File - Ms. Peterman`s Class Download

Transcript
Chapter 5, Section 3
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Democratic principles and classical culture
flourish during Greece’s golden age.
 #1 Golden Age
o When a society is at it’s height
• Drama, sculpture, poetry,
philosophy, architecture & science
o Athens - 477 to 431 BCE
 Pericles as Leader
o Skillful politician, inspiring speaker,
respected general
o Dominates life in Athens from 461
to 429 B.C.
1.
Stronger Democracy
o Pericles hires more paid public officials; creates direct democracy
• Direct democracy—citizens rule directly, not through representatives
2.
Athenian Empire
o Takes over the Delian League; uses money to strengthen Athenian
fleet.
• Sparta and other cities resent Athenian power.
3.
Glorifying Athens
o Pericles buys gold, ivory, marble & hires artisans to beautify Athens
• With money from the Delian League & without the whole league’s
consent.
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$$$ from the Delian League allowed Athens to:
o #3 Strengthen its Navy
• Protect its empire/create an empire
• Access to surrounding waterways
• Overseas trade
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Some city states resisted Athens
o Formed their own alliances
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Architecture and Sculpture
o #4 & 5 Pericles builds the Parthenon—a large temple to honor the
goddess Athena.
 Tragedy
and Comedy
o Greeks invent drama as an art form; includes chorus,
dance, poetry
• #6 Tragedy—tells story of heroes’ downfall; themes of love, hate,
and war
• #7Comedy—makes fun of politics and respected people;
slapstick humor
 #8
Historians Herodotus and Thucydides record
and study past events
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Athens grew in wealth, prestige, and power.
o #9 Other city states viewed Athens with hostility because they have
been independent city-states
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War Begins
o 431 BCE Sparta declares war on Athens—the beginning of the
Peloponnesian War.
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#10 Peloponnesian War (between Athens & Sparta)
o #11 Sparta has a better army.
o #11 Athens has a better navy.
o #12 Sparta made the first move.
o #13 430 BCE, 2nd year of war, plague strikes Athens, kills 1/3 of the
population—including Pericles.
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Sparta and Athens sign a truce in 421 BCE
#14 413 B.C. Athens renews war, attacks Syracuse on the
island of Sicily.
o
o
Sicily was Sparta’s wealthiest ally
Athenians were crushed
“[The Athenians] were destroyed with a total destruction – their fleet, their
army – there was nothing that was not destroyed, and few out of many
returned home.” - Thucydides
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#15 404 BCE Athenians & their allies surrendered to
Sparta
Impact of war for Athens:
o
#16 lost its empire, power & wealth
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Rise of Great Philosophers
o After the war, Athenians lost confidence in democratic
government & began to question their values.
o Thinkers emerge who are called “lovers of wisdom.” This is
from the Greek words:
• phileo-to love
• sophia—wisdom
o Philosophers believe the universe is subject to absolute and
unchanging laws.
o People could understand these laws through logic and
reason.
 The
Sophists
o The word means “the wisest,”
• Proud & boastful
• Know it all's - Claimed they could find the answers to all
questions.
o They used rhetoric to win arguments.
• Even if morally wrong
o They often charged fees for teaching their skills and for
arguing for others.
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“The unexamined life is not worth living.”
Encouraged Greeks to
question themselves and
their moral character.
Encourages students to
examine their lives.
Socratic Method – teaching
by asking a series of
questions.
399 BCE – brought to trial for
“corrupting the youth of
Athens and sentenced to
death in 399 B.C.
Found guilty by jury.
He dies by drinking hemlock,
a slow acting poison.
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A student of Socrates.
Before becoming a
philosopher, he was a poet
and a wrestler.
Wrote The Republic, about
an ideal society ruled by
Philosopher-Kings.
o Not a democracy. Said the
society would fall into three
groups: farmers/artisans,
warriors, and the ruling
class.
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His writings dominate
European philosophy for
1,500 years.
Opened a school called the
Academy.
He was a student of
Plato.
 Invented method for
arguing according to
rules of logic.
 His work provides the
basis for scientific
method, still used today.
 He tutors 13-year-old
prince who becomes
Alexander the Great.
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