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TOPIC 2D Shapes 8 Strand: Shape and Space Strand unit: 2D Shapes Curriculum Objectives 632 633 634 637 638 640 Make informal deductions about 2D shapes and their properties. Use angle and line properties to classify and describe triangles and quadrilaterals. Construct triangles from given sides or angles. Tessellate combinations of 2D shapes. Classify 2D shapes according to their lines of symmetry. Use 2D shapes and properties to solve problems. Looking back: What the 5th class programme covered 1. Using angle and line properties to classify and describe triangles. 2. Using angle and line properties to classify and describe quadrilaterals. Maths skills used in this topic 1. Applying and problem-solving: Plan and implement solutions to problems in a variety of contexts. 2. Communicating and expressing: Communicate and express mathematical ideas, processes and results in oral and written form. 3. Integrating and connecting: Make mathematical connections within mathematics itself, throughout other subjects, and in applications of mathematics in practical everyday contexts. 4. Reasoning: Reason systematically in a mathematical context. 5. Implementing: Implement suitable standard and non-standard procedures with a variety of tools and manipulatives. Concrete materials Protractor, ruler, compass, pencil, coloured paper, squared paper, 2D shapes Vocabulary Equilateral triangle, isosceles triangle, scalene triangle, right-angled triangle, rhombus, square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezium, kite, polygon, closed shapes, regular polygon, irregular polygon, quadrilateral, extend, angle, symmetrical, line(s) of symmetry, decagon, heptagon, octagon, oval, trapezium, tessellating, protractor, nonagon Teaching points Revise the properties of the 2D shapes already studied up to 5th class in terms or number of sides, number of corners/vertices and length of sides. Children should be encouraged to discuss the similarities and differences between the shapes. It is very important that there are visual aids in 49 the classroom so that the children have a reminder of the appearance of each shape. The children need to manipulate the shapes, draw them and construct them using Geoboards, plasticine, geostrips and templates. Straws can also be used to construct each shape or lollipop sticks with Blu-tac holding the corners together. The children also need to explore the tessellating properties of various shapes. Oral and mental activities Fans: Show number of sides on a hexagon, a triangle, pentagon, octagon, etc. Revise tables. Show number of lines of symmetry in any shape. Loop game (see Folens Online resources) Shape 2D shapes: Children call out the attributes of a shape and the other children guess the shape. Topic suggestions 1. Design an alien using a combination of regular 2D shapes. 2. On the internet examine bridges and buildings to discover which 2D shapes are evident in their construction and outward appearance. 3. Look at patterns for Aran knitted jumpers and scarves. Investigate the various 2D shapes in the knitting pattern. 4. Design a bathroom/kitchen floor tiling scheme. 5. Discuss the origins of the names of the 2D shapes and the meanings of these words which give a clue to their shape, e.g. ‘quad’, ‘octo’, ‘deca’, ‘nona’, ‘penta’. 6. Classify the shapes using different criteria, e.g. size of angles, parallel sides, lines of symmetry, equal sides, perpendicular sides. 7. Use tangrams to make various polygons. 8. Work in pairs to give instructions on constructing various triangles. One child gives the instructions while the other draws the triangle. Then the children swap roles. Activity A Pick out the correct shape from the photograph 1. Put the number 1 over the hemisphere, the number 2 over the pentagon, the number 3 over the kite, the number 4 over the trapezium, the number 5 over the hexagon and the number 6 over the octagon. 2. What is the name of the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense? Why has it been given this name? (pentagon, because of its shape) 3. A kite has ________ pairs of sides of equal length. (2) 4. How many sides has a decagon? (10) 5. How many sides has a nonagon? (9) 50 Differentiation Lower attainers: Separate activity sheet Higher attainers: Separate activity sheet Topic Topic 8 8 1. Triangles have __________ sides. 1. Name these shapes. (b) (a) __________ (c) __________ (d) __________ __________ (e) __________ (a) (b) (c) Equilateral triangle Isosceles triangle Scalene triangle (i) ____ sides equal (i)____ sides equal (i)____ sides equal (ii) ____ angles equal (ii)____ angles equal (ii)____ angles equal 2. Show the lines of symmetry in each of the shapes below. (b) (a) (c) (d) (e) 2. Quadrilaterals have _______ sides. 3. Name the different shapes that you see. (a) (b) (c) Square Rhombus Rectangle ____ sides equal length ____ sides equal length ____ sides equal length Opposite sides are p________ Opposite sides are p________ Opposite sides are p________ ____ right angles ____ acute angles ____ right angles ____ obtuse angles (d) (e) (f) (b) A parallelogram with two sides 6cm and two sides 4cm Parallelogram Trapezium Kite 1 set of ____ Adjacent sides ____________ 4. Draw the following 5 shapes. (a) A square with sides 4cm (c) An equilateral triangle with each side 4cm long ____ sides equal (d) An isosceles triangle with two sides 4cm long and the third side 5cm long Opposite sides are p________ (e) A scalene triangle with three sides 3cm, 4cm and 5cm long ____ acute angles Which of the 5 shapes tessellate? ____ obtuse angles (a) 2cm ____ (b) 2cm ____ (c) 3cm ____ (e) 4cm ____ (f) 5cm ____ (g) 4cm ____ Name: _______________________________________ (d) 4cm ____ Date: ___________________ Page 137: 2D Shapes 137 3. Using your protractor construct triangle with (a) Two sides measuring 5cm and 6.5cm and an angle of 75° (b) Two sides measuring 4cm and 6cm and an angle of 40° (c) Two sides measuring 4.5cm and 4.5cm and an angle of 90° (d) Two sides measuring 5cm and 4cm and an angle of 120° Name: _______________________________________ Date: ___________________ © Folens Photocopiables © Folens Photocopiables 5. Using all or some of these 7 lengths, draw the different types of shapes you can make. 138 Page 138: 2D Shapes Linkage Shape and Space: 3D shapes, lines and angles, spatial awareness Measures: Length, area Number: Fractions, symmetry, pattern Integration Art: Pattern making – tessellating patterns for tiling, drawing regular patterns, drawing irregular patterns using various 2D shapes, fold-over painting for symmetry SESE Geography: 2D shapes in the environment SESE History: Studying coats of arms and investigating 2D shapes, development of the wheel SESE Science: 2D shapes found in the natural world Maths at home/parental involvement 1. Examine various tessellated tile patterns in shopping centres, shops, bathrooms, kitchens, floors, walls, hotels, etc. 2. Look out for 2D shapes at home in wallpaper, magazines, newspapers, packaging, food wrappers, etc. 3. Spotting different angles and triangles in our everyday environment and identify symmetrical shapes and pictures in everyday life. 51