4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Download

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Biology
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4-2 What Shapes an
Ecosystem?
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
Ecosystems are influenced by a combination of
biological and physical factors.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
The biological influences on organisms within an
ecosystem are called biotic factors.
Biotic factors include all the living things with which
an organism might interact.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
Physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems
are called abiotic factors.
Abiotic factors include:
• temperature
• precipitation
• humidity
• wind
• nutrient availability
• soil type
• sunlight
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
How do biotic and abiotic factors influence
an ecosystem?
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
Biotic and abiotic factors determine
the survival and growth of an
organism and the productivity of the
ecosystem in which the organism
lives.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
The area where an organism lives is called its
habitat. A habitat includes both biotic and abiotic
factors.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
The Niche
The Niche
A niche is the full range of physical and biological
conditions in which an organism lives and the way
in which the organism uses those conditions.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
The Niche
The range of temperatures that an organism needs to
survive and its place in the food web are part of its
niche.
The combination of biotic and abiotic factors in an
ecosystem often determines the number of different
niches in that ecosystem.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
The Niche
No two species can share the same niche in the
same habitat.
Different species can occupy niches that are very
similar.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Do Now 1/30/13
1. What causes wind and ocean currents?
2. What does biotic and abiotic mean?
3. How do biotic and abiotic factors influence an
ecosystem?
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Community Interactions
What interactions occur within
communities?
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Community Interactions
Community Interactions
When organisms live together in ecological
communities, they interact constantly.
Community interactions, such as
competition, predation, and various forms
of symbiosis, can affect an ecosystem.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Community Interactions
Competition
Competition occurs when organisms of the same
or different species attempt to use an ecological
resource in the same place at the same time.
A resource is any necessity of life, such as water,
nutrients, light, food, or space.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Community Interactions
Direct competition in nature often results in a winner
and a loser—with the losing organism failing to
survive.
The competitive exclusion principle states that no
two species can occupy the same niche in the same
habitat at the same time.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Community Interactions
The distribution of these warblers avoids direct
competition, because each species feeds in a
different part of the tree.
Feeding height (m)
18
12
6
Cape May Warbler
Bay-Breasted
Warbler
Yellow-Rumped Warbler
0
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Community Interactions
Predation
An interaction in which one organism captures and
feeds on another organism is called predation.
The organism that does the killing and eating is
called the predator, and the food organism is the
prey.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Community Interactions
Symbiosis
Any relationship in which two species live closely
together is called symbiosis.
Symbiotic relationships include:
• mutualism
• commensalism
• parasitism
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Community Interactions
Mutualism: both species benefit from the
relationship.
Commensalism: one member of the association
benefits and the other is neither helped nor
harmed.
Parasitism: one organism lives on or inside
another organism and harms it.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Do now 2/1/13
1. What are the 3 types of community
interaction and define them.
2. What are the 3 types of symbiosis and
define them.
3. Give an example for each 3 types of
symbiosis.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
What is ecological succession?
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
Ecological Succession
Ecosystems are constantly changing in
response to natural and human
disturbances.
As an ecosystem changes, older
inhabitants gradually die out and new
organisms move in, causing further
changes in the community.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
This series of predictable changes that occurs in a
community over time is called ecological
succession.
Sometimes, an ecosystem changes in response to an
abrupt disturbance.
At other times, change occurs as a more gradual
response to natural fluctuations in the environment.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
Primary Succession
On land, succession that occurs on surfaces where
no soil exists is called primary succession. For
example, primary succession occurs on rock
surfaces formed after volcanoes erupt.
The first species to populate the area are called
pioneer species.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
In this example, a volcanic eruption has destroyed
the previous ecosystem.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
The first organisms to appear are lichens.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
Mosses soon appear, and grasses take root in the
thin layer of soil.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
Eventually, tree seedlings and shrubs sprout among
the plant community.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
Secondary Succession
Components of an ecosystem can be changed by
natural events, such as fires.
When the disturbance is over, community
interactions tend to restore the ecosystem to its
original condition through secondary
succession.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
Healthy ecosystems usually recover from natural
disturbances, but may not recover from long-term,
human-caused disturbances.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
Succession in a Marine Ecosystem
Succession can occur in any ecosystem, even in
the permanently dark, deep ocean.
In 1987, scientists documented an unusual
community of organisms living on the remains of a
dead whale.
The community illustrates the stages in the
succession of a whale-fall community.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
Succession begins when a whale dies and sinks to
the ocean floor.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
Within a year, most of the whale’s tissues have been
eaten by scavengers and decomposers.
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4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem?
Ecological Succession
The decomposition of the whale’s body enriches the
surrounding sediments with nutrients.
When only the skeleton remains, heterotrophic
bacteria decompose oils in the whale bones.
This releases compounds that serve as energy
sources for chemosynthetic autotrophs.
The chemosynthetic bacteria support a diverse
community of organisms.
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4-2
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4-2
Which of the following is a biotic factor in a
bullfrog's niche?
a. water
b. a heron
c. climate
d. day length
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An organism’s niche is different from its habitat
because
a. The niche does not include the place where
the organism lives.
b. the niche includes all the conditions under
which the organism lives.
c. the niche includes only abiotic factors.
d. the niche includes only biotic factors.
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The attempt by organisms of the same or
different species to use a resource at the same
time in the same place is called
a. competition.
b. predation.
c. symbiosis.
d. cooperation.
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An association between two species in which
one species benefits and the other is neither
helped nor harmed is called
a. symbiosis.
b. mutualism.
c. commensalism.
d. parasitism.
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When a volcano erupts and completely destroys
an ecosystem, the first species to populate the
area are usually
a. grasses and shrubs.
b. pioneers such as lichens.
c. small plants such as mosses.
d. small animals such as rodents.
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