness – beam current density per unit solid angle
Vacuum
10-5 (t )
10-6
10-10
10-9
Why Need a Vacuum?
When a SEM is used, the electron-optical
column and sample chamber must always
be at a vacuum.
1. If the column is in a gas filled environment,
electrons will be scattered by gas molecules which
would lead to reduction of the beam intensity and
stability.
2. Other gas molecules, which could come from the
sample or the microscope itself, could form
compounds and condense on the sample. This
would lower the contrast and obscure detail in the
image.
http://virtual.itg.uiuc.edu/training/EM_tutorial external
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7EVTnVHN-s
at ~4:50-5:25
http://www.mse.iastate.edu/research/laboratories/sem/microscopy/how-does-thesem-work/high-school/the-sem-vacuum/ SEM Vacuum
Major components and their functions
Magnetic Lenses
• Condenser lens – focusing
controls
the
spot
size
and
convergence () of the electron
beam which impinges on the sample.
• Objective lens – final probe
forming
determines the final spot size of the
electron beam, i.e., the resolution
of a SEM.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrXMIghANbg
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWxYsZPtTsI
at~1:30-1:53
at~0:32-1:02
http://www.matter.org.uk/tem/lenses/simulation_of_condenser_system.htm
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9Glw3BUTAQ Magnetic field in a solenoid
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a2_wUDBl-g8 e- in a magnetic field
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fwiKRis145E
to~1:15 and at~3:08-4:15 F=-e(vxB)
How
Is Electron Beam Focused?
http://www.matter.org.uk/tem/lenses/electromagnetic_lenses.htm
A magnetic lens is a solenoid designed to produce
a specific magnetic flux distribution.
(Beam diameter)
Magnetic lens
(solenoid)
p
F = -e(v x B)
q
Lens formula: 1/f = 1/p + 1/q
Demagnification:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sCY
X_XQgnSA&feature=related 6:13-6:23
Magnetic lens
M = q/p
f  Bo2
f can be adjusted by changing Bo, i.e., changing the
current through coil.
Bo - magnetic field
-
Lens formula and magnification
Objective lens
ho
f
f
O
Lens Formula
hi
i
1
_
f
=
1
_
O
+
1_
i
I1 -Inverted
image
f-focal length (distance)
O-distance of object from
lens
Magnification m = hi = i i-distance of image from
o ho O
by objective
lens
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-k1NNIOzjFo&feature=related
at~3:00-3:40
The Condenser Lens
• For a thermionic gun, the diameter of
the first cross-over point ~20-50µm
• If we want to focus the beam to a size
< 10 nm on the specimen surface, the
magnification should be ~1/5000, which
is not easily attained with one lens
(say, the objective lens) only.
• Therefore, condenser lenses are added
to demagnify the cross-over points.
http://www.matter.org.uk/tem/lenses/simulation_of_condenser_system.htm
The Condenser
Lens
Demagnification:
M = f/L
change of f
The Objective Lens
• The objective lens
controls the final
focus of the electron
beam by changing the
magnetic field strength
• The cross-over image
is finally demagnified
to an ~10nm beam
spot which carries a
beam current of
approximately 10-910-12 A.
The Objective Lens – Aperture
• Since the electrons
Electron beam
coming from the
electron gun have
Objective
spread in kinetic
lens
energies and directions
Narrow
Wide
of movement, they may
aperture
aperture
not be focused to the
same plane to form a
Narrow disc
sharp spot.
of least
Wide disc of
least confusion confusion
• By inserting an aperture,
the stray electrons are
Large beam diameter
Small beam diameter
blocked and the
striking specimen
striking specimen
remaining narrow beam
Better resolution
will come to a narrow
“Disc of Least Confusion”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E85FZ7WLvao
http://www.matter.org.uk/tem/lenses/simulation_of_condenser_system.htm aperture
A Look Inside the Column
Column
Objective aperture
A disc of metal
http://www.matter.org.uk/tem/lenses/second_condenser_lens.htm
The Objective Lens - Focusing
• By changing the
current in the
objective lens,
the magnetic field
strength changes
and therefore the
focal length of
the objective lens
is changed.
