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Transcript
Flora of the
Barwon River
(Ring Road to Breakwater)
Sponsored by:
General Disclaimer
This booklet is designed and compiled for the wider community
to increase knowledge and awareness of indigenous plants
along the Barwon River.
Whilst all due care has been taken at the time of publication in
providing correct information, we take no responsibility for any
errors of content.
The information provided relating to the Aboriginal use of plants
for food, items or medicinal purposes has been approved by the
Wathaurung People.
References and Further Research
Ecological Vegetation Class (EVC’s)
EVC’s are a way of classifying plant communities according to
floristics, habit and position.
More information about EVC’s can be found on the Department
of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) website.
The Ecological Vegetation Classes of the Barwon River are
• 55 Plains Grassy Woodland
• 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
• 104 Lignum Swamp
• 538 Brackish Herbland
• 641 Riparian Woodland
Corangamite Catchment Management Authority website
(CCMA) ‘Barwon through Geelong Management Plan’
• 653 Aquatic Herbland
www.ccma.vic.gov.au
• 851 Stream Bank Shrubland
Victorian Flora website
• 947 Brackish Lignum Swamp
www.victorianflora.wmcn.org.au
Vegetation with no EVC has been allocated as:
Department of Sustainability and Environment
• Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
• 656 Brackish Wetland
www.dse.vic.gov.au
Costermans L, 1981 ‘Native trees and shrubs of South Eastern
Australia’, Reed New Holland.
Society of Growing Australia Plants Maroondah Inc, 1991 ‘Flora
of Melbourne’, Hyland Publishing Pty Limited, South Melbourne.
Cover photo: Near Balyang Sanctuary
Back cover photo: Near Balyang Sanctuary
Page 2
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Azolla filiculoides
The booklet is organised into sections based on the growth
habit of plants. Plants within each section are listed
alphabeticall using Botanical name, Common name and
Family name.
Pacific Azolla
Azollaceae
Aquatic
Plants that require partial or complete submersion in water
to survive.
Groundcovers and Climbers
Groundcovers are low spreading plants that grow across the
ground. Climbers sprawl or scramble over and through other
plants or objects.
Herbs
These plants produce fleshy rather than woody stems and are
usually up to a metre in height.
Grasses and Sedges
Grasses and sedges have narrow leaves that arise from the
base of the plant to form a tuft.
Shrubs
EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland
Plants with many woody stems arising from near the base of
the plant. Shrubs have no distinct trunk.
Trees
Woody plants over three metres in height with branches
developing above a distinct trunk.
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A free floating fern
Dies back in cold weather
Can be green or red in colour
Spores are produced, rather than flowers and fruits
Good cover for fish
Found in still corners of the Barwon River
Flower colour: No flowers
Flowering: None
Page 5
Aquatic
1.5 cm (h)
2 - 3 cm (w)
Phragmites australis
Common Reed
Triglochin procerum
Aquatic
Up to 3 m
Water Ribbons
Poaceae
Juncaginaceae
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland
EVC 656 Brackish Wetland
EVC 947 Brackish Lignum Swamp
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
EVC 538 Brackish Herbland
EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland
EVC 656 Brackish Wetland
• Semi-aquatic, fast growing perennial grass
• Flower-heads have a fluffy-feathery appearance
• Habitat for birds such as the reed warbler, coot and swamphens
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Aboriginal use: Leaves were used to weave baskets. Rhizomes were
eaten roasted.
Flower colour: Green to purplish
Aquatic Plant
20 - 50 cm (w)
Flowering: All year round
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Located in shallower areas, confined to the edges of the river or wetlands
Leaves are fleshy and ribbon-like, erect or floating
Flower spikes are erect above the water
Black Swans feed on the fleshy shoots and use the leaves for nesting
Aboriginal use: The tuberous roots were roasted. Part of the stem was
eaten like celery.
Flower colour: Greenish
Flowering: Most of the year
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Typha domingensis
Cumbungi
Typhaceae
Aquatic
1 - 3 m (h)
10 m (w)
EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland
EVC 656 Brackish Wetland
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
EVC 947 Brackish Lignum Swamp
Bidgee-widgee
Rosaceae
Ground Cover
Prostrate
1 - 4 m (w)
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland
• Typha orientalis (Broad-leaf Cumbungi) is another similar species
• Distinct velvety-brown flower spike
• Good for frog habitat
Aboriginal use: Baskets were made from long leaves and fibres. The roots
were cleaned, steamed and roasted or eaten raw like potatoes.
