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Take-Home
Review Activities
To the Teacher
The American Journey Take-Home Review Activities contains information and activities
that students and their families/caregivers can do at home to reinforce their understanding of history. It is intended to give parents easy (not challenging) materials to
help their children with each day’s lesson.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to
reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for
classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely
in conjunction with The American Journey. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited
without written permission from the publisher.
Send all inquiries to:
Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, OH 43240
ISBN 0-07-825221-0
Printed in the United States of America
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 024 08 07 06 05 04 03 02
Table of Contents
To the Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Take-Home Review Activities
Activity 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Activity 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Activity 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Activity 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Activity 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Activity 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Activity 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Activity 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Activity 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Activity 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Activity 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Activity 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Activity 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Activity 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Activity 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Activity 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Activity 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Activity 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Activity 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Activity 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Activity 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Activity 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Activity 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Activity 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Activity 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Activity 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Activity 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Activity 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Activity 29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Activity 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Activity 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Activity 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
The American Journey
iii
Take-Home Review Activity 1
THE FIRST AMERICANS
Small groups of people migrated from Asia to North, Central, and South America
thousands of years ago. These early Americans have had an impact on our culture
today. All of these societies contributed to our present-day understanding of subjects
such as science, astronomy, math, and communication.
Reviewing Chapter 1
The First Americans, Prehistory to 1492
• Called Native Americans
• Crossed a land bridge that connected Siberia in Asia to present-day Alaska and spread
throughout North, Central, and South America
• Adapted to their surroundings by hunting and gathering for food, fishing, using resources
of the land and sea, and building shelters
The Powerful Native American Empires of South and Central America
• Maya—built cities with ceremonial pyramids and created a calendar
• Aztec—built the largest city in the Americas, Tenochtitlán, and established a military
empire
• Inca—cut terraces into steep mountain slopes so that crops could be planted
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Influential Early Native American Cultures of North America
• Hohokam—developed irrigation system for farming
• Anasazi—created pueblos and cliff dwellings in which to live
• Adena, Hopewell, Cahokia—created burial mounds in the shape
of birds, bears, and snakes
• Inuit—built igloos to help them survive cold Arctic climate
• Tlingit, Haida, Chinook—used resources of the forest and sea
to survive
• Nez Perce, Yakima—fished for salmon and ate camas plants
• Ute, Shoshone—traveled to find food and lived in temporary shelters
• Hopi, Acoma, Zuni––lived in homes made of adobe
• Apache, Navajo—hunted buffalo
• Dakota—used horses for defense and to hunt
• Iroquois, Cherokee—lived by formal law codes and formed federations
• Creek, Chickasaw, Cherokee—farmed the region of the Southeast
?
DID YOU KNOW?
The symbol in
the center of
Mexico’s flag is
an eagle sitting
atop a cactus.
The Aztec city,
Tenochtitlán, was
the place where
the Aztec found
their new home
with an eagle sitting on a cactus.
Tenochtitlán
means “place
of the cactus.”
(continued)
The American Journey
1
Take-Home Review Activity 1
Unscramble the Words
DIRECTIONS: Below are many of the words you learned in Chapter 1, but the letters are
out of order. Use the definitions to help you write the words correctly.
1. vilcitiaoniz
a highly developed society
2. inagritom
movement of a large group of people
from place to place
3. opblue
a stone dwelling
4. cstatiarf
things that early people left behind
5. thgoudr
a long period of little rainfall
6. modsan
people who move from place to place
7. acyeocrth
a society ruled by religious leaders
8. ulcuter
a way of life of a group of people
9. ierontfead
a form of government
the study of ancient peoples
11. reihoylgscihp
pictures or symbols used to represent
words, sounds, or concepts
12. nbacor dingta
a method used to determine
the age of an artifact
13. geA ecI
periods of extremely cold temperatures
when part of the earth’s surface
was covered with large ice sheets
14. rctarees
broad platforms cut into steep slopes
used for planting crops
15. bodea
a sun-dried mud brick
2
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10. charloygoea
The American Journey
Take-Home Review Activity 2
EXPLORING THE AMERICAS
Early exploration of the Americas had consequences both for Europeans and Native
Americans. It influenced both cultures and has had a lasting impact on America’s culture.
Reviewing Chapter 2
Europeans explored the
Americas for many reasons:
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
•
•
•
•
•
European explorers came
from Spain, Portugal,
France, the Netherlands,
and England. The West
Indies, Mexico, and South
America provided these
countries with gold and
silver.
interest in exploration
increased trade
new ideas
the Renaissance
new technology
The Spanish developed a
plantation system and used
the Native Americans to
work on the plantations. By
the mid-1500s, thousands of
West Africans were imported
to the Americas to work the
plantations. By the late 1500s,
plantation slave labor was a
large part of the economies of
the Spanish and Portuguese
colonies in the Americas.
Exploring the
Americas
The Columbian Exchange grew out of
the contact and interaction of Europe,
Asia, and Africa with the Americas.
Native Americans provided foods while
Europeans brought cattle, and unknowingly brought diseases for which Native
Americans had no immunity.
Spain set up the encomienda
system in which each conquistador, or explorer, had
the right to tax or demand
labor from the Native
Americans living on the
land. This system turned
the Native Americans into
slaves.
The search for a Northwest
Passage, early trading activities, and religious and economic rivalries among
European countries led to
continued exploration of
North America.
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Pizarro conquered
the Inca and
decided to move
their capital. In
1538 Pizarro had
the Inca people
build a new city,
Lima, along the
western coast.
(continued)
The American Journey
3
Take-Home Review Activity 2
Search for Hidden Words
DIRECTIONS: How many words can you find in the hidden word search puzzle? Look
for the words listed below that may appear horizontally, vertically, diagonally, and
spelled forwards or backwards. Circle as many as you can find.
mission
strait
mercantilism
Renaissance
plantation
tribute
demarcation
caravel
pilgrimage
classical
technology
mosque
circumnavigate
astrolabe
encomienda
pueblo
presidio
M
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M
C
M
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Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
C
Some of the letters that remain uncircled after the word search is complete create a
secret message. Starting at the top left corner and reading across, write down the uncircled letters in the blanks below to find the secret message.
.
4
The American Journey
Take-Home Review Activity 3
COLONIAL AMERICA
People continued to come to America from Europe and African countries. During the
1600s and 1700s, the English, the French, and the Spanish established many colonies.
The values and beliefs of these early colonists influenced how and why the colonies
were organized.
Reviewing Chapter 3
Early English Settlements
• Many settlers came to America for adventure, wealth, and economic and religious freedom.
• The Virginia Company of London established Jamestown in 1607. In 1624 King James took
it over, making it the first royal colony in America.
New England Colonies: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island,
Connecticut
• Settlers called Pilgrims, a group of church reformers and church separatists, signed the
Mayflower Compact. The compact was a promise to obey laws passed and a pledge of
loyalty to England.
• In 1629 a group of Puritans received a royal charter to establish the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
• Settlers in Connecticut developed the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut—the first constitution in America.
• In 1644 Rhode Island became a chartered colony. It became the first place in America where
people were able to worship as they wished.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Middle Colonies: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
• People from the Netherlands settled the area that was a center for
shipping. This area would become Manhattan Island in New York City.
• New Jersey, formed from the southern part of New York, promised
freedom of religion, trial by jury, and a representative assembly.
• The king of England gave William Penn, a Quaker, a large piece
of land that was named Pennsylvania.
• Delaware, a separate colony supervised by Pennsylvania’s governor,
was settled by the Swedes in 1638.
Southern Colonies: Maryland, Virginia,
South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia
• Maryland was a proprietary colony settled in 1632 as a safe place for
Catholics to worship.
• As settlers moved farther west in Virginia, conflicts arose between them
and the Native Americans, who did not want their lands taken.
• Carolina was established as a proprietary colony. In 1729 Carolina split
into North Carolina and South Carolina.
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Indentured servants,
who were mostly
males from England,
Ireland, and Wales,
worked to cover the
cost of sailing to
America. As the
number of indentured servants
declined, however,
plantation owners
turned to the African slave trade to
provide a large
labor force.
(continued)
The American Journey
5
Take-Home Review Activity 3
• South Carolina was more prosperous than North Carolina because of fertile farmland,
which increased the demand for slaves.
• Georgia, the last of the British colonies to be established, was founded as a place where
people in debt could start over. It also protected other British colonies from Spanish attack.
Other European Settlements
• The French founded Quebec in 1608. In the 1700s, they claimed the Louisiana Territory.
• The Spanish established missions in California, Arizona, and New Mexico, and set up military posts in Texas.
Identify Locations
DIRECTIONS: Look at the map of the present-day United States. Use different colored
markers to color the states that began as colonies of England, the Netherlands, and
Spain. Include the colors on the map key.
WA
ND
MT
MN
MI
ME
SD
ID
OR
WI
VT
MI
NH
WY
NY
IA
NE
IL
NV
UT
CO
KS
IN
OK
NM
RI
PA
OH
NJ
WV
MO
VA
KY
CA
TN
DE
MD
NC
AR
SC
MS
TX
AL
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
AZ
MA
CT
GA
LA
FL
Key
England
Netherlands
Spain
6
The American Journey
Take-Home Review Activity 4
THE COLONIES GROW
The colonies grew as more people came to America, but there were problems as well.
Conflicts arose over land and resources, and hostility between Britain and the colonists
began to grow.
Reviewing Chapter 4
Growth
Immigration helped the
colonies grow. Between 1607
and 1790, almost a million
people came to live in the
colonies.
Religion
The Great Awakening
called for a return to a
strong faith, leading to the
creation of new churches.
Culture
The Enlightenment
advanced the idea that
knowledge, reason, and
science could improve
society. There was a high
level of literacy in the
colonies.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Life in the Colonies
Government
• Connecticut and Rhode Island
were charter colonies. The settlers were given a charter that
named rights and privileges.
They elected their own governors and the members of both
houses of the legislature.
• Delaware, Maryland, and
Pennsylvania were proprietary
colonies, ruled by people to
whom Britain had granted
land. The proprietors appointed
the governor and members of
the upper house (council). The
colonists elected the lower
house (assembly).
• Georgia, Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, New
York, North Carolina, and
Virginia were royal colonies.
The British Parliament
appointed a governor and
council. The colonists elected
an assembly.
The American Journey
Economics
• Farming was the main economic activity in all the
colonies. A triangular trade
route developed linking the
Caribbean, Europe, and
Africa. This impacted
American society because it
created economies based on
slave labor.
• New England was the center of
trade and commerce, especially
shipbuilding and fishing.
• The Middle Colonies grew
large quantities of wheat and
other cash crops. They also
had industries such as carpentry, lumber, and mining.
• Most of the Southern Colonies
made their living from the
land. Slave labor that produced the cash crops contributed to much of the
economic success of the
Southern Colonies.
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Enslaved Africans
traveling on
ships from West
Africa lived in
small quarters.
They were
chained to each
other and could
only sit in a
space that was
about 25 inches
high.
(continued)
7
Take-Home Review Activity 4
Fill in the Blanks
DIRECTIONS: Complete each sentence by filling in the blanks using the words below.
Then rearrange the letters marked by to answer the question.
smuggling
triangular trade
Iroquois Confederacy
proprietary colony
diversity
speculators
literacy
1.
alliance
charter colony
cash crops
means a variety of cultures.
2. The ability to read and write is called
.
3. Trade routes that resembled the shape of a triangle made up the
.
4. The most powerful group of Native Americans in the East during colonial times was the
5.
foreign markets.
.
are produce that can be sold easily in colonial and
6. The illegal trade of goods is known as
.
7. A colony run by an individual or a group to whom Britain had granted land was a
.
8. An
9.
is a network of unions.
were investors who owned shares of land
in the unsettled West.
10. A colony based on a document of rights and privileges was a
.
What do you call a person who learns a trade as an assistant to a craft worker?
.
8
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Take-Home Review Activity 5
ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE
A feeling of distrust grew between the American colonies and Britain. Many colonists
were willing to give up their wealth and fight for their independence from England.
Reviewing Chapter 5
Events Leading to Independence
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Colonists banded together to oppose
British laws. The Boston Massacre, a
deadly clash between British soldiers
and the townspeople of Boston, led
many to urge stronger boycotts of
British goods.
The Boston Tea Party in 1773 defied
Britain’s rule. For recourse, Britain
passed the Coercive (or Intolerable)
Acts. These laws:
1. closed Boston Harbor until the
colonists paid for the tea destroyed.
2. took away many rights of
Massachusetts colonists.
3. forced Bostonians to provide shelter for British soldiers in their
homes.
The First Continental Congress met in
Philadelphia in 1774. The Congress:
1. called for repeal of the Coercive
Acts.
2. voted to boycott all British goods
and trade.
3. passed a resolution to form groups
of citizen-soldiers to be ready to
fight the British.
The American Journey
The Battles of Lexington and Concord
occurred in April 1775. More fighting
broke out in the Battle of Bunker Hill in
June 1775.
The second Continental Congress met in
1775. It created the Continental Army to
fight against Britain. It also drafted The
Declaration of Independence which:
1. explained the reasons for forming a
new country.
2. listed the rights of colonists.