Objective
lens
Out of focus
lens current
too strong
Over-focused
in focus
out of focus
lens current lens current
optimized
too weak
Focused
Under-focused
The Scan Coil and Raster Pattern
• Two sets of coils
are used for
scanning the
electron beam
across the
specimen surface
in a raster pattern
similar to that on a
TV screen.
y-direction
scanning
• This effectively
coil
samples the
specimen surface
point by point
over the scanned
area.
X-direction
scanning coil
Holizontal line scan
Blanking
Objective
lens
specimen
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrXMIghANbg
at ~4:12
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWxYsZPtTsI
http://virtual.itg.uiuc.edu/training/EM_tutorial
at~4:45
internal
Electron Detectors and Sample Stage
Objective
lens
Sample stage
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mr9-1Sz_CK0
at~2:20-2:30
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
•What is SEM?
•Working principles of SEM
•Major components and their functions
•Electron beam - specimen interactions
•Interaction volume and escape volume
•Magnification, resolution, depth of field
and image contrast
•Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
•Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy
(WDS)
•Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM)
•X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
Electron Beam and Specimen Interactions
Sources
of Image Information
Electron/Specimen
Interactions
(1-50KeV)
Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9qwfYwwCRM at~0.58-1:38
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mr9-1Sz_CK0
at~2:30-2:42
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mr9-1Sz_CK0
at~2:52-3:52
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9qwfYwwCRM at~0:58-1:14
Secondary Electrons (SE)
Produced by inelastic interactions
of high energy electrons with
Primary
valence (or conduction) electrons of
atoms in the specimen, causing the
ejection of the electrons from the
atoms. These ejected electrons with
energy less than 50eV are termed
"secondary electrons".
Each incident electron can produce
several secondary electrons.
SE yield: d=nSE/nB independent of Z BaTiO3
d decreases with increasing beam
energy and increases with decreasing
glancing angle of incident beam
Production of SE is very topography
related. Due to their low energy, only SE
that are very near the surface (<10nm)
can exit the sample and be examined 5mm
(small escape depth).
Z – atomic number
Growthstep
SE image
Topographical Contrast
Everhart-Thornley
SE Detector
Bright
lens polepiece
eSE
Dark
Scintillator
light pipe
PMT
sample
Quartz
window
Faraday
cage +200V +10kV
Photomultiplier
tube
Topographic contrast arises because SE generation depend on
the angle of incidence between the beam and sample. Thus
local variations in the angle of the surface to the beam
(roughness) affects the numbers of electrons leaving from
point to point. The resulting “topographic contrast” is a
function of the physical shape of the specimen.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrXMIghANbg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GY9lfO-tVfE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWxYsZPtTsI
at ~2:10-3:30
at~4:35-6:00
at~3:00-3:20
(3:09~3:18)
Everhart-Thornley SE Detector System
Solid angle of collection
Both SE and B electrons can be detected, but the geometric
collection efficiency for B electrons is low, about 1-10%,
while for SE electrons it is high, often 50% or more.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mr9-1Sz_CK0
at~3:52-4:26
Backscattered Electrons (BSE)
Primary
BSE image from flat surface of an
Al (Z=13) and Cu (Z=29) alloy
BSE are produced by elastic interactions of beam electrons
with nuclei of atoms in the specimen and they have high
energy and large escape depth.
BSE yield: h=nBS/nB ~ function of atomic number, Z
BSE images show characteristics of atomic number
contrast, i.e., high average Z appear brighter than those of
low average Z. h increases with tilt.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWxYsZPtTsI
at ~3:20-3:35
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9qwfYwwCRM at~1:14-1:34
Semiconductor Detector
for Backscattered Electrons
High energy electrons produce electronhole pairs (charge carriers) in the
semiconductor, and generate a current
pulse under an applied potential.
A and B are a paired
semiconductor detectors
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9qwfYwwCRM
at~4:25-4:50
Semiconductor Detector for Backscattered Electrons
Effect of Atomic Number, Z, on
BSE and SE Yield
Interaction Volume: I
e-
Monte Carlo simulations of 100 electron trajectories
The incident electrons do not go along a
straight line in the specimen, but a zig-zag
path instead.
Interaction Volume: II
The penetration or,
more precisely, the
interaction volume
depends on the
acceleration voltage
(energy of electron)
and the atomic
number of the
specimen and e- beam
size
Escape Volume of Various Signals
• The incident electrons interact with specimen
atoms along their path in the specimen and
generate various signals.