Flower colour: Greenish
Acaena novae-zelandiae
• A spreading plant, with burrs covered in hooks that attach to clothing and
animal fur
• The early settlers used the leaves as a tea substitute
• Fruit are sphere-shaped and covered with small red spines
Aboriginal use: Bidgee-widgee was used as a medicine to aid digestion.
Flower colour: Greenish white
Flowering: Oct - Jan
Flowering: All year round
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Clematis microphylla
Small-leaved Clematis
Ranunculaceae
Climber
4 m (h)
Einadia nutans
Nodding Saltbush
Chenopodiaceae
Ground Cover
Prostrate
1 - 2 m (w)
EVC 175 Grassy Woodland
EVC 175 Grassy Woodland
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• Small nodding succulent triangular leaves
• Small flowers and tiny red berries are produced during summer months
• Fruits are great food for lizards and birds
Feathery fruits are dispersed by wind
Masses of cream cross-shaped flowers
Leaves are dull green 130 mm in length
Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants
Found around Buckley Falls car park
Flower colour: Cream
Flowering: July - Nov
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Aboriginal use: Ripe berries were eaten but are poisonous if picked
too early.
Flower colour: Green
Flowering: Dec - March
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Enchylaena tomentosa
Ruby Saltbush
Chenopodiaceae
Tetragonia implexicoma
Ground Cover
0.1 - 1 m (h)
1 - 1.5 m (w)
Bower Spinach
Aizoaceae
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
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Succulent bluish-green cylindrical or linear leaves
Small green flowers
Berries ripen to orange and red
Fruits are food for small lizards and birds such as Silvereyes
Ground Cover
Prostrate
2 m (w)
Red berries are produced and ripen to black
Leaves are succulent
Small four petalled flowers
Earlier voyagers to Australia used this plant to help fight scurvy
Aboriginal use: Berries were eaten when ripe and a dye can be made from
the berries.
Aboriginal use: The leaves and juvenile shoots were cooked and eaten like
spinach. Berries were also eaten when ripe.
Flower colour: Green
Flower colour: Yellow
Flowering: Sept - March
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Flowering: Aug - Sept
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Chrysocephalum apiculatum
Common Everlasting
Asteraceae
Herb
Prostrate
1 - 2 m (w)
Lythrum salicaria
Purple Loosestrife
Lythraceae
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
• A perennial herb
• Silver grey foliage
• Flowers attract butterflies
• Semi-aquatic perennial herb
• Flowers on tall stems
• Adapted to most soils
Flower colour: Yellow
Flowering: Sept - Dec
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Flower colour: Purple
Herb
1 m (h)
1 m (w)
Flowering: Nov - March
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Senecio quadridentatus
Cotton Fireweed
Asteraceae
Herb
40 - 90 cm (h)
50 - 90 cm (w)
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 538 Brackish Herbland
EVC 947 Brackish Lignum Swamp
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Fuzzy New Holland Daisy
Asteraceae
Herb
10 - 30 cm (h)
10 - 30 cm (w)
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
Perennial herb
Stems and leaves are covered in wispy hairs, giving a greyish look
Small yellow flower-heads attract butterflies
Found at upper Buckley Falls car park
Flower colour: Green to yellow
Vittadinia cuneata
Flowering: Oct - March
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• It is difficult to identify the many different species of
Vittadinia. The fruit is the main distinguishing feature
• A small perennial herb or sub-shrub
• Mauve-coloured daisy flowers on leafy stalks
• Found on cliff tops around Buckley Falls
Flower colour: Mauve to blue
Flowering: Sept - Dec
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Wahlenbergia gracilis
Sprawling Bluebell
Herb
10 - 50 cm (h)
Campanulaceae
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
Wallaby Grasses
Poaceae
Grass
20 - 40 cm (h)
20 - 40 cm (w)
EVC 55 Plains Grassy Woodland
EVC 104 Lignum Swamp
EVC 175 Grassy Woodland
EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland
• Delicate perennial tufted herb
• Flowers have five petals
• Fruit contains small black seeds
Flower colour: Pale blue
Austrodanthonia spp.
Flowering: Sept - Nov
• Leaves are blue-green in colour, can be hairy or hairless, flat or rolled in appearance
• Many different species, difficult to distinguish between
species. All have fluffy flower heads
• Mature flower spikes are creamy white colour
Aboriginal use: Seeds were collected and ground to make flour for damper.
Flower colour: Brownish
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Flowering: Oct – Dec
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Carex tereticaulis
Hollow Sedge or Poong’ort (aboriginal
name)
Cyperaceae
Dianella revoluta
Tuft
1 m (h)
1 m (w)
Black-anther Flax-lily
Liliaceae
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
• Perennial grass-like sedge with rhizomes
• Narrow hollow stems, almost triangular in cross section
• Found at Balyang Sanctuary
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Aboriginal use: The leaves were used by the Wathaurung people for
basket weaving and for string.