3. listed grievances against Britain.
4. proclaimed the existence of a new
nation.
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Thomas Jefferson
and John Adams
both died on
July 4, 1826,
exactly 50 years
after they signed
the Declaration
of Independence.
(continued)
9
Take-Home Review Activity 5
Unscramble the Words
DIRECTIONS: Below are many of the words you learned in Chapter 5, but the letters are
out of order. Use the definitions to help you write the words correctly.
1. tenueimmn
groups of soldiers that claimed to be
ready to fight on a minute’s notice
2. orstatpi
colonists who wanted American
independence during the American
Revolution
3. trsiw fo sansestica
legal documents allowing soldiers to
search homes and warehouses for
smuggled goods
4. teinitop
formal request
5. eotmcimte fo
ncepserdorcnoe
a group that circulated writings about
colonists’ grievances against Britain
6. uonsleotir
a formal expression of an opinion
7. yoitaslsl
colonists who chose to side with Britain
during the American Revolution
8. litaimi
group of citizen soldiers
9. eaelrmbp
a document’s introductory text
not importing goods from other
countries or not using imported goods
11. ootybct
to refuse to buy
12. gyfife
a rag figure that represents an
unpopular public figure
13. leerpa
to cancel
14. euvreen
incoming money
15. nagordappa
information intended to influence opinion
10
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10. proanttinmonio
The American Journey
Take-Home Review Activity 6
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
The Declaration of Independence proclaimed the birth of a new nation. However, it
took the American Revolutionary War to gain full independence from Britain.
Reviewing Chapter 6
SOME IMPORTANT EVENTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
1776 Thomas Paine’s pamphlet
1778 France and the United States form an
Common Sense inspires many
alliance, and France gives money, troops,
colonists to fight, despite the
and equipment to the Patriots.
hard times.
1777 The British capture Philadelphia.
1776
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1776 Washington’s
troops cross the
Delaware River to
take Trenton, New
Jersey, in a surprise
attack.
1779 Naval hero John Paul
Jones forces the surrender of
British warship Serapis.
1778
1778 Fighting in the war
spreads to the West and
South, involving Native
Americans as well as
colonists.
1781 The British surrender
after the Battle of Yorktown.
1782
1780
1784
1783 The Treaty of
Paris is signed to end
the war.
1780 The British
capture Charleston.
1777 The Patriots defeat
the British at the Battle of
Saratoga, New York.
The Americans were able to win the war against Britain because they
• fought the battles on their own land
• received help from other nations
• had the leadership of George Washington
• were strongly motivated by their ideal of being an independent
country
?
DID YOU KNOW?
American naval
hero John Paul
Jones was born in
Scotland and was
apprenticed to
learn seamanship
at the age of 13.
He was 32 years
old in 1779 when
he commanded
the American warship that sunk the
British ship Serapis.
(continued)
The American Journey
11
Take-Home Review Activity 6
Search for Hidden Words
DIRECTIONS: How many words can you find? Look for words listed below that may
appear horizontally, vertically, diagonally, or spelled forwards or backwards. Circle as
many as you can find.
ambush
neutral
guerrilla
blockade
inflation
privateer
recruit
desert
mercenary
ratify
P
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12
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
I
Take-Home Review Activity 7
1
A MORE PERFECT UNION
The Constitution became the official plan for the new
American government. It defined the roles of the state and
federal governments and still operates today as the fundamental law of the land.
Reviewing Chapter 7
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
• The young United States needed to establish a working government. The Articles of Confederation were written in 1777 to
describe the roles of the state and federal governments. This
was the United States’s first constitution.
• Reform of the Articles of Confederation led to approval of the
United States Constitution. The Constitution created a federal
system that divided powers more evenly between the federal
government and the states. It was ratified in 1790. The Bill of
Rights was added in 1791.
• Before the Constitution was adopted, there were several compromise plans proposed:
Here is a brief summary of what the United States Constitution
provides:
Federalism
This feature allows for
power to be shared
between federal and
state governments.
Important
Features of
the U.S.
Constitution
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Two amendments
were not ratified
when the Bill of
Rights was passed.
The first amendment
defined size and representation in the legislative branch. The
second amendment
essentially kept members of Congress from
raising their own pay.
This second amendment took more than
two hundred years
from its official introduction to become the
Twenty-Seventh
Amendment.
System of Checks
and Balances
This feature allows each
branch to check, or limit,
the power of the other two
to keep any one branch from
becoming too powerful.
Three Branches of
Government
Legislative Branch
This branch is responsible
for making laws. It
includes the House of
Representatives and
the Senate.
Executive Branch
The president heads this
branch. It is responsible
for carrying out the
nation’s laws and policies.
Judicial Branch
This branch is responsible
for hearing cases and solving disputes. It established
the Supreme Court and
other federal courts
created by Congress.
(continued)
The American Journey
13
Take-Home Review Activity 7
Complete the Crossword Puzzle
DIRECTIONS: Use the following clues to complete the crossword puzzle.
2
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
14
Down
2. those who did not want the Constitution
ratified
3. something added to a document
4. a government ruled by citizens who elect
representatives
5. system designed to keep the power of
each government branch limited
8. a plan for a government
9. to apply to
10. the freeing of individual slaves
11. to fall in value
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Across
1. sharing power between federal and
state governments
5. an agreement between sides in which each
side gives up something
6. corresponding in size
7. a law
11. a period when economic activity is very
slow
12. part of a document
13. to approve
14.
College
15. two-house legislatures
16. movement promoting knowledge, reason,
and science to improve society
Take-Home Review Activity 8
A NEW NATION
George Washington, as first president of the United States, had a huge task before
him. He and Congress established procedures and precedents for the new government
to follow.
Reviewing Chapter 8
George Washington took the oath of office as first president on April 30, 1789. John Adams
became the vice president. To establish the organization of the executive branch of government, Congress established a cabinet with three branches.
This diagram shows how the executive branch is organized:
Executive Branch of Government
Cabinet
President
Vice President
War Department
This department
provides for
national defense.
State Department
This department
handles issues with
other nations.
?
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
DID YOU KNOW?
When Washington
gave his farewell
speech, New York
City was the capital
of the United
States. He gave his
famous speech at
Fraunces Tavern, a
restaurant in downtown Manhattan.
This landmark
restaurant remained
standing until the
summer of 2000,
when it finally
closed its doors.
The American Journey
Treasury Department
This department deals
with financial matters.
Two other offices
Postmaster General
This office oversees
the postal service.
Attorney General
This office handles
the government’s
legal affairs.
(continued)
15
Take-Home Review Activity 8
Unscramble the Words
DIRECTIONS: Ten words from Chapter 8 are scrambled below. Read each clue to help
you unscramble the word. Then write the unscrambled word in the boxes.
TYLNITUARE
2. a tax on imported goods
TAFFIR
3. meeting of a party’s leaders
to choose candidates for offices
CUSCAU
4. favoring one side of an issue
SANITRAP
5. traditions
DTRESCEEPN
6. group consisting of the secretary
of state, the secretary of the
treasury, the secretary of war,
and the attorney general
AINCTEB
7. activities designed to weaken the
established government
TISEONID
8. send out of a country
POETRD
9. a person who risks money in
order to make a larger profit
TORPESCALU
NUYFILL
10. legally overturn
The circled letters above can be unscrambled to spell a word that answers the question below.
What job did President George Washington give to Thomas Jefferson?
16
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. the act of not choosing a side
in a conflict
Take-Home Review Activity 9
THE JEFFERSON ERA
Beginning in 1812, the United States,led by President James Madison, went to war
against the British and their Native American allies. Known as “Mr. Madison’s War,”
the War of 1812 gave most Americans a new sense of confidence and patriotism.
Reviewing Chapter 9
THE WAR OF 1812
November The United States won
the Battle of Tippecanoe, in
which General William Henry
Harrison fought Tecumseh’s
brother, the Prophet. Tecumseh,
a Native American chief, then
allied himself with the British.
1811
?
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
DID YOU KNOW?
Andrew Jackson
was considered an
American hero
because of the
American victory at
the Battle of New
Orleans. Jackson’s
troops kept a British
fleet from taking
over the Mississippi
River. This battle,
however, took place
15 days after the
peace treaty to end
the war was signed.
The American Journey
1812
March Andrew Jackson defeated the Creeks at Battle of Horsehead
Bend.
August The British overpowered the American military and marched
into Washington, D.C. They burned the Capitol and the presidential
mansion.
September The British were defeated at the Battle of Plattsburgh.
December The Treaty of Ghent was signed to end the war.
1813
September Oliver Perry defeated the
British navy on Lake Erie.
October Tecumseh was killed at the
Battle of the Thames while pulling
back from the Detroit area.
1815
1814
January The last battle of the
War of 1812, the Battle of
New Orleans, was fought.
June The United States declared war on Britain for its
actions against Americans.
August The Constitution destroyed British vessels.
November British blockaded the American coast from
Chesapeake Bay to New York Harbor.
December The Constitution destroyed another British vessel.
(continued)
17
Take-Home Review Activity 9
Search for Hidden Words
DIRECTIONS: How many words can you find? Look for the words listed below that
may appear horizontally, vertically, diagonally, or spelled forwards or backwards.
Circle as many as you can find.
embargo
customs duty
Conestoga wagon
frigate
tribute
neutral rights
nationalism
War Hawks
secede
privateer
judicial review
laissez-faire
T
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O
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R
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I
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U
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N
O
O
U
E
E
X
Some of the letters that remain uncircled after the word search is complete create a
secret message. Starting at the top left corner and reading across, write down the uncircled letters in the blanks below to find the secret message.
.
18
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
J
Take-Home Review Activity 10
GROWTH AND EXPANSION
Three events impacted the growth of the United States during the early 1800s. These
events are the birth of the Industrial Revolution, the movement of settlers west, and
the announcement of the Monroe Doctrine.
Reviewing Chapter 10
1. The Industrial Revolution brought new ways of working and producing
goods. Around 1800 industrial technology took off in the United States.
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
1785 The steam engine
was invented and provided water power.
1780
1793 Eli Whitney
invented the
cotton gin.
1790
1790 Congress passed a patent law that gave
inventors the legal right to their inventions
and the profits for a specific period.
1807 Robert Fulton
developed a river
steamboat.
1816 Congress chartered a second national bank.
The Tariff of 1816 passed to protect American
industry from British competition.
1800
1798 Eli Whitney manufactured rifles using
interchangeable parts.
1810
1820
1814 Frances Lowell opened a textile plant
in Waltham, Massachusetts, that used the
factory system for production.
2. More people moved west into the new lands of the Louisiana Purchase.
• Between 1790 and 1820, America’s population grew from four to approximately ten million people.
• In 1806 Congress approved funds for a National Road to the West.
• The Erie Canal linked Albany on the Hudson River with Buffalo on Lake Erie. Trade between
the East and West increased as more canals were built.
• Between 1816 and 1821, Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama, and Missouri became states.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
3. Regional differences grew.
• Weak political divisions allowed James Monroe to be elected president
in 1816 and 1829.
• Sectionalism, or loyalty to a region, increased as states disagreed over
domestic policies.
• The Missouri Compromise of 1820 defined whether new states could
be slave states or free states.
4. The United States tried to make peace with other
countries so that it could further grow and develop.
?
DID YOU KNOW?
The United States
paid France $15
million for the
Louisiana
Territory. The land
represented about
800,000 square
miles, so each
square mile cost
just over $18.
• In the Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817, Britain and America agreed to remove
weapons along the American-Canadian border.
• Spain and the United States signed the Adams-Onís Treaty in 1819. Spain
retained Texas, while the United States gained Florida. The United States
also received much of the Pacific Northwest.
• President Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine in December 1823. This doctrine declared that the
United States would oppose new European colonies in the Americas but would not interfere with
existing colonies.
The American Journey
19
Take-Home Review Activity 10
Search for Clues
DIRECTIONS: Write the answer to each clue on the line. Then use the clues to answer
the question at the bottom of the page. Information to help you answer each clue can
be found in Chapter 10 of your textbook.
Clue 1: Scientific discoveries that simplify work are called
.
Write the third letter of the missing word in blank 1 in the box at the bottom of the page.
Clue 2: A
is an artificial waterway.
Write the second letter of the missing word in blank 2 in the box at the bottom of the page.
Clue 3: A soldier that is tried by a military court is
.
n. a convicted criminal
o. impeached
p. court-martialed
q. acquitted
In blank 3 at the bottom of the page, write the letter of the correct answer to this multiple-choice question.
Clue 4: This is Henry Clay’s three-part plan to benefit all sections of the nation.
The statement above is the definition of which of these terms?
h. factory system
i. American System
j. sectionalism
k. census plan
Clue 5: Another word for money is
.
Write the fifth letter of the missing word in blank 5 in the box at the bottom of the page.
Clue 6: The Rush-Bagot Treaty called for removal of weapons, or
.
What vowel appears as the fourth letter in your answer? Write that letter in blank 6 in the box at
the bottom of the page.
Clue 7:
are separate compartments where water levels are raised or lowered.
What consonant appears at the beginning of your answer? Write that letter in blank 7 in the box at the
bottom of the page.
