Darwin VS Lamarck Download

Transcript
Fri 2/28
• Test-Chp.12 today
Pg.65-Title page
• Title page for Chp.14,15 and 16.
– Title for all 3 chapters
– 3 pictures total
– 3 key words total
– 3 colors
Mon 3/3
• Reminder: Chp.12 Test Retakes
before or after school until FRIDAY!!!
• Describe evidence for the scientific
theories of the origins of life.
In: pg.66
Where do living things come from?
Where do living things come from?
• Spontaneous
generation= living
things come from
nonliving things
• Biogenesis=
living things come
from living things
Pg.67- Origins of Life Chart
Scientists
Redi
Experiment
Picture
(Pg.279)
Spallanzani
(pg. 280)
Pasteur
(pg. 281)
Miller-Urey
(pg. 285)
Fox
(pg.286)
Redi
1626-1697
• Wanted to see
if flies came
from rotting
meat or other
flies.
Spallanzani 1729-1799
• Concluded that boiled
broth became
contaminated with
microorganisms from
the air.
• Opponents said that air
contained a “vital force”
that microorganisms
needed to live.
Pasteur 1822-1895
Paris Academy of
Science offered a
prize to anyone
who could settle
the spontaneous
generation vs.
biogenesis debate.
• Used a curved neck
flask that allowed air
inside the flask but
prevented
microorganisms
from entering.
• Broth was clear for
a year, when neck
was broken off broth
became cloudy with
microorganisms
within a day.
• Pasteur disproved
spontaneous generation.
Miller-Urey 1953
• Created environment
similar to ancient
Earth (water,
methane, ammonia,
H2) and simulated a
lightning strike.
• Found that organic
compounds were
formed.
Fox 1912-1998
Took the simple
compounds from
Miller-Urey and found
that in acidic
environments they
would form simple,
cell-like structures
capable of growth,
reproduction and
simple metabolism.
Pg.67 - Analysis Questions
1. How is biogenesis different from spontaneous
generation?
2. What did Redi’s experiment prove?
3. What hypothesis was Spallanzani testing?
4. Who disproved the idea of spontaneous generation?
5. How was Pasteur’s experimental setup different
from Spallanzani’s?
6. What was Miller-Urey’s experiment modeling?
7. How does Fox’s experiment relate to Miller-Urey’s
experiment?
8. Based on these experiments, what conclusions do
modern scientist draw about the origins of life?
Homework
• Finish Diagrams and analysis questions
Out - pg.66
1. Do you think there is enough
evidence to prove where life came
from?
2. Why?
Tues 3/4
• CCSD NHPE Testing Day
Wed 3/5
• Reminder: Chp.12 Test Retakes before or
after school until FRIDAY!!!
• Provide examples of geological and
biological evidence supporting evolution.
In: pg.68
1. What forms of life have existed in the
past but no longer exist today?
Give at least 2 examples.
2. What happened to these organisms?
Pg. 69 – Relative Dating Fossil Lab
Glue in as flip
Geologic history movie clip (50s-2:56)
Use movie clip to answer #1
complete relative dating activity & data
table
Complete analysis questions on the back
Out – pg. 68
1. In your daily life, are there events
that tell you approximate times,
even when you cannot see a clock?
2. What are they?
Thur 3/6
• Reminder: Chp.12 Test Retakes before or
after school until FRIDAY!!!
• Provide examples of geological and
biological evidence supporting evolution.
In: Pg. 70
Anticipation Guide
1. T or F All traits have variation because they
all have at least 2 alleles.
2. T or F Helpful variations become more
common in a population because
individuals that have them survive and
reproduce.
3. T or F Traits an organisms gets during its
lifetime (like big muscles on a weightlifter)
can be passed on to offspring.
Pg.71 Cornell notes
Chp.15: Theory of Evolution
What is Evolution?
• Populations, not individuals, evolve.
• Evolution occurs as a population’s
genes and their frequencies change
over time.
What is Evolution?
• Theory of Evolution= Development
of new species from preexisting
species over time.
• Modern definition:
– Evolution= heritable change in the
characteristics of a population from
generation to generation.
Lamarck’s Ideas
• Use and Disuse= The more an organism
uses a part of its body, the more that body
part develops.
• Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics=
Physical traits an organism gets during its
lifetime can be passed on to its offspring.
Who was Charles Darwin?
• 19th century British
scientist.
• Traveled as a naturalist and
collected various species,
noticing their variations.
• Published a book “The
Origins of Species” that
proposed a mechanism
of how evolution
happens (called the
theory of natural
selection)
The voyage of the HMS Beagle
Darwin’s Theories
• Common Descent
–All living things are
descended from a
common ancestor.
• Descent with
Modification
–Change happens as
a series of small
steps over long
periods of time.
Theory of Natural Selection
– a mechanism for change in populations.
– It occurs when organisms with certain
beneficial traits survive, reproduce, and
pass their traits to the next generation=
(Fitness)
– Over time, beneficial traits become more
common in a population.
4 Requirements for natural selection
1. Overproduction of
offspring: More offspring
are born than are needed to
continue the species
2. Genetic variation: Within a
population, individuals have
different traits determined by
differences in DNA.
3. Struggle to survive: Some
traits (adaptations) improve
an individuals chance to
survive.
4. Differential reproduction:
Organisms with the best
adaptations are most likely
to survive and reproduce.
Evidence of Evolution
• Fossils
– Show that species change
over time.
– Some species go extinct
– Transitional fossils
• Biogeography
– Closely related species
adapt to different
environments.