Flower colour: Brown
Flowering: Aug - April
Flowering stems grow taller than the leaves
Produces small dark berries
Berries are food for skinks and other lizards
Similar but not as common as Dianella brevicaulis which is found along
Wal Whiteside Walk
Aboriginal use: Berries were eaten when ripe and used to make dyes. The
leaves were made into string and baskets.
Flower colour: Blue
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Tuft
50 - 70cm (h)
0.3 - 2 m (w)
Flowering: Aug - May
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Ficinia nodosa
Knobby Club-sedge
Cyperaceae
EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland
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A hardy plant with creeping rhizomes
Flowers in sphere shaped clusters near top of the stem
Useful for frog habitat
Found at Balyang Sanctuary
Aboriginal use: The strong, wiry leaves were used for basket weaving.
Flower colour: Reddish-brown
Juncus spp.
Tuft
0.5 - 1 m (h)
0.6 - 2 m (w)
Flowering: Most of the year
Tuft
0.5 - 2 m (h)
0.3 - 2 m (w)
Rushes
Juncaceae
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 104 Lignum Swamp
EVC 656 Brackish Wetland
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There are many different species of Juncus
Juncus can tolerate moist to wet soils
Rhizomatous perennial rush
Good plant to help stabilise river banks
Useful for frog and bird habitat
Found along banks of the Barwon River
Aboriginal use: The long, strong cylindrical leaves were used for basket weaving.
Flower colour: Browns to yellows
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Flowering: Nov - March
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Lomandra longifolia
Spiny-headed Mat Rush
Laxmanniaceae
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland
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Tussock Grass
Grass
30 - 80 cm (h)
Poaceae
EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland
Large, tuft-forming perennial
Crowded flower spikes
Hard brown seed along flower spike
Leathery strap-like leaves, toothed ends to the leaves
Male and female flowers are on separate spikes
Good nesting site for Superb Fairy-wrens and Brown Thornbills
Aboriginal use: The leaves were used for basket making. Roots were usually
eaten roasted. Seeds were collected and ground to make flour for damper.
Flower colour: Yellow to white
Poa labillardierei
Tuft
0.5 - 1 m (h)
0.5 - 1 m (w)
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Purplish green flowers which turn a pale straw color at maturity
Flowers on tall erect stems above the foliage
Colours of leaves can vary from green, greyish to blue green
Can be seen planted in mass along the river
Found around Breakwater
Aboriginal use: Seed was collected then ground to make flour.
Flower colour: Purplish green
Flowering: Oct - Feb
Flowering: Sept - Dec
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Themeda triandra
Kangaroo Grass
Poaceae
EVC 55 Plains Grassy Woodland
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A soft erect or sprawling perennial tussock
Adapted to many soils, however cannot tolerate overly wet or waterlogged soil
Distinctive black awns on purplish brown seed heads
Very sensitive to grazing pressure and fertilisers
Once covered large areas over much of Australia
Found on cliff tops above Bunyip’s Pool, Buckley Falls
Aboriginal use: The Wathaurung collected the seeds to make a type of
flour cake.
Flower colour: Brown
Flowering: Sept - Feb
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Bursaria spinosa subsp. spinosa
Grass
40 - 75 cm (h)
1 - 1.5 m (w)
Sweet Bursaria
Pittosporaceae
Shrub
3 - 6 m (h)
2 - 3 m (w)
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 175 Grassy Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
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Bunches of fragrant flowers at the ends of the branches
Clusters of bronze seed capsules follow flowering
Occasionally has spines along branches
An important shrub for butterflies, including the Eltham Copper Butterfly
Leaves contain a chemical that can be useful as a sun block
Located at Wal Whiteside Walk
Flower colour: White to cream
Flowering: Dec - March
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Callistemon sieberi
River Bottlebrush
Myrtaceae
Correa reflexa
Shrub
3 - 10 m (h)
2 - 6 m (w)
Common Correa
Rutaceae
EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
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Leaves are glossy and narrow, around 2-3 cm long
New growth is silky and silvery
Flowers are arranged in spikes, usually 3-5 cm long, 2-2.5 cm wide
Each flower produces a small woody fruit containing hundreds of tiny seeds
Fruits are small, cup–shaped capsules clustered along
the stem and persist for many years on the plant
• Located at Wal Whiteside Walk
Aboriginal use: Flowers were soaked in water to make a sweet type of
cordial to drink.
