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Bell Ringer
• How did the balance of power shift throughout
the Middle Ages?
• Monarchs
• Church
• Nobles
The High and Late Middle
Ages (1050-1450)
Section 2:
Holy Roman Empire
And the Church
The Holy Roman Empire
• Middle Ages is a contest between Kings, the
Church, and the People
• Most destructive struggle
• Rulers of (2a) Holy Roman Empire
• Popes
The Holy Roman Empire
• 1a:
Germany
to
Italy
• Dukes of
Saxony
The Holy Roman Empire
• What happened to present day France after
Charlemagne?
The Holy Roman Empire
• Division of power enabled Dukes of Saxony to
expand power
• (1c) Duke Otto I, King of Germany
Otto I
• Worked closely with Church
• Appointed Bishops
• Helped Pope defeat (1d) rebellion in Rome
• Pope uses crown as a reward for loyalty
• Otto I is crowned (1e) Emperor
The Holy Roman Empire
• Emperor was figurehead
• Challenges to power
• (2c) Vassals ruled the land
• (2d) Appointment of church officials
• Normally, Holy Roman emperors would decide on
bishops and abbots
The Holy Roman Empire
• 1054, (3a) Henry IV crowned King of Germany
• Pope Gregory VII
• Church and state separate
• (3b) Reforms, such as banning lay investiture
• “lay person” (non-holy) “invest” (ring and staff)
• (3d) Land belongs to Henry IV
• German princes supported Pope
The Holy Roman Empire
• Henry IV is excommunicated
• People are free from power of emperor
• Henry IV corners Pope Gregory
• Pope (3f) hides from Henry’s army
• Concordat of Worms
• Church has sole appointing powers
• Pope give bishops spiritual authority
• Emperor gives bishops fiefs
The Holy Roman Empire
• German kings make attempt on Italy (1100-1200)
• Fredrick “Red Beard” Barbarossa
• Wealthy cities fought back with the Lombard
League
• Church attempts to install French leaders in place
of Frederick’s heirs
• Led to 200 years of war
The Holy Roman Empire
• Church reaches peak of power in 1200s
• Pope can depose king
• (1b) Pope Innocent III
• “between God and man, lower than God but
higher than men, who judges all and is judged by
no one”
• (1d) Philip II of France tried to annul marriage
The Holy Roman Empire
• Pope Innocent launched the Albigensian Crusade
• Expanded (B2) Papal power
• Papal States
• Powerful Church courts
• Changed the way Church officials are chosen
• Council that justified Pope’s power