Clue 9: In the 1800s private companies built toll roads called
.
p. national roads
q. freeways
r. highways
s. turnpikes
In blank 9 at the bottom of the page, write the letter of the correct answer to this multiple-choice question.
Clue 10: The
brings manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency.
In blank 10 at the bottom of the page, write the last letter of the missing term.
QUESTION: What is the economic system of the United States?
1
20
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Clue 8: A border with no armed forces guarding it is
.
Write the fourth letter of the missing word in blank 8 in the box at the bottom of the page.
Take-Home Review Activity 11
1
THE JACKSON ERA
The spoils system
got its name from
words spoken by
Senator Learned
Marcy in which he
said, “to the victor
belong the spoils.”
Reviewing Chapter 11
JACKSONIAN ERA OF DEMOCRACY
Economics
Politics
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
• The spoils system, or practice
of replacing government
employees with a winning
candidate’s supporters,
began.
• Nominating conventions
replaced caucuses. Delegates
from states chose the party’s
presidential candidate.
?
DID YOU KNOW?
During the Andrew Jackson presidency (1829 to 1837), there
were changes in the United States’s political system, economic
status, and policy toward Native Americans.
Native American Policy
• In 1834 Congress created the
Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma) for southeastern
Native Americans.
• Starting in 1838, about 15,000
Cherokee were driven from
their homelands in the
Southeast and traveled west
along the Trail of Tears, so
named because of the sadness and defeat experienced
by the Cherokee during the
forced move.
Tariffs
Banking
• In 1828 and 1832, Congress
passed tariffs on manufacturing goods from Europe.
These high tariffs outraged
the Southern states. South
Carolina passed the
Nullification Act, asserting
that the state would not pay
the tariffs.
• South Carolina threatened to
secede from the United States
and form its own government.
• In 1833 Congress passed the
Force Bill. South Carolina
accepted the compromise tariff.
• In 1832 Jackson ordered the
withdrawal of all government deposits from the Bank
of the United States and
placed the funds in smaller
state banks.
• In 1836 the Bank of the
United States was closed.
The American Journey
21
Take-Home Review Activity 11
Unscramble the Words
DIRECTIONS: Use the information in the paragraph to help you unscramble the letters of the
missing words in each sentence below.
The Panic of 1837
The United States entered into an economic depression in 1837. The panic affected
laborers, farmers, and small businesspeople. It affected land values and prices of
goods. People lost their jobs. Many banks failed when they could not collect on
loans. States could not collect as much in taxes as they had done previously. Many
people, having less money, could not afford food or rent.
1. The Panic of 1837 caused a
2. A
people to carry on business.
3. Land sales
4. Prices
(preesdnios).
(agesorth) of gold and silver coins made it difficult for
(popderd).
(erso).
5. People could not pay their
(sanol).
7. Many
8. Many Southern
(lotclec) on their loans.
(aftecrois) in the North closed.
(ramrefs) began losing their lands.
9. Some states could not pay their bills because they could not collect as much money in
(xeast) as they needed.
22
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. Banks failed because they could not
Take-Home Review Activity 12
MANIFEST DESTINY
During the first half of the 1800s, the United States extended its borders because of the belief in Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny
refers to the idea that the United States was meant to grow into a
stronger, larger nation. The additional land and wealth helped the
nation eventually become a great power.
Reviewing Chapter 12
• Great Britain, Spain, Russia, and the United States all had claims to the
Oregon Territory. In the Adams-Onís Treaty, Spain gave up claim to
Oregon and set limits at what is now the Oregon-California border.
• Americans began moving to the Oregon country in the 1830s. Many
traveled for six months in prairie schooners loaded with all of their
belongings to settle in new land.
• Religious freedom drew settlers to the Utah
Territory. The Mormons founded Deseret, later
called Salt Lake City. Utah became a state in 1896.
a
rni
lifo
Ca
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Oregon
Territory
Utah
Territory
Texas
Mexico
• American settlers came to California between
1848 and 1849 to mine for gold. Others also came
for gold from Mexico, South America, Europe,
Australia, and China. This era was called the
California Gold Rush. Rapid economic growth
occurred in these boomtown communities.
California became a state in 1850.
The American Journey
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Some Americans
did not believe in
Manifest Destiny
and were against
the MexicanAmerican War.
The writer Henry
Thoreau was one
of these Americans.
He refused to pay
his taxes because
he did not want
his tax money
used for the war
effort. Against his
will, Thoreau’s
friends paid his
taxes so that he
would not go to
jail. His essay Civil
Disobedience
explained his
strong feelings.
• Americans began settling in the southwest.
Mexico had won its independence in 1821,
but it did not try to keep Americans
away like Spain did. Mexico encouraged
settlement to boost trade.
• Texas seceded from Mexico after fighting
the War for Independence. It declared its
independence in 1836. In 1845 Texas
became a state.
• Tensions between Mexico and the United
States increased. In 1846 Congress declared
war on Mexico over the disputed border.
The Mexican-American War lasted until the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in
1848. Mexico gave up Texas and also gave
the California and New Mexico provinces
to the United States. The United States
gave Mexico $15 million in return.
23
Take-Home Review Activity 12
Complete the Crossword Puzzle
DIRECTIONS: Use the following clues to complete the crossword puzzle.
1
3
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
14
13
15
16
24
Down
2. belief that Americans should spread out
across the continent
3. American adventurers who lived in the
Rocky Mountains
7. people who relocate to a place outside
their own country
8. to give
10. Mexicans who lived in California
13. a meeting
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Across
1. a new community built almost overnight
4. people who came to California searching
for gold in 1849
5. a huge property built by a Mexican settler
6. to take control of
9. a person given a large amount of Spanish
land and required to bring in settlers
11. a person who takes the law into his or
her own hands
12. a ranch owner
14. an official order
15. two groups of people settling in the
same place
16. Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home
Take-Home Review Activity 13
NORTH AND SOUTH
Even though a national spirit was developing in the United
States, economic and political differences were growing
between the North and South.
Reviewing Chapter 13
Industry grew. Many industrial cities
grew quickly, but working conditions
for people worsened. Workers
formed trade unions and went on
strike to improve conditions.
Immigration changed the country as
immigrants brought their ways and
customs with them. Discrimination
and prejudice existed, although slavery was illegal. Most immigrants at
this time came from Ireland and
Germany.
North
Technology changed the way Americans worked, traveled, and communicated.
1. Elias Howe invented the sewing
machine in 1846, allowing the textile
industry to mass-produce products.
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Inauguration Day
for the president
used to be held in
March, even
though elections
were in November.
Election results
were sent by mail
and could take
months to reach
Washington, D.C.,
so it was not possible to have an earlier inauguration.
3. Samuel Morse’s telegraph provided a way for
people to communicate between cities in minutes.
4. Robert Fulton’s steamboat changed water travel.
2. Cyrus McCormick patented his
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
reaper in 1834, helping farmers
harvest their crops faster.
5. Peter Cooper’s first steam locomotive in 1830
launched the railway system.
Most white Southerners were farmers. Plantation owners, however,
owned most of the enslaved workers. Enslaved African Americans
were sometimes used as household help or were trained in a skill,
but most worked as field hands on the large plantations.
Enslaved life was harsh and miserable.
Family life was almost nonexistent.
Slave codes controlled enslaved African
Americans and made their lives more
difficult. Some tried to escape to the
North using the Underground Railroad.
The Upper South produced tobacco, hemp,
wheat, and vegetables. Cotton and sugar
were the leading cash crops in the Deep
South. Large farms relied on enslaved laborers to clear land and to plant and pick crops.
Southern cities grew more slowly than in
the North or Midwest. Transportation consisted mainly of natural waterways. Roads
were poor and railways were local.
The American Journey
South
Farms and plantations increased, but
industry did not. Capital, or money
to invest in business, was lacking.
25
Take-Home Review Activity 13
Unscramble the Words
DIRECTIONS: Complete each vocabulary puzzle square using the definitions below. Then
rearrange the letters marked by a circle to answer the question at the bottom of the page.
2. an African American religious
folk song
PIRLUITAS
3. a machine that removed seeds
from cotton fibers
NTCOOGITN
4. an unfair opinion not based
on facts
PUCRIEDEJ
5. a type of sailing ship that was
the result of improvements in
the 1840s
PRPIHSPCILE
6. an extreme shortage of food
MEFNIA
7. a farmer who works land
owned by another person
METNARTARFEN
8. a plantation manager
EVROSREE
9. a person opposed to immigration because it is seen as
a threat to citizens
SAVTINIT
10. refusing to work to put
pressure on employers
TISKER
11. an apparatus that used electric
signals to transmit messages
REHLAGTEP
12. money invested in businesses
PIALACT
13. a regular expense
DOETICSXF
14. a form of a loan
TECDIR
15. an organization of workers in
the same trade intending to
improve working conditions
TUDONNERAI
16. Southern laws that controlled
enslaved people
EASDLECOV
17. a farmer who did not have
slaves
NOMYEA
What is unfair treatment of a group called?
26
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. a system of dots and dashes tapped
out to represent alphabet letters
in order to send messages
OECEOSMDR
Take-Home Review Activity 14
THE AGE OF REFORM
The Reform movement during the mid-1800s tried to
improve people’s lives. Inspired by different philosophical
and religious movements, reformers brought about
changes in religion, politics, education, art, and literature.
Reviewing Chapter 14
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Reforms
Religion
The Second Great Awakening stirred religious reform in the United States. People
attended frontier camp meetings, or
revivals, participated in missionary work,
and built new churches.
Politics
The temperance movement grew, pushing
for drinking little or no alcohol. The
American Society for the Promotion of
Temperance was formed in 1826.
Education
Horace Mann led education reform,
believing, as did President Jefferson, that
education was vital to democracy. The
movement called for required attendance
and helped students with special needs.
Art and
Literature
Artists began to develop an American
style, portraying American themes in their
paintings, books, and poems.
The American Journey
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Harriet Tubman
escaped from
slavery. She made
19 more trips to
help more than
three hundred
people, including
her parents, escape
from slavery on the
Underground
Railroad.
27
Take-Home Review Activity 14
Search for Hidden Words
DIRECTIONS: How many words can you find? Look for the words listed below that
may appear horizontally, vertically, diagonally, or spelled forwards or backwards.
Circle as many as you can find.
abolitionist
conductors
normal school
transcendentalist
M
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compulsory
revival
temperance
utopia
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Some of the letters that remain uncircled after the word search create a secret message. Starting at the top
left corner and reading across, write the uncircled letters in the blanks below to find the secret message.
.
28
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A
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coeducation
stations
suffrage
Underground Railroad
Take-Home Review Activity 15
ROAD TO CIVIL WAR
Social, political, and economic differences grew
between the North and South. The number of
slave states and free states in the Senate was a
central issue linked to the issue of admitting new
states as slave states or free states. Eleven states
permitted slavery, and 11 did not in 1819.
Reviewing Chapter 15
1820
The Missouri Compromise passes,
prohibiting slavery in any Louisiana
Purchase territory north of the 36°30 N
latitude except Missouri. This keeps an
even balance of slave states and free states
in the Senate.
1844
James Polk is elected president.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1849
California applies for statehood as a free
state. The nation has 15 free and 15 slave
states at the time, so this issue creates
tension.
1850
The Compromise of 1850 resolves the
issue. The results:
• California becomes a free state.
• There is no restriction on slavery in the
New Mexico Territory.
• The New Mexico-Texas border dispute
favors New Mexico.
• Slave trading ends in Washington,
D.C., but people can still have enslaved
laborers.
• The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 passes. It
requires all citizens to help capture runaways, or fugitive enslaved people.
The American Journey
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Jefferson Davis served as
secretary of war for the United
States from 1853 to 1857.
During that time, he helped
create a strong army and navy.
Davis was a Mississippi senator
when he was elected president
of the Confederate States of
America in 1861.
1854
The Kansas-Nebraska Act passes. This creates the
territories of Kansas and Nebraska in the region
north of 36°30 N latitude. It gives both areas the
right of popular sovereignty. This bill sparks
further conflict over slavery.
1856
Proslavery and antislavery factions in Kansas
begin fighting in what newspapers call “Bleeding
Kansas” and the “Civil War in Kansas.”
1857
Two days after Buchanan takes office, the
Supreme Count hands down the Dred Scott
Decision. It rules that Dred Scott could not sue for
freedom because Scott was a slave, and therefore
property, not a citizen. It also rules that only
states, not Congress, can prohibit slavery. This
means that both the Missouri Compromise and
popular sovereignty, or Congress’s rule allowing
territories to vote whether or not to allow slavery,
are unconstitutional.
1860
Abraham Lincoln is elected president.
1861
The Civil War begins on April 12 when
Confederate troops attack Fort Sumter.
29
Take-Home Review Activity 15
Complete the Crossword Puzzle
DIRECTIONS: Use the following clues to complete the crossword puzzle.
