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Matakuliah
Tahun
: J0712 - Pengantar Bisnis
: 2009
Understanding Principles Of Marketing
Pertemuan 09
Marketing Process and Consumer Behavior
•Outline:
•What Is Marketing?
•Target Marketing and Market Segmentation
•Marketing Research
•Understanding Consumer Behavior
•Organizational Marketing and Buying Behavior
•International Marketing Mix
•Small Business and the Marketing Mix
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3
What Is Marketing?
• Process of planning and executing the conception,
pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods
and services to create exchanges that satisfy
individual and organizational objectives
• Marketing mix of goods and services are:
– Developing
– Pricing
– Placing
– Promoting
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4
Value & Satisfaction
• Benefits include the functions of the product
and the emotional satisfactions associated
with owning, experiencing or possessing it.
• Benefits must exceed costs to be of value to the
consumer.
Value = Benefits
Costs
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5
Marketing: Providing Value and Satisfaction
• Value and Utility
– Utility is the ability of a product to satisfy a human
want or need. Four kinds:
•
•
•
•
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Time Utility
Place Utility
Ownership Utility
Form Utility
6
Goods, Services, Ideas
• Consumer goods are products
purchased by consumers for personal
use
• Industrial goods are products used
by companies to produce other
products
• Services are intangible products that
can be purchased
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7
The Marketing Environment
External environment is the
outside factors that influence
marketing programs by posing
opportunities and threats. Five
environmental factors:
•Political–Legal Environment
•Social–Cultural Environment
•Technological Environment
•Economic Environment
•Competitive Environments
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8
Competitive Environment
Substitute
products differ
from those of
competitors but can
fill the same need.
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Brand competition
occurs between
similar products.
International
competition matches
domestic products
against foreign products.
9
Marketing Mix (4 P’s)
Product
Price
Place
Promotion
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10
Product and Pricing
•
A product is a good, service, idea to
fill need or want.
• Pricing is selecting the best
price at which to sell a
product.
•
•
Product Differentiation  the
creation of a product feature or
product image that differs enough
from competing products to attract
consumers.
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Price Must Create Profit By:
– Covering Costs
– Attract Customers
•
High-Low Strategy
– Low = Large Sales Volume
– High = Greater Profit Per Unit Sold
11
Distribution (Place)
Distribution is part of the marketing mix
concerned with getting products from
producers to consumers.
– Decisions about warehousing (storage), inventory
control and transportation mode.
– Decisions about channels.
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12
Channels Of Distribution
Producer
Producer
Producer
Wholesaler
Retailer
Retailer
Consumer
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Consumer
Consumer
13
Promotion
Promotion is the
techniques for
communicating
information about
products. Four
promotional tools:
–
–
–
–
Advertising
Personal Selling
Sales Promotions
Public Relations
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Web Effect On
Media Shopping
What’s the biggest way the Web
has changed how you shop for
media?
Comparison Shop
30%
36%
Get More Obscure Titles
Buy More Stuff
5%
Use Online Suggestions
11%
18%
No Change
14
What Is Target Marketing and Market
Segmentation?
• Target markets are groups of
people with similar wants and
needs.
• Market segmentation is the
process of dividing a market into
categories of customer types.
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15
Identifying Market Segments
– Geographic variables are
geographical units
– Demographic variables are
characteristics of populations
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Identifying Market Segments
 Psychographic variables are
consumer characteristics such as
lifestyles, opinions, interests and
attitudes
 Behavioral variables are
consumer characteristics based
on the use of a product, benefits
sought from it, reasons for its
purchase and brand loyalty
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Toothpaste w/
-Whiteners
-Fluoride
-etc.
17
Market Research and Process
• Study
Consumer
Needs/Wants
• Determine
Ways
Sellers Can
Satisfy
Needs/Wants
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Research Process
Study Situation
Select Method
Collect Data
Analyze Data
Prepare Report
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19
What Is Consumer Behavior?
• Study of the decision process by which people
buy and consumer products, influenced by:
– Psychological influences: individual’s motivations,
perceptions and attitudes
– Personal influences: lifestyle, personality and
economic status
– Social influences: family, opinion leaders and
reference groups
– Cultural influences: culture, subculture and social
class
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20
Consumer Buying Behavior
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Marketing Mix- International and Small Business
• Marketing Mix-International
• Products- Redesign For
Foreign Buyer
• Pricing- Cover Increased
Cost Of Transport/Selling
• Distribution- Delays In
Establishing Network For
Startup
• Promotion- Cultural
Differences
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•Marketing Mix – Small
Business
•Products- Limited Buying
Market
•Pricing- Incorrect Cost
Estimation
•Distribution- Location Is
Critical
•Promotion- Local Which
Is Cheaper
22