Skeleton Download

Transcript
Ch. 7 Skeleton
BIO 168
Turk
Consists of 80 bones
 Three major regions
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◦ Skull
◦ Vertebral column
◦ Thoracic cage
The Axial Skeleton
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Cranial bones
◦ Frontal bone
◦ Parietal bones (2)
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Coronal suture
Sagittal suture
Lambdoid suture
Squamous sutures
◦ Occipital bone
◦ Temporal bones (2)
◦ Sphenoid bone
 Greater wings
 Lesser wings
 Pterygoid processes
◦ Ethmoid bone
The Skull
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Mandible
Maxillary bones
(maxillae) (2)
Zygomatic bones
(2)
Nasal bones (2)
Facial Bones
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Lacrimal bones (2)
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Lacrimal fossa houses
lacrimal sac
Palatine bones (2)
Vomer
Inferior nasal
conchae (2)
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Roof, lateral walls, and floor formed by parts
of four bones
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Ethmoid
Palatine bones
Maxillary bones
Inferior nasal conchae
Nasal septum of bone and hyaline cartilage
◦ Ethmoid
◦ Vomer
◦ Anterior septal cartilage
Nasal Cavity
Mucosa-lined, air-filled spaces
 Lighten the skull
 Enhance resonance of voice
 Found in frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and
maxillary bones
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Paranasal Sinuses
Not a bone of the skull
 Does not articulate directly with another
bone
 Site of attachment for muscles of
swallowing and speech
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Hyoid Bone
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Cervical vertebrae (7)
Thoracic vertebrae (12)
Lumbar vertebrae (5)
Sacrum
Coccyx
Intervetebral disks
Two concave curvatures
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Two convex curvatures
◦ Cervical and lumbar
◦ Thoracic and sacral
 Abnormal spine curvatures
◦ Scoliosis
◦ Kyphosis
◦ Lordosis
Vertebral Column
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Body or centrum
Vertebral arch
◦ pedicles and laminae
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Vertebral foramina
Intervertebral foramina
Spinous process
 Transverse process
 Superior articular process
 Inferior articular process
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General Structure of Vertebrae
Spinous processes – bifid
 Atlas (C1)
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◦ occipital condyles
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Axis (C2)
◦ Dens
Cervical Vertebrae
T1 to T12
 facets and demifacets
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Thoracic Vertebrae
L1 to L5
 Short, thick pedicles and laminae
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Lumbar Vertebrae
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Sacrum
◦ 5 fused vertebrae
(S1–S5)
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Coccyx
◦ Tailbone
◦ 3–5 fused vertebrae
Sacrum and Coccyx
Thoracic vertebrae
 Sternum
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◦ Xiphoid process
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Ribs
◦ Pairs 1 through 7
 True (vertebrosternal) ribs
◦ Pairs 8 through12
 False ribs
 Pairs 8–10 also
◦ vertebrochondral ribs
 Pairs 11–12
◦ vertebral (floating) ribs
Thoracic Cage
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Main parts:
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Head
Neck
Tubercle
Shaft
Structure of a Typical Rib
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Pectoral girdle
◦ Clavicles
 acromial (lateral) end
 sternal (medial) end
◦ scapulae
Appendicular Skeleton
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Humerus
Radius and ulna
Hand
◦ 8 carpal bones in the wrist
◦ 5 metacarpal bones in the palm
◦ 14 phalanges in the fingers - pollex
The Upper Limb
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Pelvic Girdle
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hip bones (coxal bone or os coxae)
◦ ilium, ischium, and pubis
Appendicular Skeleton
Thigh: femur
 Leg: tibia and fibula
 Foot: 7 tarsal bones, 5
metatarsal bones, and 14
phalanges
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◦ Talus
◦ Calcaneus
◦ Hallux
The Lower Limb
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Three arches
◦ Lateral longitudinal
◦ Medial longitudinal
◦ Transverse
Arches of the Foot
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fontanelles
◦ Anterior, posterior, mastoid, and sphenoid
 primary
curvatures of spine
Fetal Skeleton
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