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CHAPTER 12: INTERACTIONS
WITHIN ECOSYSTEMS
SC 7-4.1 Summarize the characteristics of the
levels of organization within ecosystems
(including populations, communities, habitats,
niches, and biomes).
ORGANISMS OCCUPY SPECIFIC
LIVING AREAS
All living thins depend on their environment to
meet their needs.
 The type of living things you see in one specific
area are determined by the characteristics of
the area.
 Scientists group living things based on similar
characteristics.
 Species- A group of living things that are so
closely related that they can breed with one
another and produce offspring that can breed as
well.

MULE
Cross between a Horse and Donkey
 Sterile-cannot produce offspring
 Uneven number of chromosomes -63

POPULATION
Population-All of the individuals of a given
species in a specific area or region at a certain
time
 In the study of ecology, members of the same
species that live in different areas belong to
different populations.
 A biological population can be a group of animals,
plants, bacteria, or fungi.
 Populations of many different species will be
found living the same area.
 Members of a population compete for food, water,
space, and mates

COMMUNITIES
Community- a group of populations that live in
particular area and interact with one another.
 In a community, different plants, animals, and
other organisms interact with each other.
 Ex. Cacti, iguanas, and crabs are part of the
Galápagos' Island community.


H
ABITATS AND NICHES
Habitat-The place where an organism lives so it can
obtain food, water, shelter and other things needed
for survival
 Habitats have certain physical characteristics that
describe them. Including the amount of
precipitation, temperature, and the soil quality.
 The habitats characteristics determine what type of
species might live there.
 The particular role of an organism in its
environment including type of food it eats, how it
obtains its food and how it interacts with other
organisms is its niche.
 Ex: the niche of a bee is to pollinate flowers as it
gathers nectar for its food.
BIOMES
Individual ecosystems grouped together according to
the climate and most of the vegetation and named by
adaptations of organisms to that environment.
 Each ecosystem has organisms that have specific
places where their needs are met and specific roles
there.
 Ex. Taiga, tundra, dessert, tropical rain forest,
temperate forest,

ORGANIZATION OF ENVIRONMENT.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Biome- General area where organisms live in term of
climate and types of plants.
Ecosystem- Many ecosystems are found in each biome.
Both living and nonliving factors interact to form a stable
system. An ecosystem is smallest than a biome and
includes only organisms and their local environment.
Community- Consists of the living components of the
ecosystem. In a community, different plants, animals, and
other organisms interact with each other.
Population- A population is a group of organisms of the
same species that live in the same area.
Organism- An organism is a single individual living
thing such as an animal, plant, fungus, protisits, or
bacteria,
WHICH LEVEL IS THIS
WHICH LEVEL IS THIS
WHICH LEVEL IS THIS
WHICH LEVEL IS THIS
WHICH LEVEL IS THIS
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