• Owing to the difference in energy of these
signals, their ‘penetration depths’ are
different
• Therefore different signal observable on the
specimen surface comes from different parts
of the interaction volume
• The volume responsible for the respective
signal is called the escape volume of that
signal.
Escape Volumes of Various Signals
If the diameter of primary
electron beam is ~5nm
- Dimensions of escape
zone of
•Secondary electron:
diameter~10nm; depth~10nm
•Backscattered electron:
diameter~1mm; depth~1mm
•X-ray: from the whole
interaction volume, i.e., ~5mm
in diameter and depth
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWxYsZPtTsI
at ~3:38-4:10
Electron Interaction Volume
Pear shape
5mm
a
b
a.Schematic illustration of electron beam interaction in Ni
b.Electron interaction volume in polymethylmethacrylate
(plastic-a low Z matrix) is indirectly revealed by etching
Escape Volumes of Various Signals
Primary
SE
Lost SE
BE
Lost BE
X-ray
Lecture-3 SEM
•What is SEM?
•Working principles of SEM
•Major components and their functions
•Electron beam - specimen interactions
•Interaction volume and escape volume
•Magnification, resolution, depth of field and image
contrast
•Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
•Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (WDS)
•Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM)
•X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sFSFpXdAiAM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VWxYsZPtTsI
at ~4:18-4:45
Image Formation & Magnification in SEM
M= C/x
A
e-
beam
10cm
Detector
10cm
Amplifier
A
Beam is scanned over specimen in a raster pattern in
synchronization with beam in CRT.
Intensity at A on CRT is proportional to signal detected
from A on specimen and signal is modulated by amplifier.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrXMIghANbg
at ~4:10-4:40
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mr9-1Sz_CK0
ex
at~11:45-11:55
Magnification
Low M
Large x
40mm
High M
small x
7mm
1.2mm 15000x
2500x
The magnification is simply the ratio of the length of the
scan C on the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) to the length of
the scan x on the specimen. For a CRT screen that is 10
cm square:
M= C/x = 10cm/x
Increasing M is achieved by decreasing x.
M
100
1000
x
1 mm
100 mm
M
10000
100000
x
10 mm
1 mm
Image Magnification
Example of a series of increasing magnification (spherical lead
particles imaged in SE mode)
Resolution Limitations
Ultimate resolution obtainable in an SEM
image can be limited by:
 ~ 500nm NA=nsin
dmin = 0.61/NA for OM
1. Electron Optical limitations
Diffraction: dd=1.22/
for a 20-keV beam,  =0.0087nm and =5x10-3 dd=2.1nm
Chromatic and spherical aberrations: dmin=1.293/4 Cs1/4
A SEM fitted with an FEG has an achievable resolution of
~1.0nm at 30 kV due to smaller Cs (~20mm) and .
2. Specimen Contrast Limitations
Contrast dmin
1.0
0.5
0.1
0.01
2.3nm
4.6nm
23nm
230nm
3. Sampling Volume Limitations (Escape volume)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVK4OkUK0Yw
at~1:47-3:07
Cs – coefficient of spherical aberration of lens (~mm)
How Fine Can We See with SEM?
• If we can scan an area with width 10 nm
(10,000,000×) we may actually see
atoms!! But, can we?
• Image on the CRT consists of spots
called pixels (e.g. your PC screen
displays 1024×768 pixels of ~0.25mm
pitch) which are the basic units in the
image.
• You cannot have details finer than
one pixel!
Pixel - In digital imaging, a pixel (picture element) is a physical
point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in a
display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a
picture represented on the screen.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pixel
Resolution of Images: I
• Assume that there the screen can display 1000
pixels/(raster line), then you can imagine that
there are 1000 pixels on each raster line on the
specimen.
• The resolution is the pixel diameter on
specimen surface.
P=D/Mag = 100um/Mag
Mag P(mm) Mag P(nm)
P-pixel diameter on specimen surface
D-pixel diameter on CRT, Mag-magnification
10x
1kx
10
0.1
10kx 10
100kx 1
Resolution of Images: II
• The optimum condition for imaging is when
the escape volume of the signal concerned
equals to the pixel size.