Flower colour: Pale pink to cream
Hairy branches and stems
Nectar producing flowers attract many bird species, especially honeyeaters
Long tubular flowers hanging between two leaves
Another similar species is Correa glabra but it is
less hairy and has pale green flowers
Aboriginal use: Flowers were picked and sucked for their nectar.
Flower colour: Yellow-green/Red and green
Flowering: Dec - March
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Shrub
1 - 3 m (h)
1 - 3 m (w)
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Flowering: May - Oct
Dodonaea viscosa subsp. spatulata
Sticky Hop-bush
Sapindaceae
Goodenia ovata
Shrub
1 - 3 m (h)
1 - 3 m (w)
Hop Goodenia
Goodeniaceae
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
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Ranges in habit from an open dense shrub
Fruit is a red to brownish papery three-winged capsule
Fruit is more distinctive than the flowers
Can be found at the lower car park at Buckley
Falls and at Wal Whiteside Walk
Flower colour: Red
Flowering: Aug - Dec
Shrub
2 - 4 m (h)
1.5 - 3 m (w)
Bright green ovate leaves with toothed margins
Bright yellow flowers have 5 petals; 2 upper and 3 lower
Fruit is a narrow cylindrical capsule
Grows under a variety of conditions
Distinctive sharp, pleasant scent, especially when weather is damp
Located at Breakwater Road
Aboriginal use: This plant was used to help children sleep on long journeys.
Flower colour: Bright yellow
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Flowering: Sept - Feb
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ev
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Rd
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Aberdeen
Geelong
Station
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R yri
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Pakington
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Shannon Av
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Moo
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GEELONG
Or
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Sc e ni c Rd
Barr a
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Belmont
Common
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t t leme
Se
St
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South Valle
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Thornhill Rd
Heads Rd
Fellmongers Rd
BREAKWATER
Breakwat
Barwon Through Geelong
Barwon River Parklands
SCALE 1:21340
St
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w on
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Bar
Map Produced using Parks Victoria’s ParkView Mapping System
Thursday, 5 November 2009 at 7:52:51 AM
Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA94). Map produced by Parks Victoria.
This map supersedes all previous editions. Data source acknowledgements:
State Digital MapBase, Victorian Flora Site Database & Atlas of Victorian Wildlife
© The State of Victoria, Department of Sustainability and Environment
The contribution of the Royal Botanical Gardens Melbourne to the database is
acknowledged.
Spatial Vision VicMap Books © Spatial Vision Pty Ltd 2007
For Internal Use Only.
BELMONT
Carr
l Whit e s i d
Mt Pleasan
t Rd
ool Rd
t
SOUTH
GEELONG
Mt Pleasa
nt Rd
Barrab
ns S
Rd
Fya
d
ad
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ng R
o
St
Pd
Balyang
Sanctuary
Wa
Geelon
g Ri
illop
South
Geelong
Station
ey
We s t F y a n
s St
Roslyn Rd
Barwon River
Major Roads
WANDANA
Railway Line HEIGHTS
Walking Track
McK
dn
HIGHTON
NEWTOWN
e St
GEELONG
Sy
Buckley
Falls
Latrobe T
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Rd
St
Qu e ens Pa
rk
Page 33
er Rd
Gynatrix pulchella
Hemp Bush
Shrub
2 - 4 m (h)
Indigofera australis
Austral Indigo
Fabaceae
Malvaceae
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
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• Bluish compound leaves
• Mauve pea-like flowers, followed by narrow cylindrical pods
• Good plants to attract butterflies
Very showy when flowering
Capsules are hairy
A distinctive spotting characteristic is the yellowing of leaves
Heart-shaped leaves up to 10cm long and covered in fine hairs
Small and highly fragrant flowers
Located at Breakwater Road
Aboriginal use: Leaves were crushed and added to water to kill or stun fish
or eels. Pods were eaten like beans at certain times of the year.
Flower colour: Mauve
Flowering: Aug - Dec
Aboriginal use: String was made from the fibres, and the leaves and wood
were used for their oil.
Flower colour: Greenish white
Flowering: Aug - Oct
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Shrub
1 - 2.5 m (h)
1 - 2 m (w)
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Leptospermum lanigerum
Woolly Teatree
Myrtaceae
Shrub
2 - 5 m (h)
1 - 3 m (w)
Leptospermum obovatum
River Teatree
Myrtaceae
Shrub
2 - 3 m (h)
1.5 - 2 m (w)
EVC 851 Stream Bank Shrubland
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
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• Leaves aromatic, narrow to broad, wider towards the blunt tip
• Flowers have five white petals and their nectar attracts insects and birds
Five celled furry capsules are attached to branches
Mature foliage greyish in colour with under side surface silvery and hairy
Juvenile foliage is green in colour and hairy on both sides
Found at Wal Whiteside Walk
Aboriginal use: The flowers were used for body decorations and the wood
for spears, digging sticks and fire sticks.