1
2
3
4
Across
3. to leave
7. withdrawal from the Union
10. a storage place for weapons and
ammunition
11. a person who dies for a great
cause
Down
1. the idea that states choose to
enter the Union and can also
choose to leave it
2. armed groups that cross a border
to vote in another state’s election
4. an exaggerated loyalty to a
particular region of the country
5. to not cast votes
6. allowing people to decide
8. a conflict between citizens of the
same country
9. a runaway
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
30
The American Journey
Take-Home Review Activity 16
THE CIVIL WAR
The Civil War was fought between a divided
United States. The South fought to defend its
territory and maintain its separation. The
North wanted to bring the Southern states
back into the Union and end slavery. The
border states, Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland,
and Delaware, allowed slavery but remained
in the Union. People of these states were
divided over which side to support.
Reviewing Chapter 16
?
DID YOU KNOW?
The destruction of the Civil War
caused economic setbacks throughout
the country, especially in the South.
Because of these economic problems,
counterfeiting, or making fake currency and trying to spend it, became a
problem. The Secret Service, part of
the United States Department of the
Treasury, was created in 1865 to fight
counterfeiting. The Secret Service did
not begin protecting the presidents
until 1901, after President William
McKinley was assassinated.
Important Civil War Battles
The first battle of the war was the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. The Union and Confederate armies met
at Manassas Junction near a small river called Bull Run. The Union was defeated.
In 1862 the Union narrowly defeated the Confederacy at the Battle of Shiloh. A few weeks later, the Union
naval forces captured New Orleans, the South’s largest city.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The Second Battle of Bull Run ended in a Confederate victory. Lee’s army was now only 20 miles from
Washington, D.C.
In 1862 the armies fought in the single bloodiest day of the war at the Battle of Antietam. After the Union
victory at Antietam, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation that freed enslaved African
Americans held in Confederate states. The effect of the Proclamation was to encourage enslaved African
Americans to flee from their slaveholders.
The turning points of the war were the Battle of Gettysburg and the Battle of Vicksburg, which were fought at
the same time. The Confederates were defeated in both battles. With the surrender at Vicksburg, the Union now
controlled the Mississippi River. Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana were cut off from the rest of the South.
In 1864 and 1865, Sherman and Grant led Union troops to victories in Atlanta, Savannah, and Richmond. Grant
pushed south and Sherman pushed north in order to surround Lee’s army between their two armies.
On April 8, 1865, General Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, Virginia. The war ended.
The American Journey
31
Take-Home Review Activity 16
Search for Clues
DIRECTIONS: Write the answer to each clue on the line. Then use the clues to answer
the question at the bottom of the page. Information to help you answer each clue can
be found in Chapter 16 of your textbook.
Clue 1: The name of the Confederate capital was
.
Write the second letter of the missing word in blank 1 in the box at the bottom of the page.
Clue 2: The
states allowed slavery but were still loyal to the Union.
Write the third letter of the missing word in blank 2 in the box at the bottom of the page.
Clue 3: The term
refers to the name given to Southern soldiers.
m. blockade runners
n. Yankees
o. Rebels
p. greenbacks
In blank 3 at the bottom of the page, write the letter of the correct answer to this
multiple-choice question.
Clue 4: “To set up a strong position” is the definition of which of these terms?
blockade
entrenched
border state
bounties
Write the second letter of the correct term in blank 4 at the bottom of the page.
Clue 5: George McClellan headed the Union army of the East called the Army of the
Write the last letter of the missing word in blank 5 in the box at the bottom of the page.
.
Clue 6: David Farragut captured New
.
Write the third letter of the missing word in blank 6 in the box at the bottom of the page.
Clue 8: The
required men between the ages of 18 and 35
to serve in the Confederate army.
Write the first letter of the missing word in blank 8 in the box at the bottom of the page.
Clue 9: The Gettysburg
helped Americans focus on why the Civil War was being fought.
q. battle
r. Cemetery
s. Address
t. Debate
In blank 9 at the bottom of the page, write the letter of the correct answer to this
multiple-choice question.
QUESTION: What were ships such as the Monitor and the Merrimack called?
1
32
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Clue 7: Before the Battle of
, Union soldiers found Lee’s plans
for his army wrapped around three cigars.
Write the first letter of the missing word in blank 7 in the box at the bottom of the page.
Take-Home Review Activity 17
RECONSTRUCTION AND
ITS AFTERMATH
?
DID YOU KNOW?
After the Civil War,
cotton, tobacco, and
rice continued to be
important Southern
crops. However,
new crops began to
be grown by
Southern farmers:
corn, wheat, fruits,
pecans, and
peanuts.
Reconstruction was the difficult period after the Civil
War when the country started to rebuild. The South
struggled to repair its destroyed economy. A kind of
farmwork that became common was sharecropping,
in which a person works a piece of land owned by
another, is given supplies by the landowner, farms the
land, and is given a part of the profit from the
landowner. Many freed African Americans did not
have the money or the right to buy their own land, so
they became sharecroppers.
Reviewing Chapter 17
The Sharecropping Cycle
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1. The sharecropper rents a piece of
land from the landowner. This rent
includes a shack, seeds, and farming
tools. The sharecropper promises to
give the landowner a percentage of
the crops.
5. Another portion of the crop is
sold to pay rent to the
landowner for the next season.
4. Some of the remaining crops
feed the sharecropper’s family.
Rarely, there are enough crops to
sell for a profit.
The American Journey
2. The sharecropper plants
and harvests the crops.
3. The sharecropper gives the
landowner the amount of
crops agreed upon.
33
Take-Home Review Activity 17
Complete the Crossword Puzzle
DIRECTIONS: Use the following clues to complete the crossword puzzle.
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
9
8
10
11
12
13
14
15
17
34
18
19
Down
1. period of rebuilding the United States
following the Civil War
2. formerly enslaved people
4. including whites and African Americans
6. a test required of some Southern voters
intended to prevent African Americans from
voting
7. Northern whites who moved to the South
during Reconstruction to become Republican
leaders
9. to formally charge a person with wrongdoing
10. dishonest or illegal actions
12. crops that can be sold for money
19. a political pardon
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Across
3. a group formed to achieve a specific goal
5. a series of laws passed by Southern state legislatures after the Civil War
8. to defeat
11. laws that allowed individuals who did not
pass literacy tests to vote if their fathers or
grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction
13. name given to Southern whites who supported
Republican policy throughout Reconstruction
14. renting land, working it, then sharing profits
with the landowner
15. an angry mob hanging someone
16. extreme
17. come together again
18. a fee people had to pay before voting
16
Take-Home Review Activity 18
THE WESTERN FRONTIER
Settlers moving to the Western United
States developed farms, ranches, and the
mining industry. This mass settlement was
made possible by a new transcontinental
railway system. The development of the
West greatly affected the nation and
forever changed the Native Americans’
way of life.
Reviewing Chapter 18
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Horses changed the Native Americans’
lives. Horses helped Native Americans do
work, hunt buffalo, and make long trips.
The Spanish first brought horses to the
Americas. Over the years, horses that
ran away from their Spanish owners
became wild and traveled in herds
across the Great Plains. The Wichita are
the first Native Americans known to
have caught and trained some of these
wild horses.
How the West Developed
Transcontinental Railway
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Railways provided rapid transport for goods, people, and supplies. The government, through subsidies and land
grants, helped the railroad companies grow. The first transcontinental railway was completed on May 10, 1869.
Promontory Point was the place where the eastern part of the railway joined the western part. The railways
encouraged and supported the huge population growth of the West.
Farming
Ranching
Mining
Thousands of farmers
settled the Great Plains
when Congress passed the
Homestead Act of 1862,
giving free land to settlers
who lived on the land for
five years.
From the mid-1860s until the mid-1880s,
the value of cattle rose as railroads
transported longhorns to the North and
the East for beef. Ranchers began driving
cattle, herding them to towns near railroads. These cowtowns became important
railroad stations.
Gold and silver attracted
thousands of settlers to the
West. The mining industry
grew as more people dug for
ore from the underground
lodes.
A Different Life for Native Americans
Native Americans from the Plains clashed with the new settlers. The Native Americans wanted to preserve
their nomadic life, but the government wanted them to become farmers.
In 1868 the government recommended moving Native Americans to a few large reservations. At first many
Native Americans accepted this policy. But resistance soon grew, and fighting broke out, lasting until 1890.
In 1887 Congress, with the Dawes Act, divided up reservations and gave each Native American a plot of land
to farm, changing the Native American way of life forever.
The American Journey
35
Take-Home Review Activity 18
Unscramble the Letters
DIRECTIONS: Complete each sentence by filling in the blanks using the words below.
Then rearrange the letters marked by to answer the question.
railroads
supplies
grants
1.
Promontory Point
track
east
west
goods
connected the East and the West.
2. Trains shipped
to markets.
3. Miners and farmers received their
from the railway.
4. By 1890 the United States had more than 190,000 miles of
5. The federal government gave land
which to lay track.
.
so companies received free public land on
6. The Central Pacific Company hired about 10,000 Chinese laborers to work on tracks leading
from Sacramento, California.
7. The Union Pacific Company used mainly Irish and African American workers to lay tracks leading
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
from Omaha, Nebraska.
8. The two sets of track met to complete the transcontinental railway at
.
QUESTION:
How did the railroad companies change how people
measured time?
ANSWER:
They divided the country into four
36
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The American Journey
Take-Home Review Activity 19
By 1890 the United States had become a great
industrial power. The railroad, inventions,
transportation and communication, and big
business promoted this growth.
Reviewing Chapter 19
Railways
Railways changed the country and became the
nation’s largest industry. Railways linked the
country and opened new territories for settlement. They delivered raw materials to factories
and goods to markets. They created jobs in coal
mines, railroad-car manufacturers, construction
companies, and the steel industry.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Industrial
Growth
?
DID YOU KNOW?
THE GROWTH OF INDUSTRY
John D. Rockefeller grew very rich
heading the Standard Oil Company.
His philanthropies, or charitable
foundations, were equivalent to
some $500 million. He founded
Rockefeller University, the Rockefeller
Foundation, and the University of
Chicago. Rockefeller’s son, John Jr.,
took over the business in 1911 and
continued his father’s giving,
donating land for the United Nations
in New York City and restoring
colonial Williamsburg in Virginia.
Corporations
Manufacturers began to merge into large corporations. Companies that supported industry, such as
steel and oil companies, became larger. Some companies formed trusts, or groups of companies managed by the same board of directors. Monopolies,
or single producers that have total control of industries, began to form. By 1900 one-third of United
States manufacturing was controlled by only
1 percent of corporations. The Sherman Antitrust Act
was soon passed to restrict trusts and monopolies.
New Inventions
Inventions also changed the country. For
example:
Labor Unions
Labor unions organized to demand better pay
and working conditions. The American
Federation of Labor (AFL), led by Samuel
Gompers, formed in 1881 to represent skilled
labor. The Knights of Labor formed in 1869 and
mostly recruited unskilled workers. Labor
unions became powerful and changed the
workplace.
The American Journey
• In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the
telephone. In 1877 he formed Bell Telephone
Company.
• In 1879 Thomas Edison developed the first
lightbulb and then designed power plants to
produce electric power.
• In 1896 Henry Ford build the first automobile
using assembly lines to mass-produce cars.
• In 1903 the Wright brothers flew the first
motorized plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
37
Take-Home Review Activity 19
Search for Hidden Words
DIRECTIONS: How many words can you find? Look for the words listed below that
may appear horizontally, vertically, diagonally, or spelled forwards or backwards.
Circle as many as you can find.
sweatshop
dividend
philanthropy
trust
corporation
consolidation
injunction
merger
stock
monopoly
standard gauge
mass production
rebate
trade union
pool
strikebreaker
shareholder
assembly line
N
N
P
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E
G
R
E
M
T
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N
O
H
D
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L
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O
P
R
H
G
A
N
O
I
I
I
L
N
B
R
O
A
U
A
U
D
J
N
B
T
L
N
A
E
A
R
O
S
R
A
C
U
O
N
A
A
Y
U
S
D
T
C
T
E
G
O
N
P
O
D
N
N
L
E
T
I
E
R
H
D
R
C
O
O
I
T
L
L
B
D
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V
D
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P
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L
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H
H
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S
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R
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A
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A
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R
A
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F
F
I
O
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C
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O
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F
A
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Y
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C
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W
E
A
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O
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L
F
Q
R
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K
A
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R
B
E
K
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S
Some of the letters that remain uncircled after the word search create a secret message. Starting at the top
left corner and reading across, write the uncircled letters in the blanks below to find the secret message.
’
38
.
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
E
Take-Home Review Activity 20
?
TOWARD AN URBAN AMERICA DID YOU KNOW?
The United States population became more
urban after the Civil War. Although poverty,
crime, and inadequate housing emerged,
people living in the cities enjoyed public parks,
libraries, and the delivery of daily newspapers.
Reviewing Chapter 20
Immigration and Industry
Many people from other countries came to
America looking for job opportunities between
about 1880 and 1910. Most immigrants arrived
in New York City and San Francisco.
France gave the Statue of Liberty
to the United States in 1886 to
celebrate the friendship between
the two countries. Sculptor
Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was
commissioned to design the statue.
Upon its completion, the statue was
taken apart, shipped to the United
States, and reassembled. The poem
by Emma Lazarus inscribed at the
base of the statue welcomes people
to the United States.
