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Taking Advantage of a Stormwater
Program Partnership Opportunity
Brad D. Lee, PhD CPSS
Associate Extension Specialist
University of Kentucky
Stormwater
Rainfall – (soil infiltration + evapotranspiration)
Results in water quality impairments because
the rainfall striking natural and man-made
surfaces dislodges and transports sediment,
pathogens, nutrients and other pollutants to
streams
Ag and Urban – Same Process
• In agricultural environments  agricultural runoff
– Concerns about impairment of nearby streams
– Concerns about natural resource loss, nutrient loss and
agricultural productivity loss (erosion)
• In urban environments  stormwater
– Concerns are impairment of nearby streams
– Increases with abundance of impervious surfaces
– Increases with population density
Carrots and Sticks
• Ag – Government incentive programs to protect
water quality
– BMP installation
• Cover crops
• Buffer strips
• Urban – Regulations to protect water quality
– MS4 NPDES permits issued for communities larger than
10,000 in population
MS4 Communities
• Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System
– Owned by a state, city, town, village, or other public
entity that discharges to waters of the U.S.
– Used to collect or convey stormwater (including storm
drains, pipes, ditches, etc.)
– Not a combined sewer
– Not part of a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (sewage
treatment plant)
104 regulated MS4s in 32 counties
Regulated MS4s
• Phase I – 1990 EPA regulates communities
with a population > 100,000 with a NPDES
(National Pollution Discharge Elimination
System) permit
• Phase II – 1999 EPA regulates communities
with a population > 10,000 with a NPDES
permit
Regulatory requirements
“MCMs to MEP”
• Phase I – MCMs + monitoring
• Phase II – MCMs
• Minimum Control Measures to Maximum
Extent Practicable
Minimum Control Measures
1. Public Education & Outreach
2. Public Participation/Involvement
3.
4.
5.
6.
Illicit Discharge Detection & Elimination
Construction Site Runoff Control
Post-Construction Runoff Control
Pollution Prevention/Good Housekeeping
Public Education & Outreach
• Distributing educational materials and performing
outreach to inform citizens about the impacts
polluted stormwater runoff discharges can have on
water quality.
Public Participation/Involvement
• Providing opportunities for citizens to participate in
program development and implementation,
including effectively publicizing public hearings
and/or encouraging citizen representatives on a
stormwater management panel.
Why Should CES be Involved?
• CES has over 100 years of experience in public
education and public involvement
– You are already connected to the community
– You have a network of resources available
– You are already meeting many of the permit deliverables
in these categories
– No entity in MS4 communities is more qualified than the
CES office to assist with public education and
involvement
Why Should CES be Involved?
• MS4s have limitations
– Limited experience in public education and outreach
– Limited connection to community
• Only 5 years experience
• In many communities the permit operator wears multiple hats
– Limited staff available
– Limited time available for addressing MCMs
– Limited local support
• DOW – manages blanket permit for state, reports to EPA
• Kentucky Stormwater Association provides a forum for
discussion
Why Should CES be Involved?
• Strengthen CES relationship with urban clientele
– Stormwater management is an unfunded mandate by
the federal government
• Ag fears regulation and CES has been supporting this audience
for a century
• MS4s ARE REGULATED and need help meeting permit
requirements
– Communities must address stormwater utilizing local
resources
• Assess fees (Fayette Co. - $4.63/2500 ft2 of impervious surface)
• Utilize community budget (taxes)
Why Should CES be Involved?
• Maintain and increase relevance to urban
audience
– Rural population migrating to cities
• Worldwide urban population expected 63% in 2020 (World
Health Organization)
• 65% of Kentuckians reside in 32 counties
• Kentucky (~3% rural  urban migration 2000 to 2010)
– Urban population losing connection to surrounding
environment
• < 30% of Kansas HS students could answer basic agricultural
questions (Horn and Vining, 1986)
• Town kids know more about agriculture and natural resources
(ANR) than city kids (Frick et al, 1995)
How does CES get involved?
• Share your data (quantifiables)
– Number of soil samples collected in your county
– Meetings/workshops/presentations (only 4 items)
•
•
•
•
Date
Title of meeting/workshop/presentation
Audience (producers, homeowners, youth, etc.)
Number of participants
Data sharing…
• Who do I share my data with?
– There are 104 MS4 permitted communities in 32
counties
• Some counties have more than one MS4.
Which one do I send the data too?
– For example: Hardin County MS4 permits include
•
•
•
•
•
Hardin County
City of Elizabethtown
City of Radcliff
City of West Point
City of Vine Grove
Data sharing continued…
• Questions (Hardin Co. example):
– Would all three ANR agents (Doug Shepherd, Matt
Sears, Amy Aldenderfer) need to share their data?
• YES, all ANR agents need to share their data. (Soil tests
will only be counted once.)
– Do I need to split the data for each MS4 permitted
community?
• NO. Regardless of where the county meeting was held
or soil sample was collected, you do not split up your
report based on geographic location.
Data sharing continued…
• Questions (Hardin Co. example):
– Can each agent share the same exact data set with
each MS4 permit holder in the county?
• YES. Make your report once and send it to each MS4
permitted community.
– When is the MS4 report due?
• MS4s are required to submit calendar year reports to
KY DOW by April 15th. If they are late, the community
receives a Notice of Violation.
• Get your CES data to the MS4 by mid-February.
Data sharing continued…
• Questions:
– What counts as a MS4 Public Education and Outreach activity?
• Essentially anything that has to do with soil, water, or water quality.
For example…
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Master Gardener
Master Cattlemen
Master Grazer
Soil testing (number of soil tests collected)
Fertilization recommendations
Pesticides/Herbicides
Stream remediation
Erosion control
Recycling programs
Lawn and garden presentations
Cover crops
Etc.
– Can the volunteer hours of my Master Gardeners count?
• Yes.
Data sharing continued…
• Questions (Hardin Co. example):
– This seems too easy. These 4 items (date, title,
audience, no. participants) + number of soil tests
collected are all the MS4s need? What is the
catch?
• No catch. MS4s need Public Education and Outreach
data. You can provide a year’s worth of this data in less
than an hour with your monthly reports.
Hardin County
Doug Shepherd Example
Kentucky Soil Test P over 25 years
Home & Garden
Agriculture
Questions, comments, concerns or
complaints
Brad Lee, PhD CPSS
Soil and Water Quality Extension
Specialist
Plant and Soil Sciences Dept.
University of Kentucky
Brad.lee@uky.edu
859-257-0156
Suzette Walling, MS
Soil and Water Quality Extension
Associate
Plant and Soil Sciences Dept.
University of Kentucky
s.walling@uky.edu