Warm Up-Write these vocabulary terms in your Extras section • Aqueduct-a pipe or channel that brings water from distant places • Cuneiform-writing that uses wedge-shaped characters • Empire-a large territory in which several groups of people are ruled by a single leader or government • Siege-a military blockage and attack on a city to force it to surrender • Ziggurat-an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower Warm Up-10/3 and 10/6 • In your WARM UP section: • Date the page • Explain what the 7 characteristics of a civilization are in a sentence. The Four Empires of Mesopotamia I. Mesopotamia A. Mesopotamia means “the land between the rivers” Also known as the Fertile Crescent or Cradle of Civilization. 1. River valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 2. Settled by the Sumerians independent citystates 3. Constant fighting weaken the Sumerians and the were unable to defend themselves II. The Akkadian Empire 2300-2100 B.C.E. A. The world’s first empire B. King Sargon, strong king and skilled general 1. Control through political strategies a. Destroyed city walls to keep rebellions down b. Choose governors loyal to him c. 1st king to demand that his rule is passed down to his sons II. The Akkadian Empire C. Use of Sumerian ideas 1. Irrigation system 2. Record keeping- cuneiform “wedge” writing 3. Worshipped same gods as Sumerians (but changed their names) II. The Akkadian Empire D. Achievements 1. 3-D sculptures called steles which recorded their history E. The fall 1. Too large to rule 2. Fell back into Sumerian citystates III. The Babylonian Empire 1750-1595 B.C.E. A. First empire to apply the law to everyone B. King Hammurabi 1. His small city-state of Babylon conquered the rest of Mesopotamia 2. Made the city of Babylon the new capital III. The Babylonian EmpireAchievements C. Achievements 1. Hammurabi’s Code (applied to everyone, but all not treated equally) a. 282 laws written on a stele placed in a temple for all to see b. Harsh- “an eye for an eye” c. Unified the people and preserved order d. Based on the gods’ will e. Could never be changed Code of Hammurabi III. The Babylonian EmpireAchievements 2. Agriculture and trade flourished a. Roads were built b. Irrigation systems c. Capital city, Babylon became center for trade along Euphrates River 3. Arts - historical poems 4. Women and slaves a. Unlike other ancient cultures, treated unusually fair i. Slaves could keep their wages and own property, even buying freedom ii. Women could own property and keep their own money Carving showing slaves Woman Weaving III. The Babylonian Empire D. The fall 1. Too large to govern Warm Up Oct 7 & Oct 8 • Write these questions in the warm up section of your Inbook. Leave room for answers. (DO NOT ANSWER THEM.) 1. Mesopotamia was the land between which two rivers? 2. Name King Sargon’s city-state and his empire. 3. Which empire was larger the Akkadian or the Babylonian Empire? IV. The Assyrian Empire 900-600 B.C.E. A. A warlike people 1. 900 B.C.E. rulers trained Assyrians for war 2. Weapons made of iron and use of horses in war 3. Strategies a. The siege – attacking a city over and over until it falls b. Use of battering rams to poke holes in city walls c. Moveable towers used to climb over city walls d. Use of fear – cut off enemy heads and made defeated walk barefoot and carry heads Assyrian King with Gods IV. The Assyrian Empire B. Achievements 1. Built beautiful palaces for kings on high mounds 2. Designed the earliest aqueducts 3. Created 2-D sculptures that were very realistic C. The fall 1. After 300 years of rule the empire became too large to rule V. The Neo-Babylonians 600-539 B.C.E. A. Babylonians regain control over Mesopotamia 1. Neo-Babylonian Empire – “neo” means new B. Famous King Nebuchadrezzar II, a ruthless military leader 1. Built inner and outer walls around Babylon 2. Built towers for archers to defend the city 3. Built a moat outside the walls Ziggurats V. The Neo-Babylonians C. Achievements 1. Rebuilt the city’s ziggurat “holy mountain” temple a. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon i. One of the ancient wonders of the world, an engineering masterpiece ii. Terraces with an irrigation system 2. Math and astronomy a. 1st sundial creating 60 min. hour and 7 day week D. The fall 1. Too big to rule and defend 2. Conquered by King Cyrus of the Persian Empire Hanging Gardens Achievement Steles • On p. 26 of your Inbook create four steles (one for each empireAkkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Neo-Babylonians) celebrating their most important achievement. Oct 9 & Oct 10 • Write a 4 line poem (2 lines per empire) about the achievement of the Assyrian and NeoBabylonian Empire.