Economic Differences
Despite some anti-immigrant sentiment and
resulting laws designed to limit immigration,
many Americans supported immigration. New
industrial workers were essential for economic
growth and immigrants flooded the workforces
of many industries.
Economic differences began to increase. The
poor lived in run-down city neighborhoods.
Middle-class professionals and office workers
began moving to areas outside the center of
the city. The wealthy lived in mansions or
huge estates in the suburbs. These extended
the boundaries of many cities.
New Entertainment Forms
New Buildings and Transportation
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The look of cities began to change.
Elevators made taller buildings possible.
The first skyscraper, a 10-story building,
was built in Chicago in 1884. Cities also
added parks, streetcars, and bridges.
Characteristics
of Modern
City Life
The work of United States musicians and artists took on a more
American style. Jazz music
emerged. Spectator sports, vaudeville shows, and movies filled
leisure time. In these ways, cities
began to offer an attractive, entertaining lifestyle to city dwellers.
New Social Programs
New Schools and Colleges
New Libraries and Media
The Morrill Act in 1862 gave states
federal land to start colleges. Some
women’s colleges—Vassar, Smith,
Wellesley, and Bryn Mawr-—were
started, and Howard University in
Washington, D.C., was founded.
In 1881 Booker T. Washington
established Tuskegee Institute in
Alabama. These learning centers
attracted more people to the cities.
Public libraries opened and newspapers were established. Many
writers of the late 1880s and early
1900s wrote about new subjects.
Some, called realists, described the
lives of people of the time. Others,
called regionalists, wrote about a
region of the country. Cities
became information centers,
attracting more people into them.
The American Journey
The Salvation Army, started in
1879, fed the urban hungry and
provided shelters for the homeless. Settlement houses provided medical care, child-care
classes, and libraries. These
new social programs resulted
from the new needs of growing
cities to reduce overcrowding,
health problems, and crime.
The programs, in turn, supported and encouraged the
growing urban population.
39
Take-Home Review Activity 20
Complete the Crossword Puzzle
DIRECTIONS: Use the following clues to
complete the crossword puzzle.
Across
3. a poor, run-down part of a city
7. the attempt to show real people’s
lives
9. the attempt to show real people’s
lives in one place only
11. low-paying, dark, uncomfortable
clothing workshop
13. a type of music that is an offshoot
of jazz
14. the time period in America when
great wealth contrasted with
terrible poverty
1
2
3
4
6
5
7
8
10
9
11
13
12
40
14
15
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Down
1. a low-rent, run-down apartment building in a
slum
2. sensational style of newspaper writing
4. cheap, cramped, noisy quarters on the lower
deck of a ship
5. an urban house set up to provide services to
a poor community
6. to become part of
8. a variety show with dancing, singing,
comedy, and magic
10. a residential area outside of a city
12. to leave one’s homeland
15. minorities with different languages and/or
customs than the majority
The American Journey
Take-Home Review Activity 21
PROGRESSIVE REFORMS
Reformers, or progressives, focused on making
positive changes. Reforms included attempts to
change government, business, women’s rights,
conservation, alcohol consumption, and
discrimination against ethnic groups.
Reviewing Chapter 21
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Nellie Taft, president Taft’s wife,
changed the look of Washington,
D.C. She loved the cherry blossom
tree of Japan and brought some of
these trees back with her after she
visited the country. The trees were
planted along the Potomac River.
Even today, the people of
Washington, D.C., celebrate the
beauty of these trees with the
Cherry Blossom Festival.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Examples of Progressive Reforms
Government
• To fight against the corruption of political machines and party bosses in the cities, reformers
organized and fought for cities to set up commissions or city managers to govern.
• Progressives backed reforms that increased people’s control of the government. The
Oregon System called for a direct primary election, the initiative, the referendum, and the
recall. In 1912 the Seventeenth Amendment provided for direct election of senators.
• Presidents Hayes and Garfield tried to reform the civil service. By 1833 the Civil Service
Commission was established to control the hiring of federal employees.
Business
• In 1887 Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act to control pricing on the railroads,
which called for a commission to supervise the railroad industry. To control business
trusts and monopolies, Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890.
• Theodore Roosevelt became known as the “trustbuster,” taking legal action against the
beef, tobacco, and oil trusts. His “square deal” in 1904 called for governmental regulation
of business. The Meat Inspection and the Pure Food and Drug Acts were passed.
• In 1913 taxes were lowered, and the Federal Reserve Act to regulate the banking industry
passed. In 1914 Congress established the Federal Trade Commission to investigate
corporations for unfair trade practices.
Women’s rights • In 1896 the National Association of Colored Women was founded.
• The Women’s Trade Union League formed in 1903.
• In 1920 the Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote.
Prohibition
A crusade against alcohol led to passage of the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919, making it
illegal to make, transport, or sell alcohol in the United States.
Conservation
In 1905 Theodore Roosevelt established the United States Forest Service, which set aside
millions of acres of national forests and created the nation’s first wildlife sanctuaries.
Discrimination • In 1881 Booker T. Washington, a formerly enslaved African American, founded the
Tuskegee Institute. The Institute taught African Americans farming and industrial skills.
• In 1909 African American W.E.B. Du Bois helped form the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), which is still a powerful political force today.
• In 1910 Native American leaders began to work together to form the Society of American
Indians. The Society’s goal was to improve the lives of Native Americans and to maintain
their different cultures.
The American Journey
41
Take-Home Review Activity 21
Unscramble the Letters
DIRECTIONS: Ten words from Chapter 21 are scrambled below. Read each clue to help
you unscramble the word and write the word in the box. Then unscramble the circled
letters to answer the question.
1. the passing of laws that made
making and selling alcohol
illegal
HITBIORONPI
2. settling disputes by agreeing to
accept the decision of an
impartial outsider
RATTARBINIO
3. an election during which voters
choose candidates for a
larger election
RYPMIAR
4. a poor Mexican American
neighborhood
RIORAB
5. a person who fought for
women’s right to vote
URIGFAFSTS
7. President Theodore
Roosevelt’s nickname
TESBUTRUSRT
8. a combination of companies
RUTST
9. the protection and preservation
of natural resources
VOATINSOECRN
10. those in power rewarding
supporters with jobs and
favors
PAOTAGNER
Question: Which amendment to the Constitution provided for the direct election of senators by voters?
E 42
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. unequal treatment because of
race, religion, ethnicity,
gender, or birthplace
MISDIINANCIORT
Take-Home Review Activity 22
OVERSEAS EXPANSION
?
DID YOU KNOW?
The United States moved away from its policy
of isolationism, or noninvolvement in world
affairs. It began to trade more with other
countries and to try to politically influence
those countries. For these reasons, the late
1800s and early 1900s were called the “age of
imperialism,” a time when powerful Western
countries created large empires by controlling
weaker regions.
Reviewing Chapter 22
Gigantic locks make
it possible for large
ships to pass through
the Panama Canal. The
locks, elevator-like
structures with gates
at each end, raise and
lower ships to different
water levels as they
pass through the canal.
Two ships can pass in
opposite directions.
Expansion of United States Influence and Power, 1865–1917
U.S.
interests
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The U.S. Navy grew
larger starting in 1883.
The U.S. gained territory:
• Alaska, 1867
• Midway islands, 1867
• Hawaii, 1900
• Philippines, 1901
U.S. trade began to reach farther:
• The Treaty of Kanagawa started trade between the
United States and Japan in 1854.
• Pacific island gains helped U.S. influence and trade
with China.
U.S. influence in Latin America grew:
• The Platt Amendment gave Cubans independence. The U.S. got control
of a naval base at Guantanamo Bay, and the right to interfere if the Cuban
government became unstable.
• In 1917 the Jones Act granted citizenship to Puerto Ricans, not independence.
Instead, the Act made Puerto Rico a territory of the U.S.
• A treaty with Panama gave the U.S. a 10-mile strip of land across Panama for
$10 million. On this strip, the U.S. built the Panama Canal, finished in 1914.
• Under the Roosevelt Corollary, the U.S. claimed the right to interfere in the affairs
of Latin American nations when they appeared unstable.
The American Journey
43
Take-Home Review Activity 22
Identify Locations
DIRECTIONS: Answer each of the following questions by writing the question’s number
on the correct spot on the world map below.
1. The Treaty of Kanagawa began a trade relationship between the United States and what country?
2. Which northern territory was purchased by the United States in 1867?
3. Which Central American nation, formerly part of Colombia, now controls the Panama Canal since the
United States’s 99-year lease ran out?
4. Which Pacific islands were acquired in 1867 as United States territories?
5. Which Pacific region became a territory of the United States in 1900 and eventually became a state?
6. Which Caribbean island is not part of the United States, but is home to a United States naval base at
Guantanamo Bay?
7. Which Latin American island is still a United States territory, and the people are American citizens?
8. When the United States gained islands in the Pacific in the late 1800s, this helped the United States
trade with what country?
N
RUSSIA
W
E
Alaska
S
NORTH
AMERICA
ASIA
PACIFIC
OCEAN
Midway Islands
Wake I.
Philippines
Guam
Hawaiian Islands
Johnston I.
Kingman Reef
Howland I.
Palmyra I.
Baker I.
Jarvis I.
American
Samoa
Cuba
Puerto
Rico
Panama
SOUTH
AMERICA
AUSTRALIA
44
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
CHINA
UNITED STATES
JAPAN
Take-Home Review Activity 23
WORLD WAR I
Although World War I began among European powers, the United States entered it in 1917. The end of
the war brought great change, and the United States
emerged as one of the great world powers.
Reviewing Chapter 23
World War I starts in Europe when Austria-Hungary
declares war on Serbia in July 1914.
Tension had grown because of nationalism, imperialism,
military buildup, and the alliance system. The two sides in
the war were the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.
The Allied Powers, or Allies:
•
•
•
•
Great Britain
France
Russia
Japan and Italy (joined later)
The Central Powers:
• Germany
• Austro-Hungary
• the Ottoman Empire
?
DID YOU KNOW?
During 1918 there was
an outbreak of influenza.
The flu originated from
a Norwegian passenger ship
docked in New York City’s
harbor and spread throughout the United States and
Europe. More than 27 million
people died worldwide.
The war is difficult for both soldiers in
Europe and Americans at home.
• Millions of men had to leave their jobs to
serve in the armed forces.
• Immigration from Europe almost stopped.
• The war cost the United States about $32
million.
The war causes conflict at home. The
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
America sends support to the Allies after trying to
remain neutral. America became involved early in the
war by
• trading with the Allies
• loaning the Allies money to help pay for their war
efforts
The United States declares war against Germany in
April 1917. President Wilson was convinced that the
United States could no longer remain neutral for several reasons, including:
• the revolution in Russia
• the sinking of three American merchant ships by
German U-boats
In June American troops land in France. The Allies
desperately needed these American troops in the war.
They helped turn the war around.
The American Journey
Committee on Public Information distributed
pamphlets and books to persuade Americans
that the war represented a battle for freedom
and democracy.
The German government asks President
Wilson for an armistice, or agreement to
end the fighting, in October 1918. The
armistice went into effect in November 1918.
Germany agreed to withdraw all land forces
west of the Rhine River, to withdraw its fleet
to the Baltic Sea, and to surrender equipment.
Europe is in ruins and looks to the United
States to help build a better postwar
world. Wilson’s Fourteen Points set out
the requirements for peace. The Treaty of
Versailles was signed in June 1919, but was
rejected by the Senate. The United States
signed separate peace treaties with each of
the Central Powers.
45
Take-Home Review Activity 23
Search for Hidden Words
DIRECTIONS: How many words can you find? Look for the words listed below that
may appear horizontally, vertically, diagonally, or spelled forwards or backwards.
Circle as many as you can find.
ethnic group
socialist
front
Fourteen Points
convoy
balance of power
nationalism
alliance system
sabotage
reparations
pacifist
mobilization
entente
propaganda
armistice
autocracy
espionage
League of Nations
dissent
F
T
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A
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I
O
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A
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M
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H
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R
A
S
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A
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P
T
U
W
I
O
E
O
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B
L
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D
I
A
U
T
R
W
T
V
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A
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T
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A
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P
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U
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A
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O
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A
Z
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I
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S
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A
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T
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F
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D
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R
O
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B
C
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S
C
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P
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F
H
E
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W
A
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V
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N
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T
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A
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U
S
S
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W
O
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F
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A
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A
B
Some of the letters that remain uncircled after the word search is complete create a secret message.
Starting at the top left corner and reading across, write the uncircled letters in the blanks below to find
the secret message.
.
46
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A
Take-Home Review Activity 24
TURBULENT DECADES
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Movies with sound were
introduced in 1927. About
that time, filmmakers also
made the move from
black and white to color.
In 1932 a coloring process,
Technicolor, was developed
and used by all the movie
studios.
During the 1920s, many Americans prospered.
Radio, movies, and the automobile changed
people’s lifestyles. Racial and labor unrest as
well as prejudice towards foreigners also
affected American society.
Reviewing Chapter 24
The 1920s
Political Differences
Desire for Normalcy
Time of Unrest
• President Warren G. Harding promised a “return to
normalcy,” an era of isolation and calm stability
after the Progressive Era and World War I.
