The Boxer Rebellion Before and After: Prior Knowledge and Text Reading Activity Standards Alignment Text Before and After Student Response Activity Standards Alignment California State Standards for Grade 10 • 10.4 Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries: Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philippines. – 1. Describe the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and colonialism (e.g., the role played by national security and strategic advantage; moral issues raised by the search for national hegemony, Social Darwinism, and the missionary impulse; material issues such as land, resources, and technology). – 2. Discuss the locations of the colonial rule of such nations as England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States. – 3. Explain imperialism from the perspective of the colonizers and the colonized and the varied immediate and long-term responses by the people under colonial rule. – 4. Describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions of the world, including the roles of leaders, such as Sun Yat-sen in China, and the roles of ideology and religion. Common Core Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Science for Grades 9 & 10 Students: • RH 1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information. • RH 3 - Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them. • RH 4 - Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies. Common Core Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Science for Grades 9 & 10 Students: • WHST 2 - Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. – b. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic. – d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers. The Boxer Rebellion Before and After Prior Knowledge and Reading Activity While the foreign powers bickered over who would control China, Chinese people’s resentment against the foreign powers increasingly grew. This widespread frustration finally erupted into violence. A secret society, known as the Fists of Righteous Harmony, attracted thousands of followers. Foreigners called them "Boxers" because they practiced martial arts. Made up of poor peasants and workers, the Boxers resented the special privileges granted to foreigners. They also resented Chinese Christians, who had adopted a foreign faith. The Boxers also believed that they had a magical power, and that foreign bullets could not harm them. In the early months of 1900, thousands of Boxers roamed the countryside. They attacked Christian missions, slaughtering foreign missionaries and Chinese converts. As they moved toward the cities, they attracted more and more followers. Foreigners became increasingly nervous about the momentum of the Boxer Rebellion. Foreign diplomats and their families living in Beijing, China’s capital, created make-shift defense walls, and with a small force of military personnel, they faced the Boxers without international help. One American described the scene as 20,000 Boxers attacked them. Their yells were deafening, while the roar of gongs, drums and horns sounded like thunder…They waved their swords and stamped on the ground with their feet. They wore red turbans, sashes, and garters over blue cloth. [When] they were only twenty yards from our gate…shots from our rifles left more than fifty dead upon the ground. The Boxers fell back, but soon returned. Surrounded by the Boxers, the foreigners could neither escape nor send for help. For over a month, they withstood fierce attacks from the Boxers. Things began to look hopeless. Seventy-six foreigners lay dead, and many more were wounded. Ammunition, food, and medical supplies were almost gone. After a month without hearing from their diplomats in China, the foreign powers became worried. They assembled an international relief force of soldiers from eight countries, including Britain, France, Germany, and the United States. Because the Boxers believed they could not be harmed by foreign bullets, they were easily defeated. Within two months, the international relief force put down the Boxer Rebellion. Thousands of Chinese people died during the fighting. Directions: Read each of the statements. Mark each of the statements either true or false based on your prior knowledge. Then read the information on the back of this page and make any corrections. Before the Reading: True/False Statement A secret society, known as Bone Thugs in Harmony, attracted thousands of followers. Foreigners called them “Boxers” because they often had boxing matches. The Boxers resented the special privileges granted to the foreigners and they resented Chinese Christians who had adopted a foreign faith. Boxers believed they had a magical power, and that foreign bullets could not harm them. In 1900, thousands of Boxers attacked Christian missions, slaughtering foreign missionaries and Chinese converts. As they moved toward the cities, they attracted less and less followers. Foreign diplomats and their families living in China’s capital in Beijing created make-shift bazookas and tanks to fight the Boxers. Surrounded by the Boxers, the foreigners could neither escape nor send for help. For over a year, foreigners withstood fierce attacks from the Boxers. Soon, seventy-six foreigners lay dead, many were wounded, and ammunition, food, and medical supplies were almost gone. The foreign powers assembled an international relief force of soldiers from eight countries, including Britain, France, Germany, and the U.S. Because the Boxers believed they could not be harmed by foreign bullets, they were easily defeated. Hundreds of Chinese people died during the fighting. After the reading If after the reading the statement is false, correct it by making the statement true.