Flower colour: White
Aboriginal use: Flowers were used for body decorations. The wood was
used for fire sticks.
Flower colour: White
Flowering: Nov - Jan
Flowering: Sept - Jan
Page 36
Page 37
Melicytus dentata syn. Hymenanthera dentata
Tree Violet
Violaceae
EVC 175 Grassy Woodland
• Upright straggly to dense shrub with spiny branches
• Provides excellent habitat for birds
• Leaves are dark green in colour, oblong with toothed margins,
under side of leaf is a paler green
• Masses of tiny fragrant, cream bell flowers along the branches
• Fruits are small pale green to purple berries
• Found at Breakwater and on the walk to Buckley Falls from the lower
car park
Flower colour: Cream
Muehlenbeckia florulenta
Shrub
2 - 4 m (h)
1.5 - 3 m (w)
Flowering: Sept - Nov
Tangled Lignum
Polygonaceae
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
EVC 653 Aquatic Herbland
EVC 656 Brackish Wetland
EVC 947 Brackish Lignum Swamp
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Provides an excellent safe nesting site for small birds
The plant is made up of thin branchlets that are grey-green in colour
Leaves are thin and fall early
Flowers are small and highly scented, sometimes with a pinkish tint
Found all along the river
Aboriginal use: Small fishing nets were made from the long branchlets.
Flower colour: Pale yellow green
Page 38
Shrub
1 - 2.5 m (h)
1 - 2 m (w)
Flowering: Sept - Dec
Page 39
Myoporum insulare
Common Boobialla
Myoporaceae
Shrub
1 - 6 m (h)
2 - 5 m (w)
Myoporum sp 1 syn. Myoporum viscosum
Sticky Boobialla
Shrub
0.5 - 2 m (h)
Myoporaceae
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
• All species of Myoporum have small, white, star
like flowers with spotted hairy petals
• Myoporum spp. are useful fire retardant plants
• Fruits are bright purple and attract birds
• Leaves are thick and waxy
• Found at Wal Whiteside Walk
• Leaves are sticky
• Fruits are yellow and bird attracting
• Leaves are smaller and thinner than Myoporum insulare, with finely
toothed edges
• Found at lower picnic area, Buckley Falls
Flower colour: White
Flower colour: White
Flowering: Sept - Dec
Flowering: Oct - Nov
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Page 41
Plectranthus parviflorus
Cockspur Flower
Rhagodia candolleana
Shrub
10 - 70 cm(h)
Seaberry Bush
Lamiaceae
Chenopodiaceae
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
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Leaves opposite, somewhat hairy
Flowers are pale blue to violet blue often hairy 6-11mm long
Restricted to the Leigh and Barwon River areas in Western Victoria
Two similar exotic species exist; not known to be naturalised locally,
both are aromatic with slightly larger flowers, usually white or purplish
• Found at the rocky area around Bunyip’s Pool at Buckley Falls
Flower colour: Pale blue
Semi-succulent plant
Small red berries are produced in autumn and are eaten by lizards and birds
Found locally in coastal and salt marsh areas
Found at Buckley Falls upper car park
Flower colour: Whitish
Flowering: Dec - April
Flowering: Sept - July
Page 42
Shrub
2 m (h)
1 - 2 m (w)
Page 43
Rhagodia parabolica
Fragrant Saltbush
Chenopodiaceae
Rubus parvifolius
Shrub
0.8 - 2 m (h)
0.5 - 1.5 m (w)
Small-leaf Bramble
Rosaceae
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
• A rare plant of state significance in Victoria, restricted
to rocky areas from Sunbury to Geelong
• Inconspicuous white, mealy flowers are followed by small
red berries, which are often eaten by lizards and birds
• Widely planted and very common along the Barwon River
• Found from Breakwater to Buckley Falls
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Flower colour: White
Flowering: Nov - Jan
Shrub
0.5 - 1 m (h)
0.5 - 2 m (w)
Similar to Blackberry, the exotic weed, but less vigorous
A scrambler that has hooked thorns along its branches
Leaves are green and wrinkled above, whitish below
Easily distinguished from Blackberry by its bright pink flowers and ripeningred fruits. (Blackberry has white flowers and ripening-black fruits)
• Found along the riverside track from the lower car park to Buckley Falls
• Also know as the Native Raspberry
Aboriginal use: The fruit was eaten much like raspberries.