• Calvin Coolidge became president after Harding
died. Coolidge reestablished honesty in government,
supported businesses, and was reelected in 1924. He
believed in the policies of isolationism and peace.
• The Ohio Gang scandal and the Tea Pot Dome scandal were problems for the Harding administration.
• During the Red Scare, the government went
after “Reds” (Communists) and other suspicious
groups. Some aliens were forced out of the United
States.
• The labor movement led to much dissatisfaction in
the workplace. This unrest led to strikes and, at
times, violence.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Economic Differences
The Booming Economy
Recession and Prohibition
• The stock market soared. The GNP reached $70
billion in 1922 and $100 billion in 1929. Installment
buying boosted consumer spending.
• The economy steadily grew after the post-war recession. Technology and electricity powered industry.
The auto industry influenced other growing industries such as the steel, rubber, and glass industries.
• Immediately after World War I, the economy entered
a recession, or downturn, for about two years.
• The Eighteenth Amendment established
Prohibition, or total ban on manufacture, sale, and
transportation of liquor.
• Prohibition contributed to the rise of organized
crime as criminals began to deal in alcohol.
Cultural Differences
The Roaring Twenties
Clashing Cultures
• Women won the right to vote. More women felt
that working outside the home was acceptable.
• Motion pictures became very popular. The radio
brought entertainment into people’s homes. The
happy, dancing flapper image blossomed.
• The Harlem Renaissance instilled an interest and
pride for the culture of African Americans.
• Nativism, the belief that native-born Americans
are better than foreigners, revived the Ku Klux
Klan and its campaign of racial hatred.
• Suspicion of other cultures caused Congress to
pass quota laws to limit immigration.
• The clash of cultures became material for many
writers and artists of the 1920s.
The American Journey
47
Take-Home Review Activity 24
Complete the Crossword Puzzle
DIRECTIONS: Use the following clues to complete the crossword puzzle.
1
Across
8. a total ban on the making, sale, and
transportation of liquor in the United States
10. the amount of work each worker can do
11. to rent
12. the scientific theory that humans and animals
evolved over vast time periods
14. an arrangement that limits the number of
immigrants from each country
15. an economic downturn
16. to expel from a country
2
3
4
5
6
8
7
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
16
Down
1. buying goods by paying small, regular amounts over time
2. forms of communication that reaches millions of people
3. a person who believes there should be no government
4. a citizen of a country who chooses to live in another country
5. an economic system based on private property and free
enterprise
6. the idea that a country should stay out of international
disagreements
7. the total value of all goods and services produced by a country
9. the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners
13. a carefree, young woman of the 1920s who represented liberation
48
The American Journey
Take-Home Review Activity 25
THE DEPRESSION AND FDR
The prosperous 1920s ended with the worst economic
depression in America’s history. President Franklin
Roosevelt’s New Deal was a set of programs and
reforms aimed at helping the country recover from
the Depression that lasted into the 1930s. Some of
the programs still exist today.
Reviewing Chapter 25
The Great Depression
In 1929 the stock market crashed.
Shrinking farm income and lagging sales in goods
and services caused a decline in the automobile and
construction industries.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
A credit crisis developed. People bought so much
on credit that they could not pay the resulting large
debts.
During the 1930s, drought and storms hit the Dust
Bowl states of Kansas, Oklahoma, northern Texas,
and eastern Colorado and New Mexico. Life became
difficult for most Americans. Banks and businesses
closed. Millions of people lost their jobs, so families
had to live on less income.
Minority groups were hit hard. More than half of
African Americans in the South had no jobs and
continued to fight against prejudice. Many Mexican
Americans lost their jobs and returned to Mexico,
often involuntarily.
President Hoover thought the crisis was only
temporary. Many people blamed him for starting
the Depression. He authorized federal spending for
public works in 1931 and created the RFC in 1932.
He hoped these steps would improve the economy.
The American Journey
?
DID YOU KNOW?
President Franklin D.
Roosevelt and First
Lady Eleanor Roosevelt
were distant cousins.
President Theodore
Roosevelt was
Eleanor’s uncle and
Franklin’s cousin.
Franklin D. Roosevelt was reelected in 1936
because of improvements in the economy. There
was still much economic progress to be made. In
the late 1930s, however, world conflicts caused
Americans to focus on foreign affairs.
The Second New Deal was a new set of programs
and reforms launched in 1935. Some of its programs included:
• the WPA that created jobs between 1935 and
1941
• the National Labor Relations Act that guaranteed workers the right to form unions
• the FLSA that established a minimum wage
• the SSA that created a tax on workers and
employers to help the retired and the
unemployed.
Roosevelt’s first Hundred Days in office restored
some confidence. His New Deal laws affected
banking, the stock market, industry, agriculture,
public works, relief for the poor, and conservation
of resources. Although they provided some relief,
these New Deal programs did not end the
Depression.
In 1932 the next president, Franklin D. Roosevelt,
promised immediate action to solve the economic
crisis.
49
Take-Home Review Activity 25
Match the Initials
DIRECTIONS: Below is a list of New Deal programs and their initials. Underneath this
list are descriptions of these programs.
In each description, there are underlined letters. Put these letters in the correct order to
match each description with the correct program’s initials. Write the initials in the
blanks.
Civilian Conservation Corps
Fair Labor Standards Act
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Securities and Exchange Commission
Works Progress Act
National Industrial Recovery Act
Tennessee Valley Authority
Social Security Act
Emergency Banking Relief Act
National Labor Relations Act
CCC
FLSA
FDIC
SEC
WPA
NIRA
TVA
SSA
EBRA
NLRA
1. the first program passed after Roosevelt took office that set up a system to reorganize banks
2. provided jobs for young men such as planting trees, building bridges and parks, and setting up flood
control projects
3. an experiment in regional planning to control flooding, promote conservation and development, and
bring electricity into rural areas
5. insured savings accounts in banks approved by the federal government
6. helped keep workers employed by building or repairing airports, public buildings, bridges,
and roads
7. regulated the sale of stocks and bonds
8. created a tax on workers and employers to help retired people and the unemployed
9. also called the Wagner Act, guaranteed workers the right to form unions to bargain collectively with
employers
10. banned child labor and set minimum wages and maximum hours for all business engaged in interstate
commerce
50
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. helped to boost the economy by helping business regulate itself
Take-Home Review Activity 26
?
DID YOU KNOW?
WORLD WAR II
Oskar Schindler helped
Jews and other minorities
during the war. A German
factory owner, he was
given permission by the
Nazis to use Jews as
factory workers. Schindler
was able to save about
1,000 people from being
killed by the Nazis.
World War II resulted in the deaths of more
than 40 million people. When it was over, the
United States emerged as a strong economic
and military world power.
Reviewing Chapter 26
Military Action During World War II
Dictators Gained Power
Dictators rose in power and threatened world peace. The United States wanted to stay neutral.
• Adolf Hitler became the German chancellor in 1933. His Nazi Party ended democracy there and
established a totalitarian state.
• Benito Mussolini ruled Italy and made facism popular.
• Military leaders rose to power in Japan.
• Joseph Stalin took charge of the Soviet Union.
World War II Began
The war began in Europe in September 1939, when Germany invaded Poland. Two days later, Great Britain and
France declared war on Germany.
The Major Axis Powers Were:
The Major Allied Powers Were:
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union
Germany, Italy, and Japan
The United States Joined the War
After the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941, the United States could no longer stay
neutral. The United States joined the Allies in Europe and in the Pacific to defeat the Axis Powers.
The War in Europe
The Allied Powers sought to stop Hitler. They
attacked Egypt to protect the Suez Canal from
German capture. The Allies also invaded Italy,
launched an air war on Germany, and continued to
free areas that had been controlled by Germany. The
turning point was the attack on Leningrad in 1943,
when the German army lost the battle.
Germany, however, continued to fight. The Soviets
pushed them out of Eastern Europe and British and
American troops moved across France to the
German border. Hitler committed suicide, and
Germany surrendered in 1945.
The American Journey
The War in the Pacific
America and Japan fought in several battles in the
Pacific. The United States had its first major victory
over Japan in the Battle of Midway. The Americans
began a strategy of island hopping by capturing key
islands, making them bases, then hopping to the
next closest island, moving closer and closer to
Japan.
Japan refused to surrender and continued to fight.
As a result, President Truman ordered the use of an
atomic bomb on Hiroshima and a second bomb on
Nagasaki three days later. The Japanese surrendered
on August 15, 1945.
51
Take-Home Review Activity 26
Unscramble the Letters
DIRECTIONS: Fifteen words from Chapter 26 are scrambled below. Read each clue to
help you unscramble the letters and write the word on the line.
1. a strategy used by the United States
to go on the defensive against Japan’s attacks
and capture key islands in the Pacific
DASLIN GPNOIHP
2. hatred of Jews
MAMS-ITNITIES
3. the Nazi campaign to destroy Jews
TOLSOUCAH
4. Germany’s description of a “lightning war”
offensive against Poland in 1939
KIGLITRZEB
5. a detention center for prisoners
NITNEEMTRN PAMC
6. a leader who controls a nation by force
CITDARTO
7. to limit the goods and services people
can buy
NOITRA
8. the giving up of military weapons
NERMAATSDIM
9. extreme nationalism and racism
SAMCIFS
DOIGEENC
11. Japanese suicide pilots who crashed planes
loaded with explosives onto American ships
MASKIKZEA
12. a policy Britain and France used to try to
avoid World War II in which they accepted
Germany’s demand to take over Sudetenland
MENPATSAEPE
13. an act approved by Congress in 1941 that
allowed the United States to sell, lend, or
lease arms or other war supplies to nations
who were important to the defense of the
United States
EDNE-SLEAL
14.
TOMZINBIOLAI
military and civilian preparation for war
15. describes a government in which a single
party and its leader suppress all opposition
and control all aspects of people’s lives
52
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
10. wiping out an entire group of people
RANTOALAITTI
The American Journey
Take-Home Review Activity 27
THE COLD WAR ERA
The cold war was the conflict between the East
and the West. The East was made up of Sovietcontrolled communist governments. The West was
made up of capitalist democracies, such as the
United States. After World War II, the United
States worked to stop the spread of communism.
Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin
started his life as a peasant
named Iosif Vissarionovich
Dzhugashvili. When he was
an adult, he changed his
name to Stalin, which
means “man of steel.”
Reviewing Chapter 27
Postwar Politics
Cold War Origins
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
• Europe was split by the iron curtain into the
Soviet-controlled communist governments and
the capitalist democratic governments.
• President Truman developed a policy of containment to stop Soviet expansion into areas of
strategic importance to the United States and to
contain communism.
• The Soviets tried to drive the West out of Berlin
by cutting off needed supplies to the city.
President Truman responded by airlifting the
supplies into Berlin and eventually forcing the
Soviets to back down.
• The crisis in Berlin confirmed that the Soviet
Union and the United States were in a cold
war––not fighting, but building up military
forces and arms in order to intimidate each
other.
?
DID YOU KNOW?
• The government lifted war-time price controls,
causing a rise in prices, or inflation. Labor
unrest resulted from consumer prices rising
faster than wages.
• President Truman, a Democrat, presented the
Fair Deal plan designed to solve the postwar
economic problems. The plan did not get
broad support, so only parts of it eventually
passed into law.
• The Republicans favored big business and tried
to limit the power of unions by outlawing
closed shops, or workplaces that hire only
union members.
• In his efforts to end racial discrimination,
President Truman ordered federal departments to end job discrimination against
African Americans. He also ordered desegregation in the armed forces.
The Cold War Era
1945–1954
The Korean War
• In 1950 Soviet-controlled North Korea invaded
American-controlled South Korea. President
Truman ordered limited use of United States
military force to stop the invasion.
• The Korean War became a stalemate, a situation
in which neither side could win a victory
important enough to end the fighting. A long
period of negotiations finally ended in 1953,
and the war was over. There was no winner.
• The participation of the United States in the
Korean War showed the Soviet Union that
Americans were serious about their policy of
containing communism.
The American Journey
The Red Scare
• The Cold War brought about a Red Scare, or
fear of communism, in the United States.
Americans were worried that Communists
would subvert, or sabotage, American society
and weaken its government.
• Senator Joseph McCarthy led the hunt for
Communists from 1950 to 1954. McCarthy
publicly alleged, or declared without proof,
that many Americans were Communists.
• Americans began to see McCarthy as a bully
making unfounded accusations. The Senate
voted to censure, or formally criticize, him for
“conduct unbecoming a senator,” and McCarthy
lost his power to damage others’ lives.
53
Take-Home Review Activity 27
Search for Hidden Words
DIRECTIONS: How many words can you find in the hidden word search puzzle? Look
for the words listed below that may appear horizontally, vertically, diagonally, or
spelled forwards or backwards. Circle as many as you can find.
subversion
cold war
closed shops
allege
blacklist
censure
containment
stalemate
airlift
inflation
perjury
A
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A
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D
L
O
C
X
T
S
N
E
K
E
R
U
S
N
E
C
N
Z
Some of the letters that remain uncircled after the word search is complete create a secret message.
Starting at the top left corner and reading across, write down the uncircled letters in the blanks below to
find the secret message.
.