• Divergent evolution
– Species that are not
related may look alike if
they live in similar
environments
• Convergent evolution
• Embryology-embryos of
different species look
very similar.
– Gill slits and tail
• Molecular (Biological
Molecules) -All
organisms have the
same DNA code.
• Anatomy
– Homologous
structures
• Same structure,
different function
– Analogous
structures
• Same function,
different structure
– Vestigial structures
• Used to have a
function but no
longer do.
Artificial Selection
• Humans choose what individuals will breed.
– We act as a selective force all the time!!
Coevolution
• When 2 or more
species have evolved
adaptations together.
Finish Cornell Notes
• 3 questions in the left column
• 3-sentence summary at bottom
Pg. 72-73
3 Column Vocab-Chp.14 and 15
1. Evolution
2. Natural selection
3. Adaptation
4. Fitness
5. Homologous structure
6. Analogous structure
7. Vestigial structure
8. Convergent evolution
9. Divergent evolution
10.Adaptive radiation
11.Artificial selection
12.Coevolution
Homework
• Finish vocab
Out – Pg.70
Tent Paragraph-highlight the words as you
use them in the paragraph.
• Evolution
• Darwin
• Natural selection
Fri 3/7
• Provide examples of geological and
biological evidence supporting evolution.
In: pg.74
Requirements
for Natural
Selection
Requirements for natural selection
1. Overproduction of
offspring: More offspring
are born than are needed to
continue the species
2. Genetic variation: Within a
population, individuals have
different traits determined by
differences in DNA.
3. Struggle to survive: Some
traits (adaptations) improve
an individuals chance to
survive.
4. Differential reproduction:
Organisms with the best
adaptations are most likely
to survive and reproduce.
Pg. 75 - Natural Selection Activity
• Rotate through the stations.
• At each station you will complete the task the judge describes. The judge will then
initial either “live” or “die” on your chart. The judges’ decisions are final!!!
• When you have rotated through all 6 stations, answer the questions & hi-lite answers.
STATION
LIVE
DIE
1
2
3
Questions
4
1. What does it mean to be “fit” when you are talking about
5
natural selection?
6
2. Which stations were you “fit” at? What traits helped you
survive these stations?
3. What was being selected for at station 2? If this were the
environment in which a group of organisms lived, what traits
would you expect them to have? Why?
4. What did this activity demonstrate about fitness in different
types of environments?
Homework
• Finish Natural Selection questions.
Out – pg.74
Explain why some biologists say
“fitness is measured in
grandchildren”.
Mon 3/10
• Provide examples of geological and
biological evidence supporting evolution.
In: pg.76
Watch the “Making of the Fittest: Natural
Selection and Adaptation”
1. What trait was studied in this investigation?
2. How does this trait affect the survival of
mice in different environments?
3. What caused the initial change in fur color?
Pg.77 Blending Butterflies
• Design a butterfly that can be camouflaged in the classroom.
• Cut out your butterfly and write your name on the back.
• Place your butterfly on a visible surface in the classroom (you can’t hide
them behind objects). Make the butterfly as invisible as possible.
• Return to your seat and copy down the table below:
Total # of butterflies
# of butterflies seen
Questions:
1. What types of camouflage were used to disguise the
butterflies in the classroom?
2. Which type of camouflage was best at disguising butterflies
in the classroom? Why do you think this worked the best?
3. How do you think camouflaged animals evolved their
camouflage?
Homework
• Finish your analysis questions.
Out – Pg.76
Explain how this
insect may have
evolved its unique
appearance?…use
what you know about
the process of natural
selection.
3+ sentences
Tues 3/11
• INB Quiz today  get out ½ sheet, #1-10
• Next Wednesday (3/19) is the last day for
any missing/absent work for Qtr.3!!!!!
In: pg. 78
Tape in the diagram and answer the
questions.
1.Which represents analogous structures,
the forelimbs or the wings?
2.Why?
3.Which represents homologous
structures, the forelimbs or the wings?
4.Why?
Pg. 79 - Concept Map-Evidence of
Evolution
• Read section 15.2 (pg.302-307) in the textbook
and create a concept map about the evidence for
evolution.
• Must have 3 levels: main idea, subtopics, details
• Must include definitions for:
– fossil, transitional species, biogeography,
anatomy, embryology, homologous structures,
analogous structures and vestigial structures.
Pg.79 - Concept Map-Evidence of Evolution
Relative age determined
by superposition.
Absolute age
determined by
radiometric dating.
use book pg.302-306
Fossil
Record
Biogeography
Evidence of
Evolution
Biological
Molecules
Anatomy
Homework
• Finish concept map.
Out-pg.78
1. What evidence provides information on horse
evolution?
2. What aspects of a horse’s environment do
you think changed to cause it to evolve the
way it did?
Wed 3/12
• Wednesday (3/19) is the last
day to make up “mi” and “ab”
work for Quarter 3!!!!!!.
In: pg.80
Read Section 15-3 (pg.308-309) Evolution in Action
1.What happens in convergent evolution?
2.What happens in divergent evolution?
3.What is adaptive radiation?
Pg. 81
• Bird and Beak Lab – complete activity,
data table, and analysis questions
– Glue as flip up
• Under lab on notebook pg.81 Create a
multiple bar graph representing your
groups lab data
Homework
• Finish lab analysis questions & graph.
Out – Pg.80
1. What is another example of
convergent evolution?
2. What is another example of
divergent evolution?
(you may not use the examples discussed in
class today)