Flower colour: Pink
Page 44
Flowering: Oct - Dec
Page 45
Solanum laciniatum
Large Kangaroo Apple
Solanaceae
Shrub
1 - 3 m (h)
1 - 3 m (w)
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
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Fruit is large and fleshy shaped like a small egg
Immature green fruit ripens to orange
30 seeds are held within each fruit
Stems are smooth, except for minute hairs on young growth
Leaf shape varies - lobed or smooth edged
Found at Wal Whiteside Walk, and on the track
to Bunyip’s Pool at Buckley Falls
Acacia dealbata subsp. dealbata
Silver Wattle
Mimosaceae
Tree
6 - 20 m (h)
5 - 10 m (w)
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
• Short lived tree, prone to borer attack
• Leaves bipinnate and usually bluish-grey in colour
• Distinguishing characteristic is one gland between each set of leaflets along
the central leaf axis
• Juvenile foliage is host to the Imperial Blue Butterfly caterpillar
• Found along the riverside track from the Buckley Falls lower car park
Aboriginal use: Fruit were eaten when ripe by the Wathaurung people,
unripe fruits are poisonous.
Aboriginal use: The Wathaurung people gathered seeds and ground them into
flour. The gum was eaten and used as medicine and the wood was used for tools.
Flower colour: Purple
Flower colour: Bright yellow
Flowering: Sept - March
Page 46
Flowering: July - Oct
Page 47
Acacia implexa
Acacia mearnsii
Tree
4 - 8 m (h)
4 - 6 m (w)
Lightwood
Mimosaceae
Black Wattle
Mimosaceae
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
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Fast growing, open crowned tree
Pods are curved or twisted, 25cm long
Seed stalks are fleshy and white
Crescent shaped green phyllodes
Found on tops of cliffs on way from lower car park to Buckley Falls
Aboriginal use: Seeds were ground to make flour. Bark was used
for tanning.
Flower colour: Cream
Flowering: Dec - Mar
Page 48
Tree
5 - 15 m (h)
6 - 10 m (w)
Green bark on younger stems
Leaves are bi-pinnate and dark olive green in colour
Glands are irregularly spaced along the central leaf axis
Europeans used the bark for tanning leather
Found at upper car park Buckley Falls and Wal Whiteside Walk
Aboriginal use: Some parts of the tree were used for dyeing items.
The gum was used for food and traded; it was very valuable to the
Wathaurung people.
Flower colour: Pale yellow
Flowering: Oct - Dec
Page 49
Acacia melanoxylon
Blackwood
Mimosaceae
Acacia paradoxa
Tree
6 - 30 m (h)
4 - 15 m (w)
Hedge Wattle
Mimosaceae
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
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Small to large upright tree with rough bark.
Phyllodes are dull green and rigid, 4-16 cm long
Distinctive bright red seed stems
The wood is highly prized for furniture making
Found at Wal Whiteside Walk
Tree
2 - 4 m (h)
2 - 5 m (w)
A dense, thorny shrub with a weeping growth habit
Provides excellent habitat and protection for nesting birds
Pods are furry
Sphere shaped flower heads are produced on slender stalks
Found near the lower picnic area at Buckley Falls
Aboriginal use: The seeds were gathered and ground for flour.
Aboriginal use: Seeds were collected and ground to make flour.
Flower colour: Pale creamy yellow
Flower colour: Deep golden yellow
Flowering: Aug - Oct
Page 50
Flowering: Aug - Nov
Page 51
Acacia pycnantha
Golden Wattle
Mimosaceae
Acacia retinodes var. uncifolia
Tree
3 - 8 m (h)
2 - 5 m (w)
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
Coast Wirilda
Mimosaceae
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
• Australia’s National Floral emblem
• A slender tree with large, waxy, green curved phyllodes
• This acacia has a distinctive gland on the edge of the phyllode,
2cm from the base
• Thin straight pods
• Can be found near lower picnic area at Buckley Falls
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Phyllodes are long and narrow with an abrupt tip
Flowers are sphere shaped heads, 18-30 per head
Branchlets are angular and often reddish
Pods to 15cm, seed stems are reddish
Can be found near the low level bridge at Breakwater
Flower colour: Light yellow
Flowering: Oct - Feb
Aboriginal use: Seeds were grounded into flour.