54
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
C
Take-Home Review Activity 28
AMERICA IN THE 1950s
The 1950s were a time of prosperity and
progress in American society. Urban and
rural poverty, however, caused some groups
to be left out of the prosperity and critics to
question the values of the times.
Reviewing Chapter 28
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The 1950s
?
DID YOU KNOW?
The first digital computer
was the ENIAC computer. It
weighed more than 60,000 lb
(27,000 kg) and had more
than 18,000 vacuum tubes.
Each month, technicians had
to replace about 2,000 of the
tubes.
The Eisenhower Presidency
A Time of Prosperity
Problems
• In 1952 Republican Dwight D.
Eisenhower was elected president and the Republicans won
control of Congress, starting a
new political era.
• The United States prospered
economically under President
Eisenhower’s moderate, or
middle-of-the-road, approach
to domestic policies. By the
end of his second term in
office the federal budget had
a $300 million surplus, or
excess.
• As the Cold War with the
Soviet Union continued, there
was a new policy of planning
to launch a massive retaliation
if the Soviets attacked any
nation. This led to a nuclear
arms race, or buildup,
between the United States and
the Soviet Union.
• After several foreign policy
challenges that threatened to
turn the Cold War into a real
war, the Geneva summit
meeting of 1955 was held.
President Eisenhower, Soviet
officials, and NATO leaders
worked to develop of policy of
peaceful coexistence.
• The United States economy
showed amazing growth
due to government spending
and technological advances,
such as the computer. These
advances resulted in greater
productivity, or the ability
to produce more goods with
the same amount of labor.
• The strong economy raised
the standard of living, which
is a measure of people’s overall wealth and quality of life,
of many Americans.
• Prosperous times also resulted
in a baby boom, or greatly
increased birthrate.
• American culture changed
with the great popularity of
television as a source of entertainment and information.
Television presented an image
of perfect middle-class life. Its
commercials fed the consumer
culture.
• Rock ’n’ roll emerged as an
American art form that
bonded teenagers but
widened the gap between
them and their parents.
• More than 20 percent of
Americans were poor. This
percentage included some
farm workers and minority
groups living in urban ghettos.
Workers unemployed by
automation, or producing
goods using mechanical and
electronic devices, also struggled with poverty.
• Social critics complained about
American materialism, or
focus on money and possessions. Some people believed
that the sameness of corporate
and suburban life was eliminating individuality. These
critics felt that rebellion and
isolation from American
culture were good goals.
• Some women challenged
their roles as housewives and
mothers and sought to gain
the choices that men already
enjoyed.
• Many African Americans questioned their roles as secondclass citizens. After years of
struggling for equality, African
Americans reached a point
where they were ready to
demand full civil rights.
The American Journey
55
Take-Home Review Activity 28
Complete the Crossword Puzzle
DIRECTIONS: Use the following clues to complete the crossword puzzle.
Across
6. a measure of people’s overall wealth and
quality of life
8. a focus on accumulating money and possessions
10. Eisenhower’s middle-of-the-road approach to
domestic policy
11. the ability to produce more goods with the
same amount of labor
12. soaring birthrate
Down
1. producing goods using mechanical and
electronic devices
2. neighborhoods made up of mostly poor
minority groups
3. excess amount
4. competition to build up weapons
5. the idea that an event can have a chain of
effects
7. wealth
9. a meeting of government heads
1
2
3
4
5
7
6
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
8
9
10
11
12
56
The American Journey
Take-Home Review Activity 29
?
THE CIVIL RIGHTS ERA
DID YOU KNOW?
The campaign for equal rights
for all Americans gained
momentum in the 1960s.
Hundreds of marches, protests,
demonstrations, and riots
took place. Women, Native
Americans, African Americans,
and others took part to gain
their civil rights.
s
19
70
Reviewing Chapter 29
In the 1960s, a Puerto
Rican cultural movement
centered in New York
City took place. Leaders
of these young writers
and artists were called
nuyoricans. Many of
them spoke and wrote
in both English and
Spanish.
For people with
physical disabilities,
new laws gave them
more job opportunities,
better access to public
facilities, and a greater
role in society.
For Hispanic Americans, César Chávez
and the United Farm Workers Union
helped to gain rights for migrant workers.
Hispanics were able to vote because
registration and voting was in other
languages as well as in English.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed.
It banned discrimination by race,
sex, religion, or national origin.
The African American struggle
continued in the South and
spread to the North. Sit-ins,
riots, violence, and arrests
occurred. Freedom Riders in
the South were stoned, beaten,
arrested, and jailed.
19
50
s
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther
King, Jr., was assassinated. Rioting
erupted in more than 100 cities.
The wave of urban riots ended,
but racial tension remained.
For Native Americans,
the National Congress
of American Indians
helped them gain more
control over their affairs.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
passed, asserting African
Americans’ right to vote.
Civil rights leader Martin
Luther King, Jr., organized
a March on Washington in
1963. More than 200,000
people participated. King
believed in change through
nonviolent protest.
In 1955 protesters boycotted
The Supreme Court decision in
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, against segregation on public
buses in Montgomery, Alabama.
Kansas (1954) called for the
integration of public schools.
The American Journey
The National
Organization for
Women was created. In
1963 the Equal Pay Act
passed, which made it
illegal to pay women
less than men for the
same work.
A court order integrated
Central High School in
Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957.
57
Take-Home Review Activity 29
Unscramble the Letters
DIRECTIONS: Complete each vocabulary puzzle square using the definitions below. Then
rearrange the letters marked by a circle to answer the question.
1. refuse to use
COBTYOT
2. bring races together
NETRAETGI
3. the minimum income
needed to survive
PONTELVIREY
4. helps poor people
pay medical bills
MADDIECI
5. a person who comes
from Latin America or
Spain, or is descended
from people from one
of those places
HAINICSP
6. helps senior citizens
pay for medical bills
CADEREMI
8. that which crosses
state lines
SINTERTEAT
9. the separation of people
of different races
EGRONIASEGT
MITNEFSI
10. an activist for women’s
rights
What does NAACP stand for?
O O 58
F
L O The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
7. the refusal to obey laws
BVCIESIOCEIDINDEL
that are considered unjust
Take-Home Review Activity 30
THE VIETNAM ERA
The Vietnam era had a huge impact on America and
on its future military and foreign policy. In a fight
against Communist North Vietnam, the United
States sent troops to aid South Vietnam throughout
the 1960s and early 1970s. The longer the United
States fought in Vietnam, the more Americans
questioned and criticized involvement there. After
Vietnam, Americans were much more likely to
question United States military involvement in
any foreign conflict.
Chinese American Maya Lin
was a young student at
Yale University when she
submitted a design for the
Vietnam Veterans Memorial.
Her design was chosen over
those of many older, experienced architects. The
Vietnam Veterans Memorial
was built in Washington,
D.C. It has become one of
the most popular sites to
visit in the city.
Reviewing Chapter 30
The Vietnam War
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
?
DID YOU KNOW?
• Under President John F. Kennedy, America continued to be involved in the civil war in Vietnam.
Kennedy sent special forces, the Green Berets, to train and advise South Vietnamese troops to fight
the Communist Vietcong.
• By 1965 American troops had joined the conflict. The fighting was difficult and there were heavy losses.
• In the United States, frustration mounted as the war continued. Americans were divided over U.S.
involvement.
• By the end of the war, President Nixon called for South Vietnam to take a more active role in fighting
the war.
• A peace treaty was signed in 1973 that ended American involvement but not the conflict.
• In 1975 Saigon fell to the Communists and South Vietnam surrendered. The war was finally over.
The Rise of a Counterculture
• Different groups opposed the war in Vietnam. Antiwar demonstrations were common throughout
the United States.
• Some college students protested by burning their draft cards or becoming conscientious objectors.
They claimed that their moral or religious beliefs prevented them from fighting in the war.
• Some university protests ended in violence. Student strikes followed this violence.
• The antiwar protesters became critics of the values and institutions of American society.
• President Johnson’s approval declined as the war lost support. Johnson decided not to run for
another term. Richard M. Nixon won the election of 1968 and promised a return to “law and order.”
The American Journey
59
Take-Home Review Activity 30
Search for Hidden Words
DIRECTIONS: How many words can you find? Look for the words listed below that
may appear horizontally, vertically, diagonally, or spelled forwards or backwards.
Circle as many as you can find.
Dove
escalate
Hawk
Germany
Cuba
B E O D E R E F
B I
exile
Soviet Union
coup
blockade
Vietnam
L
B D E X G E R M A N Y W C E
P U O C V D T Q P O K J
Y V A J
E K J
K Q B L
W X C S
Y O E A S
P H C S
N O I
60
A B U Y B T G A I
K S
A S
X K C E T X S
P K U N P C U E Z K X P W W A F
C M N T M N X Y F
H A M I
U C U N O E P Q Y A M D I
H R S
R K I
N U T E I
K B C
L
V O S
N L
D G Z G
H L
A P C
R P W G E A A W H D N E B A
B G O X U H L
J
G T V J
D T
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
B F
Q L
N U M D X T P C B N Y U M
Take-Home Review Activity 31
SEARCH FOR STABILITY
During the 1970s, many Americans changed their
view of government as they began to distrust
political leaders. While the United States made
progress in foreign policy, there was controversy
at home. The United States faced many political
challenges.
Reviewing Chapter 31
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Canada helped four
Americans escape capture
during the Iranian
hostage crisis. During
the hostage-taking, the
Americans hid in the
Canadian Embassy and
were eventually flown
home.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Political Challenges
Richard M. Nixon
(1969–1974)
Gerald Ford
(1974–1977)
Jimmy Carter
(1977–1981)
Challenge
In the Watergate scandal,
members of Nixon’s secondterm campaign broke into
Democratic headquarters to
install listening devices.
Challenges
Ford dealt with controversy
over his pardon of former
President Nixon and his offer
of amnesty to men who had
illegally avoided military
service during the Vietnam
War.
Challenges
His reversal on economic
policies made Carter seem
weak to many government
leaders and other Americans.
Carter’s foreign policy of
“human rights above all
else” was challenged by
some as ineffective.
Attempted Solution
Nixon claimed executive
privilege and refused to turn
over damaging tapes about
covering up the break-in.
Results
Rather than face impeachment, Nixon resigned three
days after being forced to
turn over the tapes. The
Watergate crisis shook the
country and damaged
Americans’ faith in political
leaders and institutions.
The American Journey
Attempted Solution
Ford tried to convince
Americans that the best
policy was to forgive and
move forward.
Results
Ford barely received the
Republican nomination in
1976. His strengths were
overshadowed by the effects
of the Watergate scandal,
and he lost the election.
Attempted Solutions
Carter tried to use American
strength to promote peace
all over. He worked hard to
get the hostages in Iran
released.
Results
Carter did not win a second
term. Increasing Cold War
tensions and his failure to
improve the bad economy
worked against him.
61
Take-Home Review Activity 31
Search for Hidden Words
DIRECTIONS: How many words can you find? Look for the words listed below that
may appear horizontally, vertically, diagonally, or spelled forwards or backwards.
Circle as many as you can find.
deficit
détente
underemployment
shuttle diplomacy
amnesty
human rights
embargo
stagflation
revenue sharing
fundamentalist
trade deficit
H
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Some of the letters that remain uncircled after the word search is complete create a secret message.
Starting at the top left corner and reading across, write down the uncircled letters in the blanks below to
find the secret message.
.
62
The American Journey
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
S
Take-Home Review Activity 32
NEW CHALLENGES
The last twenty years of the twentieth
century saw the end of the Cold War, the
collapse of the Soviet Union, changes in
foreign relations, and a new global economy. There was fast growth in technology,
such as the Internet, medicine, and
industry. New challenges have come with
all of these changes.
Reviewing Chapter 32
President
Ronald Reagan
(1981–1989)
• a Republican president with conservative ideas; wanted a
return to “traditional
American values”
• made an agenda
including less federal
government rules,
lower taxes, and less
money spent on
social programs
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
George H.W. Bush
(1989–1993)
• Reagan’s vice president, experienced in
foreign affairs
• continued Reagan’s
conservative
Republican agenda
Bill Clinton
(1993–2001)
• called himself a
“New Democrat”
• promised to cut taxes
and spending while
reforming the welfare
and health-care
systems
The American Journey
Domestic Issues
?
DID YOU KNOW?
Hispanic Americans will
become the largest minority
group in the United States
within the next 50 years,
according to the U.S. Census
Bureau. Hispanic Americans
made up 11.1 percent of the
United States population in
2000. It is estimated that
this amount will reach
21.1 percent by 2050.
