METALS THROUGH HISTORY Download

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MODULE 2
WORKSHEET
1
METALS THROUGH HISTORY
Syllabus reference 8.3.1
1
Using resources such as your textbook and the internet complete the following table.
COPPER AGE 3200–2300 BC
PREDOMINANT METAL / METAL SUBSTITUTE:
copper
IMPORTANT PROPERTIES:
Does not corrode
Easily extracted
EXTRACTION / PRODUCTION:
Copper ore heated with charcoal in a fire
USE:
Ornaments, domestic utensils
IMPORTANT ALLOY/S IN USE AT THE TIME:
None
BRONZE AGE 2300–700 BC
PREDOMINANT METAL / METAL SUBSTITUTE:
❍ copper
❍ tin
❍ bronze
IMPORTANT PROPERTIES:
Tin – hard, heavy and inert
Bronze – harder metal than copper and tin, could be
melted, moulded and worked more easily
EXTRACTION / PRODUCTION:
Tin ore heated with charcoal in a fire
Bronze formed when copper and tin ores heated with
charcoal in a fire
USE:
Tin rarely used on its own
Bronze used to make tools and weapons
IMPORTANT ALLOY/S IN USE AT THE TIME:
Bronze
IRON AGE 700 BC–AD 1
PREDOMINANT METAL / METAL SUBSTITUTE:
iron
IMPORTANT PROPERTIES:
Hard, durable, tough
EXTRACTION / PRODUCTION:
Air blown into a fire to produce high temperatures for
heating iron with charcoal
USE:
Tools and weapons
IMPORTANT ALLOY/S IN USE AT THE TIME:
Cast iron (iron with carbon)
Copyright © 2008 McGraw-Hill Australia
CONQUERINGCHEMISTRY PRELIM
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MODERN AGE AD 1 to present
PREDOMINANT METAL / METAL SUBSTITUTE:
iron
aluminium
IMPORTANT PROPERTIES:
Iron – hard, durable, tough
Aluminium – lightweight, corrosion resistant, good
tensile strength
EXTRACTION / PRODUCTION:
Iron – blast furnace
Aluminium – electrolysis
USE:
Iron – car bodies, roofing sheets, household
appliances, machinery
Aluminium – building, planes, car parts, drink
containers, domestic use, high voltage transmission
lines
IMPORTANT ALLOY/S IN USE AT THE TIME:
Carbon steel
Stainless steel
Alloy steel with tungsten, magnesium and titanium
FUTURE AGE
PREDOMINANT METAL / METAL SUBSTITUTE:
❍ ceramics
❍ plastics
❍ composite material
IMPORTANT PROPERTIES:
Ceramics – high melting temperature, low density,
high strength, stiffness, hardness, wear resistance
and corrosion resistance; many ceramics are good
electrical and thermal insulators
Plastics – hard or soft, doesn’t corrode, flexible, tough,
lightweight, easy to process at low temperatures
Composites – overall properties are superior to those
of the individual components
EXTRACTION / PRODUCTION:
Ceramics – extracted from clay or sand and fired in a
kiln
Plastics – made mainly from fractions of crude oil
through different processes
Composites – made as a combination of polymer and
ceramic or metal and ceramic
USE:
Ceramic includes glass – windows, liquid crystal
displays, optical fibres, cooking utensils, food storage,
insulators
Plastics – electrical wire insulation, flexible tubing,
bottles, carpet fibres, ropes, packaging foams, lighting
panels, electrical appliance components, hoses, pipes,
valves, toys, raincoats
Composites – sporting equipment, racing cars,
structural and building materials
IMPORTANT ALLOY/S IN USE AT THE TIME:
Copyright © 2008 McGraw-Hill Australia
CONQUERINGCHEMISTRY PRELIM
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2
Complete the following table.
ALLOY
COMPOSITION
PROPERTIES
USES
Plumbing fittings, musical instruments,
decorations
Brass
50–60% copper
with zinc
Lustrous gold
appearance,
hard but easily
machined
Solder
30–60% tin
with lead
Low melting point, Joining metals together, particularly in
adheres firmly to
plumbing and electronics
other metals when
molten
Stainless steel
Iron with 10–20%
chromium,
5–20% nickel
Hard, corrosion
resistant
Copyright © 2008 McGraw-Hill Australia
Food processing machinery, kitchen
sinks and appliances, cutlery, surgical
and dental instruments, some razor
blades
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