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Taking Advantage of a Stormwater
Program Partnership Opportunity
Brad D. Lee, PhD CPSS
Associate Extension Specialist
University of Kentucky
Rainfall – (soil infiltration + evapotranspiration)
Results in water quality impairments because
the rainfall striking natural and man-made
surfaces dislodges and transports sediment,
pathogens, nutrients and other pollutants to
Ag and Urban – Same Process
• In agricultural environments  agricultural runoff
– Concerns about impairment of nearby streams
– Concerns about natural resource loss, nutrient loss and
agricultural productivity loss (erosion)
• In urban environments  stormwater
– Concerns are impairment of nearby streams
– Increases with abundance of impervious surfaces
– Increases with population density
Carrots and Sticks
• Ag – Government incentive programs to protect
water quality
– BMP installation
• Cover crops
• Buffer strips
• Urban – Regulations to protect water quality
– MS4 NPDES permits issued for communities larger than
10,000 in population
MS4 Communities
• Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System
– Owned by a state, city, town, village, or other public
entity that discharges to waters of the U.S.
– Used to collect or convey stormwater (including storm
drains, pipes, ditches, etc.)
– Not a combined sewer
– Not part of a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (sewage
treatment plant)
104 regulated MS4s in 32 counties
Regulated MS4s
• Phase I – 1990 EPA regulates communities
with a population > 100,000 with a NPDES
(National Pollution Discharge Elimination
System) permit
• Phase II – 1999 EPA regulates communities
with a population > 10,000 with a NPDES
Regulatory requirements
“MCMs to MEP”
• Phase I – MCMs + monitoring
• Phase II – MCMs
• Minimum Control Measures to Maximum
Extent Practicable
Minimum Control Measures
1. Public Education & Outreach
2. Public Participation/Involvement
Illicit Discharge Detection & Elimination
Construction Site Runoff Control
Post-Construction Runoff Control
Pollution Prevention/Good Housekeeping
Public Education & Outreach
• Distributing educational materials and performing
outreach to inform citizens about the impacts
polluted stormwater runoff discharges can have on
water quality.
Public Participation/Involvement
• Providing opportunities for citizens to participate in
program development and implementation,
including effectively publicizing public hearings
and/or encouraging citizen representatives on a
stormwater management panel.
Why Should CES be Involved?
• CES has over 100 years of experience in public
education and public involvement
– You are already connected to the community
– You have a network of resources available
– You are already meeting many of the permit deliverables
in these categories
– No entity in MS4 communities is more qualified than the
CES office to assist with public education and
Why Should CES be Involved?
• MS4s have limitations
– Limited experience in public education and outreach
– Limited connection to community
• Only 5 years experience
• In many communities the permit operator wears multiple hats
– Limited staff available
– Limited time available for addressing MCMs
– Limited local support
• DOW – manages blanket permit for state, reports to EPA
• Kentucky Stormwater Association provides a forum for
Why Should CES be Involved?
• Strengthen CES relationship with urban clientele
– Stormwater management is an unfunded mandate by
the federal government
• Ag fears regulation and CES has been supporting this audience
for a century
• MS4s ARE REGULATED and need help meeting permit
– Communities must address stormwater utilizing local
• Assess fees (Fayette Co. - $4.63/2500 ft2 of impervious surface)
• Utilize community budget (taxes)
Why Should CES be Involved?
• Maintain and increase relevance to urban
– Rural population migrating to cities
• Worldwide urban population expected 63% in 2020 (World
Health Organization)
• 65% of Kentuckians reside in 32 counties
• Kentucky (~3% rural  urban migration 2000 to 2010)
– Urban population losing connection to surrounding
• < 30% of Kansas HS students could answer basic agricultural
questions (Horn and Vining, 1986)
• Town kids know more about agriculture and natural resources
(ANR) than city kids (Frick et al, 1995)
How does CES get involved?
• Share your data (quantifiables)
– Number of soil samples collected in your county
– Meetings/workshops/presentations (only 4 items)
Title of meeting/workshop/presentation
Audience (producers, homeowners, youth, etc.)
Number of participants
Data sharing…
• Who do I share my data with?
– There are 104 MS4 permitted communities in 32
• Some counties have more than one MS4.
Which one do I send the data too?
– For example: Hardin County MS4 permits include
Hardin County
City of Elizabethtown
City of Radcliff
City of West Point
City of Vine Grove
Data sharing continued…
• Questions (Hardin Co. example):
– Would all three ANR agents (Doug Shepherd, Matt
Sears, Amy Aldenderfer) need to share their data?
• YES, all ANR agents need to share their data. (Soil tests
will only be counted once.)
– Do I need to split the data for each MS4 permitted
• NO. Regardless of where the county meeting was held
or soil sample was collected, you do not split up your
report based on geographic location.
Data sharing continued…
• Questions (Hardin Co. example):
– Can each agent share the same exact data set with
each MS4 permit holder in the county?
• YES. Make your report once and send it to each MS4
permitted community.
– When is the MS4 report due?
• MS4s are required to submit calendar year reports to
KY DOW by April 15th. If they are late, the community
receives a Notice of Violation.
• Get your CES data to the MS4 by mid-February.
Data sharing continued…
• Questions:
– What counts as a MS4 Public Education and Outreach activity?
• Essentially anything that has to do with soil, water, or water quality.
For example…
Master Gardener
Master Cattlemen
Master Grazer
Soil testing (number of soil tests collected)
Fertilization recommendations
Stream remediation
Erosion control
Recycling programs
Lawn and garden presentations
Cover crops
– Can the volunteer hours of my Master Gardeners count?
• Yes.
Data sharing continued…
• Questions (Hardin Co. example):
– This seems too easy. These 4 items (date, title,
audience, no. participants) + number of soil tests
collected are all the MS4s need? What is the
• No catch. MS4s need Public Education and Outreach
data. You can provide a year’s worth of this data in less
than an hour with your monthly reports.
Hardin County
Doug Shepherd Example
Kentucky Soil Test P over 25 years
Home & Garden
Questions, comments, concerns or
Brad Lee, PhD CPSS
Soil and Water Quality Extension
Plant and Soil Sciences Dept.
University of Kentucky
Suzette Walling, MS
Soil and Water Quality Extension
Plant and Soil Sciences Dept.
University of Kentucky