Foreign Issues
• promoted deregulation
• appointed conservative justices
to the Supreme Court, including
the first woman
• cut taxes and spending on
domestic programs and increased
the military
• sent aid to pro-democracy contras in
Nicaragua to put down communist
rebels
• signed Intermediate-Range Nuclear
Forces Treaty with Soviet leader
Mikhail Gorbachev, who encouraged
glasnost (opening Soviet society to
new ideas) and perestroika (local economic planning)
• enacted few domestic programs
to minimize spending because
the federal debt and banking
crisis required major government
funding
• signed START with Gorbachev
• supported the fall of communist
governments in eastern Europe
• watched the collapse of the Berlin
Wall and the Soviet Union, ending
the Cold War
• sent troops to fight Iraq in the
Persian Gulf War to protect oilproducing countries
• proposed health-care reforms
that failed in Congress
• signed a bill for a welfare reform
law
• expanded and established
children’s education programs
• was impeached for committing
perjury and obstructing justice
concerning a personal scandal;
aquitted on all charges
• enacted the NAFTA to eliminate
trade barriers among Canada, the
United States, and Mexico
• focused on expanding trade and
resolving foreign conflicts, including
brokering the Middle East Peace
Accords and giving aid to Muslims
and Croats in the Bosnian Civil War
63
Take-Home Review Activity 32
Organize Files
DIRECTIONS: You are storing the documents listed in the box below on your computer.
Decide which folder is the correct place for each document file. Write the document file
names on the lines under the folder names. You will not fill all of the lines.
bankruptcy
deregulation
global warming
health-care coverage
welfare reform
perestroika
federal debt
U.S. Foreign Affairs
2.
U.S. Domestic Policy
3.
Global Factors
64
coup
glasnost
gross domestic product
incumbent
ozone
Internet
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1.
budget deficit
world peace
grassroots
impeach
line-item veto
Star Wars
The American Journey
Answer Key
Key
Answer
Activity 1
Activity 4
1. civilization
1. Diversity
2. migration
2. literacy
3. pueblo
3. triangular trade
4. artifacts
4. Iroquois Confederacy
5. drought
5. Cash crops
6. nomads
6. smuggling
7. theocracy
7. proprietary colony
8. culture
8. alliance
9. federation
9. Speculators
10. archaeology
10. charter colony
11. hieroglyphics
Answer: apprentice
12. carbon dating
Activity 5
13. Ice Age
14. terraces
1. minutemen
15. adobe
2. patriots
3. writs of assistance
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Activity 2
4. petition
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Answer: Conquistadors received grants from
5. committee of correspondence
6. resolution
7. loyalists
8. militia
9. preamble
10. nonimportation
11. boycott
12. effigy
13. repeal
14. revenue
15. propaganda
Spanish rulers to explore.
Activity 3
England: CT, DE, GA, MA, MD, NC,
NH, NJ, PA, RI, SC, VA; Netherlands:
NY; Spain: AZ, CA, NM, TX
The American Journey
65
Answer Key
Activity 6
Activity 9
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Activity 7
Across
1. federalism
5. compromise
6. proportional
7. ordinance
11. depression
12. article
13. ratify
14. Electoral
15. bicameral
16. Enlightenment
Answer: The Louisiana Purchase doubled the
size of the U. S.
Down
2. antifederalists
3. amendment
4. republic
5. checks and balances
8. constitution
9. petition
10. manumission
11. depreciate
Activity 11
Activity 10
Clue 1 technology
Clue 6 disarmament
Clue 2 canal
Clue 7 Locks
Clue 3 p
Clue 8 demilitarized
Clue 4 i
Clue 9 s
Clue 5 capital
Clue 10 factory system
Answer: capitalism
1. depression
2. shortage
3. dropped
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
4. rose
5. loans
6. collect
7. factories
8. farmers
9. taxes
Activity 8
Answer: neutrality, tariff, caucus,
partisan, precedents, cabinet, sedition,
deport, speculator, nullify
secretary of state
66
The American Journey
Answer Key
Activity 12
Across
1. boomtown
4. forty-niners
5. rancho
6. annex
9. empresario
11. vigilante
12. ranchero
14. decree
15. joint occupation
16. tejanos
Down
2. Manifest Destiny
3. mountain men
7. emigrants
8. cede
10. Californios
13. rendezvous
Activity 13
1. morse code
2. spiritual
3. cotton gin
4. prejudice
5. clippership
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
6. famine
7. tenant farmer
8. overseer
9. nativist
10. strike
Activity 14
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J
I
S
O
L
A
V
I
V
E
R
H
B
J
Z
T
N
S
Z
X
L
N
W
C
H
X
E
K
P
D
N
M
C
J
T
E
M
P
E
R
A
N
C
E
S
R
S
M
E
L
Q
O
I
S
T
H
Z
H
O
R
P
D
E
C
C
C
Y
H
I
A
N
F
T
H
G
I
P
A
T
U
G
C
W
R
C
K
B
Q
Q
I
L
U
E
C
S
Z
D
X
T
S
I
N
O
I
T
I
L
O
B
A
Answer: American artists turned to
American themes.
Activity 15
Across
3. secede
7. secession
10. arsenal
11. martyr
Down
1. states’ rights
2. border ruffians
4. sectionalism
5. abstain
6. popular sovereignty
8. civil war
9. fugitive
11. telegraph
12. capital
13. fixed cost
14. credit
15. trade union
16. slave code
17. yeoman
Answer: discrimination
The American Journey
67
Answer Key
Activity 16
Activity 18
Clue 1 Richmond
1. railroads
Clue 2 border
2. goods
Clue 3 o
3. supplies
Clue 4 entrenched
4. track
Clue 5 Potomac
5. grants
Clue 6 Orleans
6. east
Clue 7 Antietam
7. west
Clue 8 draft
8. Promontory Point
Clue 9 s
Answer: time zones
Answer: ironclads
Activity 19
Activity 17
Across
3. commission
5. black codes
8. override
11. grandfather clauses
13. scalawags
14. sharecropping
15. lynching
16. radical
17. reconciliation
18. poll tax
N
N
P
R
E
G
R
E
M
T
S
E
R
M
N
O
H
D
E
L
O
O
P
R
H
G
A
I
N
O
I
I
I
L
N
B
R
O
A
U
A
U
D
J
N
B
T
L
N
A
E
A
R
O
S
R
A
C
U
O
N
A
A
Y
U
S
D
T
C
T
E
G
O
N
P
O
D
N
N
L
E
T
I
E
R
H
D
R
C
O
O
I
T
L
L
B
D
E
V
D
O
R
P
T
L
T
L
H
H
E
N
M
A
A
I
L
A
O
I
Y
T
O
R
I
O
N
S
E
R
R
D
D
R
O
A
I
S
O
S
T
O
C
K
S
T
E
N
A
N
L
R
N
P
O
A
D
T
R
A
S
R
A
T
F
F
I
O
Y
C
Z
O
Z
O
E
F
A
T
I
N
Y
E
C
S
W
E
A
T
S
H
O
P
S
O
X
M
A
S
S
P
R
O
D
U
C
T
I
O
N
L
F
Q
R
E
K
A
E
R
B
E
K
I
R
T
S
Answer: Railroad barons controlled the
nation’s railroad traffic.
Activity 20
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Down
1. Reconstruction
2. freedmen
4. integrated
6. literacy test
7. carpetbaggers
9. impeach
10. corruption
12. cash crops
19. amnesty
E
Across
3. slum
7. realism
9. regionalism
11. sweatshop
13. ragtime
14. Gilded Age
Down
1. tenement
2. yellow journalism
4. steerage
68
The American Journey
Answer Key
Key
Answer
5. settlement house
Activity 23
6. assimilate
A
F
T
N
A
T
I
O
N
A
L
I
S
M
L
L
H
O
A
O
E
N
F
I
Y
R
A
S
E
A
10. suburb
L
P
T
U
W
I
O
E
O
R
B
L
A
D
D
I
A
U
T
R
W
T
V
S
O
A
G
R
T
N
12. emigrate
A
R
P
O
W
T
N
A
T
S
U
A
E
S
A
8. vaudeville
15. ethnic group
N
M
A
C
R
O
E
A
Z
E
I
G
S
I
G
C
I
C
R
C
G
G
E
O
I
A
D
T
L
A
E
S
I
A
C
E
C
F
N
N
L
N
A
A
P
S
T
F
C
L
L
N
I
O
P
O
I
E
I
O
Y
I
I
Y
D
A
T
I
N
R
O
H
B
C
R
S
C
S
E
T
G
P
R
F
H
E
I
A
O
P
T
E
T
I
T
S
W
A
R
V
T
G
N
S
M
2. arbitration
E
H
O
T
E
T
N
E
T
N
E
E
F
T
D
M
N
S
N
O
I
T
A
R
A
P
E
R
U
S
3. primary
S
R
E
W
O
P
F
O
E
C
N
A
L
A
B
Activity 21
1. prohibition
4. barrio
5. suffragist
Answer: The First World War was called The
Great War.
6. discrimination
7. trustbuster
Activity 24
8. trust
Across
8. prohibition
10. productivity
11. lease
12. evolution
14. quota system
15. recession
16. deport
9. conservation
10. patronage
Answer: Seventeenth
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Activity 22
The following numbers should be written on
their corresponding places on the map:
1. Japan
2. Alaska
3. Panama
4. Midway islands
5. Hawaii
6. Cuba
7. Puerto Rico
8. China
The American Journey
Down
1. installment buying
2. mass media
3. anarchist
4. expatriate
5. capitalism
6. isolationism
7. gross national product
9. nativism
13. flapper
69
Answer Key
Activity 25
Activity 27
1. EBRA
C
A
E
N
I
R
O
T
N
S
C
U
O
R
G
T
A
F
I
T
U
N
L
3. TVA
D
E
N
S
E
I
C
A
E
B
P
O
4. NIRA
N
D
E
T
L
L
L
D
I
V
E
S
B
E
T
R
A
E
L
N
W
E
R
E
E
E
I
N
M
I
F
A
T
R
J
D
6. WPA
H
A
E
A
E
L
N
A
S
S
U
S
7. SEC
T
A
T
N
A
D
W
M
E
I
R
H
S
E
T
T
R
D
B
W
E
O
Y
O
T
S
I
L
K
C
A
L
B
N
I
P
G
O
R
A
W
D
L
O
C
X
T
S
N
E
K
E
R
U
S
N
E
C
N
Z
2. CCC
5. FDIC
8. SSA
9. NLRA
10. FLSA
Activity 26
C
Answer: An iron curtain descended between
the East and West.
1. island hopping
2. anti-Semitism
3. Holocaust
4. blitzkrieg
5. internment camp
6. dictator
7. ration
8. disarmament
9. fascism
10. genocide
11. kamikazes
12. appeasement
13. Lend-Lease
14. mobilization
70
Across
6. standard of living
8. materialism
10. moderate
11. productivity
12. baby boom
Down
1. automation
2. ghettos
3. surplus
4. arms race
5. domino theory
7. affluence
9. summit
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
15. totalitarian
Activity 28
The American Journey
Answer Key
Key
Answer
Activity 31
Activity 29
1. boycott
2. integrate
S
H
U
T
T
L
E
D
I
P
L
O
M
A
C
Y
N
I
X
O
N
R
R
S
S
S
E
E
S
I
G
G
N
E
D
T
I
M
P
E
3. poverty line
O
A
V
O
I
E
I
T
4. Medicaid
A
C
H
M
E
N
V
L
H
A
E
T
T
R
A
I
A
L
5. Hispanic
U
D
K
Z
S
D
D
E
A
G
G
N
T
C
E
B
S
A
6. Medicare
Z
L
G
T
H
E
Q
U
N
T
I
F
T
A
B
S
M
O
A
K
T
K
F
Y
J
A
M
U
N
R
L
E
G
A
N
E
Y
H
B
I
M
D
V
L
I
T
E
E
N
A
K
I
V
T
N
7. civil disobedience
T
T
D
A
N
R
8. interstate
I
K
C
L
S
G
E
Y
K
A
Q
S
M
A
T
I
P
9. segregation
T
I
C
I
F
E
D
E
D
A
R
T
H
A
M
I
C
M
T
K
E
K
F
S
D
W
C
Q
X
I
N
A
D
U
O
W
A
M
N
E
S
T
Y
U
F
O
D
E
Q
R
R
N
H
N
T
N
E
M
Y
O
L
P
M
E
R
E
D
N
U
I
U
R
Y
H
A
Z
F
E
P
V
G
U
Y
N
Q
P
U
J
N
F
W
N
K
R
X
Y
R
K
G
V
W
R
Y
A
I
I
J
G
10. feminist
Answer: National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People
Activity 30
Answer: Nixon resigned to avoid an
B E O D E R E F
B I
L
B D E X G E R M A N Y W C E
P U O C V D T Q P O K J
Y V A J
E K J
B F
Q L
Y O E A S
P H C S
K S
A S
X K C E T X S
C M N T M N X Y F
H A M I
U C U N O E P Q Y A M D I
H R S
R K I
N U T E I
L
V O S
The American Journey
N L
D G Z G
H L
A P C
R P W G E A A W H D N E B A
B G O X U H L
J
Activity 32
K B C
P K U N P C U E Z K X P W W A F
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
N O I
A B U Y B T G A I
K Q B L
W X C S
N U M D X T P C B N Y U M
impeachment trial.
G T V J
D T
Answers may include:
1. U.S. Foreign Policy: glasnost, perestroika,
coup, Star Wars
2. U.S. Domestic Policy: deregulation, federal debt, bankruptcy, grass roots,
impeach, line-item veto, budget deficit,
gross domestic product, incumbent,
welfare reform, health-care coverage
3. Global Factors: ozone, Internet, global
warming, world peace
71
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