Flower colour: Golden yellow
Flowering: Aug - Oct
Page 52
Page 53
Tree
2 - 6 m (h)
2 - 3 m (w)
Acacia verticillata subsp verticillata
Prickly Moses
Mimosaceae
Allocasuarina verticillata
Tree
2 - 6 m (h)
3 - 5 m (w)
Drooping Sheoak
Casuarinaceae
EVC 175 Grassy Woodland
EVC 175 Grassy Woodland
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Fine prickly phyllodes up to 20mm long
Provides excellent habitat and protection for small birds
Can endure periods of water logging
Found at Breakwater
Aboriginal use: Wathaurung people made fishing lines from the fibres.
Flower colour: Yellow
Flowering: Jun - Dec
Tree
4 - 11 m (h)
3 - 6 m (w)
Male and female flowers are borne on separate plants
Male plants have yellow-brown flower spikes (upper right photo)
Female flowers are red and sphere shaped (lower right photo)
Branchlets drooping, grey-green, to 40 cm long
The seeds are a food source for cockatoos
Cylindrical or barrel-shaped woody cones 20-50 mm long, 17-30 mm in diameter
Found at the Wal Whiteside Walk and Breakwater
Aboriginal use: The Wathaurung used the gum/resin to join many things. Seeds
were ground for flour; leaves were used in smoking ceremonies and medicines.
Flower colour: Brown/Orange-red
Page 54
Flowering: All year round
Page 55
Banksia marginata
Silver Banksia
Proteaceae
Tree
1 - 10 m (h)
1 - 5 m (w)
Callitris glaucophylla
White Cypress Pine
Cupressaceae
Tree
7 - 20 m (h)
5 - 10 m (w
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
• Provides nectar for Honeybees, native Carpenter Bees, Ringtail
and Pygmy Possums, many insects and nectar-eating birds
• Flowers form yellow spikes 40-100mm long
• Underside of leaves are silver in colour
• Upright tree
• Wind pollinated seed, bears both male and female cones
• Male cones are tiny at the ends of the branchlets, female cones are
sphere shaped, to 2cm, in groups or solitary
• Termite resistant wood
• Found at Breakwater near the low level Bridge and at Buckley Falls
Aboriginal use: Flowers were collected and then soaked in water to make
cordial or sweet water.
Flower colour: Yellow
Flowering: Sept - April
Aboriginal use: Seeds were roasted and ground to make flour; the
sap was used for joining tools. Leaves were used in smoking ceremonies
and medicine.
Flower colour: No flower
Page 56
Flowering: None
Page 57
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
River Red-gum
Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus ovata var. ovata
Tree
12 - 45 m (h)
15 - 35 m (w)
Swamp Gum
Myrtaceae
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 641 Riparian Woodland
EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland
EVC 175 Grassy Woodland
• Bark smooth, mottled, white to yellow and grey,
becoming rough around the base
• Adult leaves are dull green in color and narrow to 25cm long
• Juvenile leaves are bluish-green in colour
• Flower buds and fruits are distinctive
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Tree
8 - 30 m (h)
8 - 20 m (w)
Broad, wavy-edged leaves
Seed capsules are funnel shaped with a flat top
Leaves lack typical eucalyptus scent
Grows best on poorly drained sites
Aboriginal use: River Red Gum wood was used to make canoes, tools and
paddles. Leaves were used in smoking ceremonies and medicine.
Aboriginal use: Leaves were used in smoking ceremonies and
medicines. The gum was as an adhesive, and chewed like “chewy” and
was not swallowed.
Flower colour: Cream to yellow
Flower colour: White to cream
Flowering: Nov - March
Page 58
Flowering: Mar - Jan
Page 59
Eucalyptus viminalis
Manna Gum
Myrtaceae
Melaleuca lanceolata
Tree
10 - 50 m (h)
8 - 15 m (w)
Moonah
Myrtaceae
EVC 175 Grassy Woodland
Revegetated Floodplain Riparian Woodland
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Koalas favour the leaves of this eucalypt as a food source
Bark is shed in ribbons
This tree is used extensively for timber, pulp and honey production
Found at lower Buckley Falls and Queens Park
Juvenile leaves (shown above) are opposite and tapering
Aboriginal use: Lerp insects are found on the tree in summer months.
These are tiny, sucking insects that produce a sugary “shell”. This was
known as “nature’s fairy floss” which the Wathaurung children would enjoy.
Flower colour: White
Flowering: Jan - May
Page 60
Tree
1 - 8 m (h)
3 - 8 m (w)
Distinctive dense heavy limbed tree when mature
Small lance-shaped leaves
Small white flowers are arranged in dense spikes along the stems
Flowers are followed by woody capsules that encircle the stems
Found at Balyang Sanctuary and at Buckley Falls
Aboriginal use: Leaves were used for smoking ceremonies and medicines.
Bark was used to support broken bones, wrapped tightly around the break.