Resolution of Images: III
• Signal will be weak if escape volume,
which depends on beam size, is smaller
than pixel size, but the resolution is
still achieved. (Image is ‘noisy’)
Resolution of Images: IV
• Signal from different pixel will overlap
if escape volume is larger than the
pixel size. The image will appeared
out of focus (Resolution decreased)
Resolution of Images: V
In extremely good SEM, resolution can be a few nm. The
limit is set by the electron probe size, which in turn depends
on the quality of the objective lens and electron gun.
Pixel diameter on Specimen
Magnification
µm
nm
10
10
10000
100
1
1000
1000
0.1
100
10000
0.01
10
100000
0.001
1
Resolution of Images
The resolution is the pixel diameter on specimen surface.
The optimum condition for imaging is when the escape
volume of the signal concerned equals to the pixel size.
Effect of probe size on
escape volume of SE
e10nm
BSE
X-ray
P=D/Mag = 100um/Mag
1mm
5mm
Depth of Field
Depth of Field
D=
4x105W
AM
(mm)
A/2 = 
To increase D
Decrease aperture size, A
Decrease magnification, M
Increase working distance, W (mm)
=5x10-3=0.005
(1o=0.0175)
OM
72o=1.26
SE Images
Image Contrast
Image contrast, C
is defined by
C=
SA-SB
________
SA
S
= ____
SA
SA, SB Represent
signals generated
from two points,
e.g., A and B, in the
scanned area.
In order to detect objects of small size and low contrast
in an SEM it is necessary to use a high beam current and
a slow scan speed (i.e., improve signal to noise ratio).
SE-topographic and BSE-atomic number contrast
SE Images - Topographic Contrast
1mm
Defect in a semiconductor device
The debris shown here is an oxide
fiber got stuck at a semiconductor
device detected by SEM
Molybdenum
trioxide crystals
BSE Image – Atomic Number Contrast
2mm
BSE atomic number contrast image showing a
niobium-rich intermetallic phase (bright contrast)
dispersed in an alumina matrix (dark contrast).
Z (Nb) = 41, Z (Al) = 13 and Z(O) = 8
Alumina-Al2O3
Field Contrast
Electron trajectories are affected by
both electric and magnetic fields
• Electric field – the local electric potential at the
surface of a ferroelectric material or a
semiconductor p-n junction produce a special form
of contrast (Voltage contrast)
• Magnetic field – imaging magnetic domains
Voltage contrast
+U
-U
500mm
Voltage contrast from integrated circuit recorded at 5kV.
The technique gives a qualitative view of static (DC)
potential
distributions
but,
by
improvements
in
instrumentation, it is possible to study potentials which may
be varying at frequencies up to 100MHz or more, and to
measure the potentials with a voltage resolution of 10mV
and a spatial resolution of 0.1mm.
Magnetic Field Contrast
(monolayer)
+
-
t
tc
SE electrons emitted from a clean surface ferromagnet are
spin-polarized, the sign of the polarization being opposite
to the magnetization vector in the surface of the material.
High resolution SEM image of a magnetic microstructure in
an untrathin ‘wedge-shaped’ cobalt film.
Other Imaging Modes
Cathodoluminescence (CL)
Nondestructive analysis of impurities and
defects, and their distributions in
semiconductors and luminescence materials
Lateral resolution (~0.5mm)
Phase identification and rough assessment
of defect concentration
Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC)
Only applicable to semiconductors
Electron-hole pairs generated in the sample
External voltage applied, the pairs are then a
current – amplified to give a signal
Image defects and dislocations
CL micrographs of Te-doped GaAs
a.
b.
a. Te=1017cm-3, dark-dot dislocation contrast
b. Te=1018cm-3, dot-and-halo dislocation contrast
which shows variations in the doping concentration around dislocations
EBIC Image of Doping Variations
in GaAs Wafer
The variations in brightness across the material are due to
impurities in the wafer. The extreme sensitivity (1016cm-3,
i.e., 1 part in 107) and speed of this technique makes it
ideal fro the characterization of as-grown semiconductor
crystals.
Do review problems on SEM
Study
http://science.howstuffworks.com/scanning-electron-microscope.htm/printable
Next Lecture
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Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS)
Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (WDS)
Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM)
X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
• Scanning Probe Microscopy (STM and AFM)