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Chapter 21
Nutrition and Weight Management
The Healthy Diet
• Six classes of nutrients:
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Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
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The Healthy Diet
• To create a healthy diet with the proper nutrients, two basic
principles should be followed:
• Eat a variety of foods.
• Eat in moderation.
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Carbohydrates
• Carbohydrates are the most readily available sources of food energy.
• Glucose
• Glycogen
• Complex carbohydrates
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Protein
• A major structural component of all body tissue and required for
tissue growth and repair
• A necessary components of hormones, enzymes, and blood-plasma
transport systems
• Amino acids
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Fats (Lipids) and Cholesterol
• Saturated
• Solid at room temperature
• Derived mainly from animal sources
• Unsaturated
• Found mainly in plants
• Liquid at room temperature
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Dietary Fiber
• Dietary fiber (roughage)
• The portion of plant foods that cannot be digested
• Reduces blood cholesterol level
• Can prevent constipation and other colon disorders
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Fiber should not be a part of the pre-exercise meal as the colon can get very active
during sports activity.
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Vitamins
• Organic (containing carbon) compounds that the body requires in
small amounts but cannot manufacture
• Water-soluble
• Fat-soluble
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Minerals
• Inorganic (carbonless) compounds that serve a
variety of functions in the body
• Examples:
• Calcium phosphorus
• Magnesium
• Sodium
• Chloride
• Iron
• Zinc
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Water
• Essential to life
• Dehydration
• Impairs athletic performance and increases the risk of heat-related illness
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Dietary Guidelines for Americans
• Eat a variety of foods.
• Balance the amount of calories consumed with the amount of
calories burned throughout exercise and daily activities.
• Physical activity is vital for weight control and good health.
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Dietary Guidelines for Americans
• Choose a diet low in saturated fats and cholesterol.
• Choose a diet moderate in sugar and sodium.
• ChooseMyPlate
• Educational tool to put dietary guidelines into practice
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Nutrition Fact Labels
• Daily reference values (DRVs)
• Established for sources of energy: fat, saturated fat, total carbohydrate
(including fiber), protein, cholesterol, sodium, and potassium
• Reference daily intakes (RDIs)
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Weight Control and Energy Balance
• Determining the lean body weight (LBW) and the percent body fat is
one of the best ways to measure the body’s “true weight.”
• LBW is the weight that the human body has in its lean body mass after
deducting the weight of the body fat mass.
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Weight Control and Energy Balance
• Active exercise makes a person breathe deeper.
• Deeper breathing requires more oxygen, and
transports more oxygen to the body’s cells.
• The more oxygen that is consumed and used in the
cells of the body, the higher the number of calories
that are burned.
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Gaining Weight
• Muscle gain is preferred to fat gain.
• The ideal weight gain program combines progressive weight training
with increased caloric intake.
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Nutritional Supplements and Dietary
Fads
• Nutritional supplements are vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and
other substances consumed to help compensate for nutritional
deficiencies in a diet.
• Be aware of nutritional faddism.
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Nutritional Supplements and Dietary
Fads
• Ergogenic aids
• Steroids
• Creatine
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Pre-Exercise Meals
• A proper pre-exercise meal prevents hunger during exercise and
helps maintain an adequate blood sugar level.
• Low blood sugar can inhibit concentration and hinder coordination and
timing.
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Eating Disorders
• Bulimia nervosa
• Anorexia nervosa
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