Flower colour: White to cream
Flowering: Oct - March
Page 61
Index
BOTANICAL NAME
COMMON NAME
Acacia dealbata ssp. dealbata
Acacia implexa
Acacia mearnsii
Acacia melanoxylon
Acacia paradoxa
Acacia pycnantha
Acacia retinodes
Acacia verticillata ssp. verticillata
Acaena novae-zelandiae
Allocasuarina verticillata
Austrodanthonia spp.
Azolla filiculoides
Banksia marginata
Bursaria spinosa ssp. spinosa
Callistemon sieberi
Callitris glaucophylla
Carex tereticaulis
Chrysocephalum apiculatum
Clematis microphylla
Correa reflexa
Dianella revoluta
Dodonaea viscosa ssp. spatulata
Einadia nutans
Enchylaena tomentosa
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Eucalyptus ovata var. ovata
Eucalyptus viminalis ssp. viminalis
Ficinia nodosa
Goodenia ovata
Gynatrix pulchella
Indigofera australis
Juncus spp.
Leptospermum lanigerum
Leptospermum obovatum
Lomandra longifolia
Lythrum salicaria
Melaleuca lanceolata
Melicytus dentata (syn. Hymenanthera dentata)
Muehlenbeckia florulenta
Myoporum insulare
Silver Wattle
Lightwood
Late Black Wattle
Blackwood
Hedge Wattle
Golden Wattle
Wirilda
Prickly Moses
Bidgee-widgee
Drooping She-oak
Wallaby grasses
Pacific Azolla
Silver Banksia
Sweet Bursaria
River Bottlebrush
White Cypress-pine
Basket Sedge
Clustered Everlasting
Small-leaved Clematis
Common Correa
Black-anther Flax-lily
Wedge-leaf Hop-Bush
Nodding Saltbush
Ruby Saltbush
River Red Gum
Swamp Gum
Manna Gum
Knobby Club-sedge
Hop Goodenia
Hemp Bush
Austral Indigo
Rushes
Woolly Tea-tree
River Tea-tree
Spiny-headed Mat-rush
Purple Loosestrife
Moonah
Tree Violet
Tangled Lignum
Common Boobialla
Page 62
Index (cont.)
PAGE
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
9
55
19
5
56
27
28
57
20
14
10
29
21
30
11
12
58
59
60
22
31
34
35
23
36
37
24
15
61
38
39
40
BOTANICAL NAME
Myoporum sp1. syn. Myoporum viscosum
Phragmites australis
Plectranthus parviflorus
Poa labillardierei
Rhagodia candolleana
Rhagodia parabolica
Rubus parvifolius
Senecio quadridentatus
Solanum laciniatum
Tetragonia implexicoma
Themeda triandra
Triglochin procerum
Typha domingensis
Vittadinia cuneata
Wahlenbergia gracilis
COMMON NAME
PAGE
Sticky Boobialla
Common Reed
Cockspur Flower
Common Tussock-grass
Seaberry Saltbush
Fragrant Saltbush
Small-leaf Bramble
Cotton Fireweed
Large Kangaroo Apple
Bower Spinach
Kangaroo Grass
Water Ribbons
Narrow-leaf Cumbungi
Fuzzy New Holland Daisy
Sprawling Bluebell
41
6
42
25
43
44
45
16
46
13
26
7
8
17
18
Glossary
Awns: bristle-like projection on grass seeds
Bi-pinnate: a leaf twice divided
Capsules: dry fruit, which splits open to release seeds
Cylindrical: tubular shape
Lance-shaped: leaves tapering to a point like the tip of a spear
Leaflets: part of a divided leaf
Linear: long and narrow
Lobed: leaf with indented margins
Ovate: wider below the centre of a leaf
Perennial: a plant that lives for more than two years
Phyllodes: flattened leaf stalk
Rhizome: underground stem
Spike (Flower): a flowering structure with many small flowers clustered around a
central stem
Spines: sharp pointed part of a plant
Spores: dust like reproductive unit
Succulent: fleshy water holding leaves or plants
Tuberous root: enlarged water holding root such as potatoes or beetroot
Page 63
Acknowledgements
We would like to acknowledge the following people who
contributed to this publication.
Melissa Gunn, Jane Sutherland, Amanda May, Irene Perkins,
Andrew McKinnon, Tim Solly, Andrew Quick, Beth Ross,
Trevor Pescott, Rebecca Bond, Tony Woolford, Joan Lindros,
Friends of the Bluff, David Tournier, Matt Crawley,
Joanne Heatlie, Rebecca Bond and thank you to the
following agencies for their contributions.
COR ANG AM I TE CM A
Page 64